Apache Kid

Apache Kid

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Ski-be-nan-ted (Apache Kid) was born on the San Carlos Reservation in about 1860. He worked as a scout under Al Sieber. By July 1882 he had reached the rank of sergeant. The following year he accompanied General George Crook on the expedition of the Sierra Madre.

In 1887 the Apache Kid was left in charge of the guardhouse at San Carlos. He left his post in order to hunt down a man he believed was responsible for the death of his father. On his return to the guardhouse there was an argument with Al Sieber. During the dispute someone (not the Apache Kid) shot Sieber in the leg. The Apache Kid escaped but later surrendered to the authorities.

Apache Kid and three others were accused of attempted murder. He was found guilty and was sentenced to seven years in Yuma Territorial Prison. While being transported to the prison the Apache Kid escaped. During the fighting that took place three guards, Glenn Reynolds, Eugene Middleton and W. A. Holmes were killed.

Over the next few years the Apache Kid was accused of various crimes. However, if is impossible to determine how many of these he actually committed. A $5,000 reward for him, dead or alive, was promised by the Arizona territorial legislature. This did not result in his capture and after 1894 reports of his crimes came to an end. Some sources claimed he died at this time while others argue he had crossed into Mexico and lived to an old age.

Apache Indian Fact Sheet (Ndee)

Native American Facts For Kids was written for young people learning about the Apache Indian tribe for school or home-schooling projects. We encourage students and teachers to visit our Apache language and culture pages for in-depth information about the tribe, but here are our answers to the questions we are most often asked by children, with Apache pictures and links we believe are suitable for all ages.

How do you pronounce the word "Apache"? What does it mean?
Apache is pronounced "uh-PAH-chee." It means "enemy" in the language of their Zuni neighbors. The Apaches' own name for themselves was traditionally Nde or Ndee (meaning "the people"), but today most Apache people use the word "Apache" themselves, even when they are speaking their own language.

Where do the Apaches live?
The Apache are natives of the Southwest deserts (particularly in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas). Some Apache people were also located across the border in northern Mexico. One Apache band, the Na'ishan or Plains Apache, lived far away from the other Apaches, in what is now Oklahoma. Their customs were different from other Apaches, more similar to their Kiowa allies. For that reason, the Americans often called the Na'ishan "Kiowa-Apaches." Here are some maps of the different Apache communities today.

The Plains Apaches are still living in Oklahoma today. Some Apaches from other bands were captured and sent to live in Oklahoma by the Americans in the 1800's, while other Apaches resisted being moved and remain in Arizona and New Mexico today. The total Apache Indian population today is around 30,000.

How is the Apache Indian nation organized?
There are thirteen different Apache tribes in the United States today: five in Arizona, five in New Mexico, and three in Oklahoma. Each Arizona and New Mexico Apache tribe lives on its own reservation . Reservations are lands that belong to Indian tribes and are under their control. The Oklahoma Apaches live on trust land. Each Apache tribe has its own government, laws, police, and services, just like a small country. However, the Apaches are also US citizens and must obey American law.

In the past, each Apache band was led by its own chief, who was chosen by a tribal council. Most important decisions were made by the council, and all the Apache councilmembers had to agree before an action could be taken. An Apache chief was more like a tribal chairman than a president. Most of his job was mediating between other Apaches. Most Apache tribes still use tribal councils for their government today.

What language do the Apache Indians speak?
Almost all Apache people speak English today, but many Apaches also speak their native Apache language , which is closely related to Navajo. Apache is a complex language with tones and many different vowel sounds. Most English speakers find it very difficult to pronounce. If you'd like to know a few easy Apache words, "ash" (rhymes with 'gosh') means "friend" in Western Apache, and "ahéhe'e" (pronunciation ah-heh-heh-eh) means "thank you." You can read a Apache picture dictionary here.

What was Apache culture like in the past? What is it like now?
Here are the homepages of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and White Mountain Apache Tribe. On their sites you can find information about the Apache people from ancient times until today. You can also visit this site about the Apache Jii Festival, which has information and photographs about San Carlos Apache culture for kids.

How do Apache Indian children live, and what did they do in the past?
They do the same things all children do--play with each other, go to school and help around the house. Many Apache children like to go hunting and fishing with their fathers. In the past, Indian kids had more chores and less time to play in their daily lives, just like colonial children. But they did have dolls, toys, and games to play. Apache children liked to run footraces and play archery games. Once the Apaches acquired horses, girls and boys as young as five years old learned how to ride. An Apache mother traditionally carried her baby in a cradleboard on her back. Here is a website with Apache cradleboard images.

What were men and women's roles in the Apache tribe?
Apache women were in charge of the home. Besides cooking and taking care of children, Apache women built new houses for their families every time the tribe moved their location. Though it was rare for an Apache woman to become a warrior, girls learned to ride and shoot just like the boys did, and women often helped to defend Apache villages when they were attacked. Apache men were hunters, warriors, and political leaders. Only men were chiefs in the Apache tribe. Both genders took part in story-telling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine.

What were Apache homes like in the past?
Most Apache people lived in wickiups , which are simple wooden frames covered by a matting of brush and sometimes a buffalo-hide tarp. Wickiups were small dwellings, often the size of a modern camp tent, and an Apache woman could build a new wickiup in two hours if there was enough brush available. Here are some pictures of Indian brush houses. The Plains Apaches and some Lipan Apaches used buffalo-hide tipis as housing instead, which are more spacious and easier to heat than wickiups.

Apache people today do not normally use old-fashioned houses like a teepee or wickiup for shelter, any more than you live in a log cabin. Most Apaches live in modern houses and apartment buildings, just like you. However, some followers of the traditional Apache religion do live in modified larger wickiups, because their beliefs require them to burn down and rebuild their houses whenever there is a death in the family, which can't be done in an apartment.

What was Apache clothing like? Did the Apaches wear feather headdresses and face paint?
Originally Apache women wore buckskin dresses and the men wore leather war shirts and breechcloths. In the 1800's, many Apache men started to wear white cotton tunics and pants, which they adopted from the Mexicans, and many Apache women wore calico skirts and dresses. The Apaches wore moccasins or high moccasin boots on their feet, and rabbit-skin cloaks in cooler weather. An Apache lady's dress or warrior's shirt was often fringed and decorated with beaded designs. Here is a site about the symbolism of Plains Indian war shirts, and some photos and links about Indian costume in general.

The Apaches did not traditionally wear feather warbonnets, but the Plains Apaches adopted these headdresses from their friends the Kiowas. Other Apache people wore leather or cloth headbands instead. For ceremonies Apache people sometimes wore special wooden headdresses and masks, like these Apache Crown Dancers. Women usually wore their hair long and loose or gathered into a bun. Many young Apache women fastened their buns with hourglass-shaped hair ornaments called nah-leens . We haven't yet found a good photo of a nah-leen to share with you, but here is a photograph of some Caddo women wearing the same type of hair fastener. Apache men often cut their hair to shoulder length (except in the Plains Apache tribe.) Here is a website with pictures of these Indian hair styles. Both sexes liked to wear shell jewelry, especially choker-style necklaces. The Apaches also painted their faces for special occasions. They used different patterns for war paint, religious ceremonies, and festive decoration.

Today, some Apache people still have moccasins or a buckskin dress, but they wear modern clothes like jeans instead of breechcloths. and they only wear traditional regalia on special occasions like a wedding or a dance.

What was Apache transportation like in the days before cars? Did they paddle canoes?
No--the Apache Indians weren't coastal people, and rarely traveled by river. Originally they just walked. There were no horses in North America until colonists brought them over from Europe, so the Apaches used dogs pulling travois (a kind of drag sled) to help them carry their belongings. Once Europeans brought the horse to America, the Apaches quickly became expert riders and could travel much more quickly than before.

What was Apache food like in the days before supermarkets?
The Apaches were not farming people like their cousins the Navajos. Primarily they were hunters. Apache men hunted buffalo, deer, antelope, and small game, while women gathered nuts, seeds, and fruit from the environment around them. Although most Apache people were not farmers, the Apaches still used to eat corn frequently. They got it by trading with the Pueblo tribes and the Spanish, or by capturing it during raids. Favorite Apache recipes included cornbread and acorn stew. Here is a website with more information about Southwest Indian food.

What were Apache weapons and tools like in the past?
Apache hunters used bows and arrows. In war, Apache men fired their bows or fought with long spears and buffalo-hide shields. Here is a website with pictures and more information about Apache Indian weapons.

What other Native Americans did the Apache tribe interact with?
The Apaches traded regularly with other tribes of the Southwest. They particularly liked to trade for corn from agricultural tribes like the Navajo and Pueblo tribes. More often, though, the Apaches were known for raiding neighboring tribes and stealing horses, corn, and other goods. The Apaches had different ideas about war than Europeans did. The Europeans considered a direct attack honorable but thought sneaking in and stealing things was cowardly. But to the Apaches, stealthily raiding another tribe's camp was a brave deed because it meant risking their own lives, but attacking the camp openly would be shameful, because children and old people were likely to be hurt. Apache warriors usually only fought real wars over matters of revenge or defending their territory from invaders, like when they fought against the Mexicans and Americans. At other times, Apache men went on raids primarily to prove their courage.

What are Apache arts and crafts like?
Apache artists are famous for their fine beadwork and basketry. Eastern Apache people sometimes made Southwestern pottery like the Pueblo Indians. Here is a website with many pictures of Apache baskets, and one about the history of Apache pottery.

What is Apache Indian music like?
Music is very important to Apache Indian culture. There are different types of traditional Apache songs for ceremonial, social, and entertainment purposes. Singing together in the Apache language is the most important part of Apache music, but musical instruments such as drums, flutes, and rattles are also used. Drums and rattles are especially used during dances, while flutes are particularly associated with love songs. Some Apache groups also played a sort of fiddle made out of agave stalks. Here is a website with some examples of traditional Apache Indian songs you can listen to, and a YouTube video of Apache singers and dancers performing at Fort Sill.

What kinds of stories do the Apaches tell?
There are lots of Apache legends and oral traditions. Storytelling is very important to the Apache Indian culture. Here is a Jicarilla Apache myth about how fire came to the Apaches, and here are some funny Western Apache folktales about the trickster Coyote swindling people. Here's a page where you can read more about Apache mythology.

What about Apache religion?
Spirituality and religion were important parts of Apache life, and many people continue to practice traditional beliefs today. It is respectful to avoid imitating religious rituals for school projects since some Apache people care about them deeply. You can read and learn about them, however. You can visit this site to learn more about Mescalero Apache spiritual beliefs or this site about Native American belief in general.

Can you recommend a good book for me to read?
You may enjoy this book of Chiricahua Apache legends, or the charming illustrated legend The Flute Player for a younger child. Or you may enjoy reading this interesting biography of Geronimo, the famous warrior and holy man of the Chiricahuas. If you want to know more about Apache culture and history, two good books for children are The Apache Indians and Apache Children and Elders Talk Together. For older kids, we recommend Culture and Customs of the Apache Indians, a much more in-depth book on Apache culture and family life. You can also browse through our reading list of recommended Native American books in general. Disclaimer: we are an Amazon affiliate and our website earns a commission if you buy a book through one of these links. Most of them can also be found in a public library, though!

How do I cite your website in my project's bibliography?
You will need to ask your teacher for the report format he or she wants you to use. The authors' names are Laura Redish and Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas. We are a nonprofit educational organization working to preserve and protect Native American languages and culture. You can learn more about our organization here. Our website was first created in 1998 and last updated in 2020.

Thanks for your interest in the Apache Indian people and their language!

Native Americans for Kids

Native Americans in US, Canada, and the Far North

Northeast Woodland Tribes and Nations - The Northeast Woodlands include all five great lakes as well as the Finger Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. Come explore the 3 sisters, longhouses, village life, the League of Nations, sacred trees, snowsnake games, wampum, the arrowmaker, dream catchers, night messages, the game of sep and more. Special Sections: Iroquois Nation, Ojibwa/Chippewa, The Lenape Indians. Read two myths: Wise Owl and The Invisible Warrior.

Southeast Woodland Tribes and Nations - The Indians of the Southeast were considered members of the Woodland Indians. The people believed in many deities, and prayed in song and dance for guidance. Explore the darkening land, battle techniques, clans and marriage, law and order, and more. Travel the Trail of Tears. Meet the Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Mississippians, Seminole Indians and Cherokee Indians.

Plains Indians - What was life like in what is now the Great Plains region of the United States? Some tribes wandered the plains in search of foods. Others settled down and grew crops. They spoke different languages. Why was the buffalo so important? What different did horses make? What was coup counting? Who was Clever Coyote? Meet the Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Comanche, Pawnee, and Sioux Nation.

Southwest Indians - Pueblo is not the name of a tribe. It is a Spanish word for village. The Pueblo People are the decedents of the Anasazi People. The Navajo and the Apache arrived in the southwest in the 1300s. They both raided the peaceful Pueblo tribes for food and other goods. Who were the Devil Dancers? Why are blue stones important? What is a wickiup? Who was Child of Water?

Pacific Coastal Northwest Indians - What made some of the Pacific Northwest Indian tribes "rich" in ancient times? Why were woven mats so important? How did totem poles get started? What was life like in the longhouse? What were money blankets and coppers? How did the fur trade work? How did Raven Steal Crow's Potlatch?

Inland Plateau People - About 10,000 years ago, different tribes of Indians settled in the Northwest Inland Plateau region of the United States and Canada, located between two huge mountain ranges - the Rockies and the Cascades. The Plateau stretches from BC British Columbia all the way down to nearly Texas. Each village was independent, and each had a democratic system of government. They were deeply religious and believed spirits could be found everything - in both living and non-living things. Meet the Nez Perce

California Indians - The Far West was a land of great diversity. Death Valley and Mount Whitney are the highest and lowest points in the United States. They are within sight of each other. Tribes living in what would become California were as different as their landscape.

Native Americans of the Far North: What trick did the Kutchin people use to catch their enemies? How did these early people stop ghosts from entering their homes? Why was the shaman so powerful? What is a finger mask? Play games! See and hear an old Inuit myth! Enter the mystical world of the people who lived in the far north in olden times. Algonquian/Cree, Athapascan/Kutchin, Central Canada, Inuit, The Shaman

Mickey Free The True Story Behind our Graphic Novel

The notorious Apache scout Mickey Free, our main character, was larger than life. He was known as the coyote and the trickster which is where we got our title. We believe he is a new kind of Western hero.
– Photo Courtesy Robert G. McCubbin Collection All Illustrations by Bob Boze Bell –

We have brooded and argued and mulled over this fictional tale of Mickey Free for years now—sort of a personal Heart of Darkness. Our goal was a graphic novel that would be the basis for a film. Our journey became a metaphor for what we were attempting—a crazy cross between Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, B. Traven’s The Treasure of the Sierra Madre and Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, that ultimate dark road trip.

Our cast of characters are the poster children for American Exceptionalism (and we don’t know if that’s good or bad): the mixed-race, one-eyed outcast Mickey Free (our Huck Finn), the happy-go-lucky, cold-blooded killer Tom Horn (our Tom Sawyer) and the ex-slave narrator Jim Young (our escaped slave Jim). Throw in the deeply wronged and consistently romantic Apache Kid, the revolutionary bandit Pancho Villa and the displaced Russian aristocrat and Sonoran warlord Emilio Kosterlitzky, and you have a supporting cast to literally die for.

These fascinating characters move ever deeper into what author Richard Grant labeled as the “lawless heart of the Sierra Madre” in a darkly violent dance of death. Here are the real characters who inspired our graphic novel and the truths behind the fiction. Although Mickey Free’s hunt for the Apache Kid exists only in our minds, history reveals how such a magnificent hunt almost materialized.

– Courtesy Sharlot Hall Museum –


Mickey Free evolved slowly from the young Apache captive into the famous—or should we say notorious—U.S. Army scout. In the circa 1877 photograph at Arizona’s Camp Verde, we see a scrawny, nondescript boy. He has obviously befriended the post trader, so that he—along with the pup “Boss”—is included in the photograph. Although he looks similar to other Apache scouts, the boy was scrawny and slight for his age, which made him appear younger than his age. His youthful look probably saved his life when Beto raided the Ward ranch in 1861.

Within a few years, Mickey Free had transformed himself into a legendary scout and man hunter who was the talk of Apache Country. Donald McIntosh, the mixed-blood son of Crook’s scout from the Pacific Northwest, Archie McIntosh (brother of Lt. Donald McIntosh, who died with George Custer at Little Big Horn), recalled Free from the 1880s: “I was only fifteen years old then and I had never seen anything quite like Mickey Free. He had big cavalry boots on, the kind that came up high above the knee…and a big pistol belt around his waist and in it he carried two big dragoon pistols. He presented a fine figure in the prime of his life.”

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, Mickey Free speaks Apache, Spanish and English, but Free did not speak English. He did scout for the U.S. Army, and, in fact, did go in search of the Apache Kid, with some claiming he actually bagged the Kid.

– Courtesy Sharlot Hall Museum –

Chief of Scouts Al Sieber was “somewhat” of a father figure to Tom Horn, Mickey Free and the Apache Kid. He represented the law at San Carlos, and they all rode together dispensing rough justice on the reservation. When the Kid broke out, after a shoot-out that crippled Sieber for life, the old gang was broken up. Sieber never forgave the Kid. The old adage, “When one son, leaves, another returns,” applies to Sieber’s relationship with Mickey and Horn, who worshipped him.

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, Al Sieber is barely mentioned, but we felt his presence both shaped and hovered over Mickey Free and Tom Horn.


– Courtesy Robert G. McCubin Collection –

“Texas” John Slaughter first settled on the San Pedro River, but bought the abandoned San Bernardino Ranch a few years later. What most history buffs don’t realize is that Slaughter’s new ranch went deep into Mexico. This area may be where Young, who worked for Slaughter, tracked the Apache Kid to one of his favorite watering holes. Young admitted as much to a surveyor in Tombstone, Arizona (see Unsung).

Because of several springs and good water, Slaughter’s ranch became an active place not only for travelers, but also for the U.S. Army. Troops used the ranch as a staging area to launch forays into Mexico to chase after various Apache renegades, including the Apache Kid. In March 1886, Gen. George Crook and his scouts met at Slaughter’s ranch before crossing the border to meet Geronimo at Canyon de los Embudos, which is just east of the Slaughter property in Mexico (see above map).

About 75 percent of Slaughter’s Ranch was in Mexico, which stretched some 14.6 miles south of the border into Sonora. Over the years, Slaughter purchased, leased and homesteaded vast tracks of additional land. At one point, he controlled about 100,000 acres. After his death in 1922, Slaughter’s widow, Viola, leased out the ranch for several years. But when family members decided to sell it, the Mexican government required that the portion south of the international line be sold to a Mexican buyer.
—Reporting by Tom Jonas

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, Jim Young, Mickey Free and Tom Horn go on the hunt for the Apache Kid. Although this never happened, Young and Horn were almost sent on the assignment in 1896. Horn did, however, hunt the Kid with the Seventh Cavalry that summer. They went into Mexico from Slaughter’s ranch and ran into Col. Emilio Kosterlitzsky and his troops. The two joined forces, but Horn returned to San Bernardino on July 22 after a “difficult and unsuccessful patrol.”

Tom Horn – True West Archives –

The Apaches called Tom Horn “talking boy.” He thought he earned the nickname because he spoke their language, but they called him that because they so admired his gift of gab. No one could spin a tale quite like Horn. He eventually talked himself right into a hangman’s noose.

The wild exaggerations and half-truths in Horn’s 1904 memoir have led many to dismiss him as a fraud. For instance, Horn claimed that the Kid had died of consumption, but offered no proof to substantiate that claim. Regardless, we should not forget Horn was the real deal—not only as a hired killer, but also as a scout in the Apache Wars. He ran away from his Missouri farm as a teenager to find adventure on the Santa Fe Trail. In Prescott, Arizona, the tall, lanky and good-natured boy fell in with master packer Long Jim Cook, who hired him as a “scrub” or apprentice mule packer for U.S. Army supply trains. At Fort Apache, soon after the 1881 Cibecue debacle, Horn came to Al Sieber’s attention. Sieber took a liking to the boy and recruited him as a scout, alongside Mickey Free and the Apache Kid.

Horn proved instrumental in the Geronimo campaigns led by George Crook, Emmet Crawford and Henry Ware Lawton. Years later, men would puzzle over how the famed scout could have become a brutal hired killer, but Jim King, who knew him well in Arizona, explained that Horn’s days with Sieber “had the idea baked into his very soul that there was nothing wrong in killing renegade thieves.” Horn’s tutors, King declared, “were savage Apache warriors.”

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, Jim Young partners with Tom Horn. In real life, however, Horn reported to officials that Young gave “me a great game of talk” and admitted to seeing the Apache Kid only once. Horn concluded Young was a “liar of the first water.”

– Courtesy Robert G. McCubbin Collection –


The Apache Kid was far more photographed than his New Mexico counterpart in Kid-dom, Billy the Kid.

A remarkable March 1886 photograph allegedly shows the Apache Kid at the Geronimo surrender—wearing a natty three-piece suit. C.S. Fly took the photo, and two others, of this group of three Apache scouts. He, or his wife, later identified the fancy-dressed scout as the Apache Kid. (The inset portrait is an attempt to show how he would have looked in authentic Apache garb.) William Sparks, in his valuable little 1926 book, The Apache Kid a Bear Fight and Other True Stories of the Old West, also identified the man in the suit as the Apache Kid. Sparks knew the warrior, so this added credibility to Fly’s identification. But historian Granville Stuart claimed, “This is not the Kid.”

That the Apache Kid would so thoroughly adopt the clothing of the White Eyes fits in well with what we know about him before the 1887 shoot-out with Al Sieber. He was an Apache boy, raised among the whites, who had committed himself to their way of life.

Mickey Free, on the other hand, was a coyote—a trickster figure—who never committed to any side. His clothing remained an outlandish combination of the Apache, Mexican and Anglo worlds. In the end, the Apache Kid reverted back to his Apache origins, while Free committed ever more firmly to the White Man’s laws. Thus, Free went out to hunt down his old friend Apache Kid.

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, the Apache Kid wears the head band shown on him in these photos. Given the controversy over these photos, we cannot definitively state he wore this headband.

Carl Sofus Lumholtz
– True West Archives –


In August 1890, an expedition took off from Bisbee, Arizona, bound for the Sierra Madre. Backed by the American Museum of Natural History, Norwegian ethnologist Carl Sofus Lumholtz led the massive caravan of eight scientists (including Swedish botonist C.V. Hartman), 21 mule whackers, guides and more than 100 horses, mules and donkeys.

Lumholtz traveled in style, bringing large quantities of honey and his library for reference, all carried by mules and donkeys. He spent more than seven years in the Sierra Madre. The resulting two-volume set, Unknown Mexico, published in 1902, inspired another Norwegian scientist, Helge Ingstad, to follow in Lumholtz’s footsteps. He discovered what many believe is the Apache Kid’s daughter (see Lynda A. Sánchez’s article).

Full Disclosure: Helge Ingstad went to find Lupe in 1937, and Jim Young died in 1935, so the two never knew each other. A Tucson Citizen reporter did not interview Young, and their conversation was created as a narrative device.

Emilio Kosterlitzky
– True West Archives –

Some called Col. Emilio Kosterlitzky the “Mad Russian,” and while he was perfectly sane, his life, nevertheless, read like something written by an inmate of an insane asylum.

Born in Moscow in 1853 to a Russian father and German mother, he was raised in Germany before entering military school in Russia. He became a naval officer, but deserted his post in 1872 while in port in Venezuela. Within a year, he had enlisted in the Mexican army, where he became a favorite of dictator Porfirio Diaz. In time, he became the warlord of Sonora, respected by all on both sides of the border for his courage, integrity and Old World sense of gallantry. A master of language, he spoke Russian, Spanish, German, French and English, and was renowned for both his iron will and disarming charm.

Kosterlitzky made his rurales the terror of bandits, both Gringo and Mexican, as well as the Apaches and Yaquis in his territory. In his own way, he was as much a shape-shifter as Mickey Free. Here, he poses in formal uniform, with the spiked Prussian helmet favored by many armies in the late-19th century, as well as in full Mexican sombrero, alongside former Rough Rider and Arizona Ranger Tom Rynning.

In May 1890, Col. Emilio Kosterlitzky led a small detachment of his rurales out after a band of smugglers. They found the men, but they were all dead. A fresh Apache trail led south from the scene. After a day of hard riding, the rurales came upon a rocky outcropping in an immense plain. The Apaches lay in ambush, but Kosterlitzky sent his large hunting dog in first, to sniff out danger. The rurales charged in response to the barking dog and, in a sharp fight, drove the Apaches off, with the loss of two of their men. Three Apaches lay amongst the rocks. As the colonel inspected one of the bodies, he discovered an ornate gold watch with images of cattle and sheep, and the name Glenn Reynolds engraved on it. He also found a pistol with the name Reynolds etched in the grip. The dead Apache was a gray-haired older man, so Kosterlitzky knew he had not found the Apache Kid. The colonel forwarded the watch and pistol to Mexico City officials. The artifacts were sent to Secretary of State James G. Blaine, then to Arizona Governor Lewis Wolfley and finally back to the Reynolds family.

The fall of Diaz led Kosterlitzky to flee to the United States in 1913, where he quickly found employment as a detective with the U.S. Justice Department. He even worked with the founder of today’s FBI, J. Edgar Hoover. He died in Los Angeles in 1928.

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, the Mad Russian never encountered the trio in their fictional hunt for the Apache Kid, but he and his rurales did patrol the wild country along the U.S.-Mexico border where Apache renegades hid out.

– Courtesy Cornelius C Smith Collection, United States Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, PA –

Here is a rare photograph of three Apache girls who claimed to have been kidnapped by the Apache Kid. At the bottom of the photograph, someone has written notes describing specifics of the kidnappings. The first note states: “I-vo-ash-ay, a San Carlos woman abducted from Reservation by Apache Kid in September, 1890. Escaped November 10, 1892 Was employed by troops as guide in pursuit of ‘Kid.’”

She turned an unfortunate experience, her abduction, into an opportunity to track her kidnapper. That she knew the Apache Kid’s hideouts must have helped out U.S. troops.

The second girl is identified by this note: “Na-thethlay, a San Carlos girl stolen by ‘Kid’ after he had killed her mother, May 17, 1892. The girl was turned loose 5 days later.”

How heartbreaking. Imagine cooking and cleaning for the brute who killed your mother? No wonder he let her go five days later she was probably inconsolable. At the same time, historians do not recall any incidents in which the Kid killed a mother, but Massai, another renegade, did kill mothers. Perhaps the two Apache outlaws are getting mixed up here.

The third girl is described as: “Nah-tah-go-yah, San Carlos girl stolen by ‘Kid’ from Reservation October 25, 1892, retaken by troops from San Carlos December 27, 1892, when ‘Kid’ attempted to recapture Jo-ash-ay, No. 2, above.” (This is confusing because No. 2 is identified as Na-thethlay.)

Altogether, these notations indicate the Kid was active around San Carlos, before he fled for good to Mexico’s Sierra Madre. The existence of these other “wives” brings up the interesting dilemma of how to portray his last “wife,” who gave birth to Lupe (see p. 38), the girl may have been the Apache Kid’s daughter. Did they fall in love? Hard to say, but in our graphic novel, you can bet your boots they did!

Full disclosure: In our graphic novel, we portray the Apache Kid as being in a committed relationship with Lupe’s mother, but given his history with Apache women he captured as wives, that is probably wishful thinking.

Has the Apache Kid’s Daughter Been Found?

Compare this headshot of Guadalupe “Lupe” Fimbres Muñoz with that of the Apache Kid and the resemblance, says Apache Kid biographer Phyllis de la Garza, “is impossible to deny. The dates, time, place and circumstance ring true….”
– Courtesy Lynda A. Sánchez Collection –

Caught between two worlds, Guadalupe Fimbres Muñoz had to make difficult choices for her future. She knew little of what was happening in the outside world when she was captured by Mexican rancheros in late 1914 or early 1915. A world war had begun, yet she had been at war since her birth as an Apache.

Apache Juan’s band was active during the last several months of 1914 or early months of 1915. One evening, after the Apaches had stolen 30 or more horses and cattle, and a large supply of corn, several angry Mexican ranchers formed a posse and went after the thieves.

The raw and rough country along the U.S.-Mexico border offered little-to-no law enforcement at that time, making ranchers on both sides of the border easy pickings. Some historians have attributed the survival of the Apache Kid and other renegades from the United States to this so-called rustling ring.

Near the top of Pico de la India, along the Sonora-Chihuahua boundary in Mexico, the ranchers located an abandoned encampment. From there, with the aid of field glasses, they spotted another that contained the missing livestock. They saw that the Apaches were breaking camp. The Mexicans split into three groups to intercept them.

Abraham Valencio was the first to enter the camp. He observed a young Apache on mule back, guarding the stolen herd. The youth, upon seeing Valencio, sounded an alarm, which sent his people into the underbrush. He stayed with the herd, trying to push the livestock off a nearby bluff to their death.

Lunging up the rugged canyon trail, straining under the whip of its desperate rider, the young Apache’s frightened mule snorted, fell back and then lunged again. The canyon was too steep, and the rider could no longer control the terrified animal, which bucked and balked with each lash of the whip.

Yells from below told the boy he was trapped. Mexicans were closing in on him. By the time the two other parties heard the shots and joined Valencio, the Apache youth was trying, in vain, to escape on foot.

The terror of this youth must have been great as he continued to run, descending down a cliff, jumping a steep arroyo and finally taking refuge in a small cave. With the prospect of death on the horizon, the Apache boy anxiously made a movement. One of the approaching Mexicans saw it and signaled the location to the vaqueros.

The Mexicans had no clue how many of the enemy waited. The men rushed the cave. The boy hissed and growled and fought, but eventually the vaqueros overwhelmed him.

The men were shocked to discover the boy was a girl, about 14 or 15. The cut girl was bleeding heavily. Indicating that this Apache was still a child, one man asked, “Has there not been enough violence?”

His sane voice in the heat of battle was a miracle. The men backed away from their original intent—death to the Apache.

The Mexicans treated her wounds. They then tied her onto a burro and took her to one of the Fimbres family ranches near Nácori Chico, Sonora, in Mexico, about 75 miles south of Douglas, Arizona.

Over the next several years, the girl who the family named Lupe attempted to adapt to a new culture, language and lifestyle. At first, she cried and would not eat. The Fimbres were so concerned about her wellbeing that they let her go twice, but twice she returned to their home, signaling that she was no longer a part of the Apache band. She had a difficult time learning Spanish, but soon became fluent, even though her intonation differed. She wove beautiful mats, hats and baskets, and learned how to sew.

Twelve years after her capture, Lupe’s life was jarred again. The 1927 kidnapping of three-year-old Gerardo Fimbres and the murder of his mother María by Apaches shocked the small mountain communities with their brutality.

The year 1932 was even more emotional for her: Mexican cowboy Aristeo García murdered an old woman said to be Lupe’s relative, either her mother or an aunt. Lupe found out about the killing from a child, perhaps four or five years old, Bui, who was captured during García’s attack on the Apache camp.

One of the owners of Rancho 31 (Los Laureles), where García worked as foreman, was Jack Rowe. Lupe had become friends with Jack’s wife, Margie. When Bui was brought to their ranch near Nácori Chico, Jack asked Lupe to come over and soothe the captured child. After hearing the devastating news from Bui, who became known as Carmela, Lupe abruptly departed Nácori Chico, never to return.

Carmela more easily adapted to life with her adopted family, another owner of
the ranch, Jack and Dixie Harris. Lupe had a harder time since she was much older, a teenager, when captivity changed her world.

Years later, Jack Rowe discovered that various academicians, including famed Mystery writer Earle Stanley Gardner, Grenville Goodwin, Dr. Helge Ingstad and Dr. Thomas Hinton, were all intrigued by the elusive Lupe and the lost Apaches.

Searching for Lupe

“They have absolutely no contact with any people outside themselves…. They are too wild, and it would be like trying to get in touch with a pack of wolves,” famed anthropologist Goodwin called the renegade Apaches, in 1934, in a letter he wrote to mentor Dr. Morris Opler.

Goodwin mentioned a girl in a Mexican village, Lupe, holding out hope that by talking to her, he could locate the remainder of the remnant Apaches, if in fact any still existed, and bring them back to the United States. He never located Lupe.

Four years later, the Ingstad Expedition of 1937-38 launched. Norwegian explorer Ingstad succeeded in interviewing Lupe. He met Lupe in Colonia Hernández, where she lived with her husband Perfecto Muñoz. She told Ingstad her story.

From birth, around 1900, until her capture in 1915, Lupe lived with a group of 12, mostly women, as well as a white man who had red hair (some historians have surmised he could be Charlie McComas, who, at age six, had been taken captive in 1883). The family moved around a lot, living in caves hidden in the cliffs along steep river valleys or in shelters of grass and saplings. They shod their horses and mules with hide to prevent anyone following them. Their weapons consisted of old rifles with poor ammunition, knives and bows and arrows. They ate mostly deer, mescal, the tops of onion shaped plants, honey, roots and berries. They made flour from acorns, mesquite beans and stolen corn. Cattle added variety to their diet. They made their clothes out of beautifully tanned cowhide or deerskin, and the women wore pants like the men. They lit small fires only during the daytime. They sometimes fashioned toys from twigs and dolls from cloth, horse hair and gamusa (buckskin).

Lupe spoke bitterly about the hated San Carlos Apache reservation in southeastern Arizona and how her people were forced to defend themselves against the Mexicans.

After her capture in 1915, she lived with several different Mexican families, including the Fimbres and Fuentes, on their ranches, until 1932.

Captive No More

In 1934, with the era of violence in the Sierra Madre coming to an end, Lupe married Don Perfecto Muñoz and lived with him at Colonia Hernández, near the Chihuahua/Sonora border in Mexico. Guillermo Soto of Casas Grandes provided one of the more vivid descriptions of Lupe. One year, when Soto was accompanying the jefe de armas (police chief) to Colonia Pacheco, he saw Lupe and her husband, Don Perfecto, ride in to visit with amigos. He said of her, “She rode like a man, and bareback. She leapt gracefully to and from her mount.”

Others also noted Lupe’s skills as a horsewoman and that she could ride con o sin montura (with or without a saddle).

Lupe is all dressed up to tirar chancla (go dancing), circa 1940. She enjoyed the polka, waltz and the two-step to the beats of Mexican guitar, harmonica and accordion.
– Courtesy Lynda A. Sánchez Collection –

Lupe “loved to dress up, fix her hair and to attend all the dances and really tirar chancla [kick up her heels]” remembered her daughter-in-law, Mercedez Muñoz. “She was a good dancer, too and was so nice everyone could not help but love her.”

Widowed in 1959, Lupe adapted by continuing her hard work and her devotion to family. Eventually, she left Colonia Hernández and moved to Colonia Juárez. In 1969, her great heart gave way to old age and exhaustion.

Lupe had helped raise Perfecto’s children and grandchildren, living the normal, everyday, hard existence of a resident in a mountain village. Yet she continued to avoid any contact with Federales or local military men, most likely haunted by memories when such authorities had hunted Apaches like animals. She also disappeared from time to time. Did she leave to meet survivors of her own Apache family? To reconnect to a world that has long since disappeared? To mourn the loss of her natural family?

The Apache Kid’s Daughter?

Few people, on either side of the U.S.-Mexico border, have been sympathetic to the Apache Kid’s history. He was a sadistic, violent outlaw—end of story. Then in 1995, Phyllis de la Garza’s The Apache Kid was published, which gave historians the opportunity to consider how a bright young man could have turned out, if he had been given a hand up instead of facing so many closed doors.

After reading de la Garza’s book, I have been haunted by the book’s cover photograph of the Apache Kid. By his eyes, his facial features, the set of his mouth. One afternoon, I casually laid the book on a table in my study, which had several photos of Lupe lying on it. I found the family resemblance between the two uncanny. But was I seeing one simply because I wanted to?

I called de la Garza and told her my thoughts on how Lupe being his daughter may not have been just another rumor among locals. I sent her a copy of my photos.

Lupe stands with her Mexican confidant, Soco, circa 1936, proving enemies could become friends. Lupe had held a lifelong hatred of Mexicans who she felt had preyed on the Apaches.
– Courtesy Fimbres Family, Lynda A. Sánchez Collection –

“I certainly agree that she looks just like Kid,” she responded. “Even her ears! Rather scary—the likeness is impossible to deny. The dates, time, place and circumstance ring true…. I don’t think we are imagining things here. The nose, the mouth, the chin, those ears, even the scowl. Also, bags under the eyes and the hair line. And, the fact she never bragged about being related to him, so she was not trying to gain some sort of notoriety, makes her revelation to Ingstad believable.”

Lupe had told Ingstad that her father was a great warrior, which he interpreted to mean her father was the Apache Kid.

Though historians will never know for certain, unless DNA analysis or some other modern forensic miracle can prove that relationship, I am among those who believe Lupe is not only Guadalupe Fimbres Muñoz, but also the daughter of the Apache Kid. Both of their lives were filled with violence and tragedy, yet each survived well into the 20th century, creating a niche for themselves as part of the fascinating Sierra Madre Apache saga. Lupe’s legacy is truly a greater piece of the “Lost Apaches” puzzle, that colorful and intriguing mosaic of history only now coming into its own.

Lynda A. Sánchez first visited Colonia Hernández in 1981 to interview the family of Guadalupe Fimbres Muñoz. Over several years of tracking the mysterious Apache woman some called the Apache Kid’s daughter, she interviewed members of the Fimbres/Fuentes, Muñoz and Whetten/Villa families. This article is one aspect of her research, which will be fully published in The Broken Loop: A History of the Lost Apaches.

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Lynda A. Sánchez earned the 2007 Preservation Award recognizing her work in saving New Mexico’s Fort Stanton, a story she shares in her book Legacy of Honor, Tradition of Healing: Fort Stanton. She and her family live on a small ranch along the Bonito River in southern New Mexico. Her time in the Peace Corps in South America, her archaeological field work at Mesa Verde and in Mexico and Belize all guided her to the colorful mosaic of folk heroes, legends and the incredible history of the American Southwest. Sánchez is also an advocate for the preservation of our veterans’ legacy.

Apache Indians

Eventually the tribe migrated toward the United States further south, and divided itself into two basic regions, with the Rio Grande River serving as the dividing line. The Apaches were typically nomadic, meaning they traveled around, never quite settling in one place.

They mostly survived by eating Buffalo meat, and using their hides as protective clothing. It has been said that they were one of the first tribes to learn how to ride and use horses. By 1700, a large portion of the Apache Indians had migrated to the Kansas plains. They were not accustomed to living and farming on the plains, but made due with some crops such as watermelon, beans, and corn. Eventually, their weakness was overtaken by the Comanche tribe.

The Apaches were defeated and their land was seized, causing them to move onward to areas like New Mexico and Arizona. Still others went even more southward into Texas and parts of Mexico.

Around the 1730s, the Apache Indians began to battle with the Spaniards. The battles were long and bloody, and often resulted in many deaths.

Finally in 1743 a Spanish leader agreed to designate areas of Texas for the Apaches to live, easing the battle over land. In a ceremony in 1749, an Apache chief buried a hatchet to symbolize that the fighting was over, thus the term we use today, &ldquobury the hatchet.&rdquo As time went on, the Apache Indians developed a strong bond with the white men of the area. At first relationships were strong, and the Apache felt protected. As things progressed, however, raids began to take place that included the slaughter of their people and the theft of their goods and livestock. As of 1940, there was a record of only 35 Apache Indians living in the state of Oklahoma, and in 1970 a record of about 1,500 were documented in New Mexico.

Native Americans in US, Canada, and the Far North

Northeast Woodland Tribes and Nations - The Northeast Woodlands include all five great lakes as well as the Finger Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. Come explore the 3 sisters, longhouses, village life, the League of Nations, sacred trees, snowsnake games, wampum, the arrowmaker, dream catchers, night messages, the game of sep and more. Special Sections: Iroquois Nation, Ojibwa/Chippewa, The Lenape Indians. Read two myths: Wise Owl and The Invisible Warrior.

Southeast Woodland Tribes and Nations - The Indians of the Southeast were considered members of the Woodland Indians. The people believed in many deities, and prayed in song and dance for guidance. Explore the darkening land, battle techniques, clans and marriage, law and order, and more. Travel the Trail of Tears. Meet the Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Mississippians, Seminole Indians and Cherokee Indians.

Plains Indians - What was life like in what is now the Great Plains region of the United States? Some tribes wandered the plains in search of foods. Others settled down and grew crops. They spoke different languages. Why was the buffalo so important? What different did horses make? What was coup counting? Who was Clever Coyote? Meet the Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Comanche, Pawnee, and Sioux Nation.

Southwest Indians - Pueblo is not the name of a tribe. It is a Spanish word for village. The Pueblo People are the decedents of the Anasazi People. The Navajo and the Apache arrived in the southwest in the 1300s. They both raided the peaceful Pueblo tribes for food and other goods. Who were the Devil Dancers? Why are blue stones important? What is a wickiup? Who was Child of Water?

Pacific Coastal Northwest Indians - What made some of the Pacific Northwest Indian tribes "rich" in ancient times? Why were woven mats so important? How did totem poles get started? What was life like in the longhouse? What were money blankets and coppers? How did the fur trade work? How did Raven Steal Crow's Potlatch?

Inland Plateau People - About 10,000 years ago, different tribes of Indians settled in the Northwest Inland Plateau region of the United States and Canada, located between two huge mountain ranges - the Rockies and the Cascades. The Plateau stretches from BC British Columbia all the way down to nearly Texas. Each village was independent, and each had a democratic system of government. They were deeply religious and believed spirits could be found everything - in both living and non-living things. Meet the Nez Perce

California Indians - The Far West was a land of great diversity. Death Valley and Mount Whitney are the highest and lowest points in the United States. They are within sight of each other. Tribes living in what would become California were as different as their landscape.

Native Americans of the Far North: What trick did the Kutchin people use to catch their enemies? How did these early people stop ghosts from entering their homes? Why was the shaman so powerful? What is a finger mask? Play games! See and hear an old Inuit myth! Enter the mystical world of the people who lived in the far north in olden times. Algonquian/Cree, Athapascan/Kutchin, Central Canada, Inuit, The Shaman

Geronimo’s Early Life

Geronimo was born in what is today Arizona in the upper Gila River country on June 16, 1829. His birth name was Goyahkla, or "one who yawns." He was part of the Bedonkohe subsection of the Chiricahua tribe of Apaches, a small but mighty group of around 8,000 people. By the time he came of age, the Apaches were at war with Mexicans to the South, the U.S. government to the North and neighboring Comanche and Navajo tribes. He showed early promise as a hunter and led four successful raids on nearby tribes by age 17.

Personal tragedy shaped his lifelong hatred for anyone who attempted to subject him or his people. While he was away on a trading trip in 1851, Mexican soldiers led by Colonel Jose Maria Carrasco attacked his family’s camp. Geronimo’s wife, Alope, their three children and his mother were all murdered.

Wild with grief, Geronimo burned his family’s belonging according to Apache tradition before heading into the forest, where he claimed he heard a voice that told him: "No gun will ever kill you. I will take the bullets from the guns … and I will guide your arrows." He soon hunted down his family’s killers and devoted his life to avenging them.

Sources Available Upon Request

Infamous America | Season 10 | Ned Buntline

Bricklin, Julia. The Notorious Life of Ned Buntline: A Tale of Murder, Betrayal, and the Creation of Buffalo Bill (Helena, MT: TwoDot Books), 2020.

Monaghan, Jay. ‘The Great Rascal’: The Life and Times of Ned Buntline (New York: Little, Brown), 1952.

Silva, Lee. Wyatt Earp: A Biography of the Legend, Vol. 1 (Graphic Publishers), 2002.

Lake, Stuart N. Wyatt Earp, Frontier Marshall (New York: Pocket Books reprint), 1994.

Infamous America | Season 9 | Apache Wars

Paul Andrew Hutton. The Apache Wars: The Hunt for Geronimo, the Apache Kid, and the Captive Boy Who Started the Longest War in American History. Crown New York, 2016.

Angie Debo. Geronimo: The Man, His Time, His Place. University of Oklahoma Press, 2012.

Edwin Sweeney. Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief: The Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Dan L. Thrapp. The Conquest of Apacheria. University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

Infamous America | Season 8 | Hatfields & McCoys

Blood Feud: The Hatfields and McCoys, the Epic Story of Murder and Vengence. Alther, Lisa. Lyons Press, 2012.

An American Vendetta: A Story of Barbarism in the United States. Crawford, T.C.

Woodland Press, LLC: Reprint 2013, originally published New York: Belford, Clarke and Co., 1889.

Virginia at War, 1863 “The Devil at Large” by James M. Pritchard, Davis, William C. and James Robinson, Jr., ed. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2008.

The Hatfield and McCoy Feud After Kevin Costner: Rescuing History. Dotson, Tom. North Charleston, South Carolina, self published, 2017.

The Tale of the Devil: the Biography of Devil Anse Hatfield. Hatfield, Coleman C. and Robert Y. Spence. Woodland Press, LLC, 2011.

The Feud: the Hatfields and McCoys the True Story. King, Dean. Little Brown and Company, 2013

The Hatfields and McCoys. Lexington. Rice, Otis K. The University Press of Kentucky: 1982.

Feud: Hatfields, McCoys, and Social Change in Appalachia, 1860-1900. Waller, Altina L. The University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Features primary documents related to the Hatfield and McCoy families: www.brandonraykirk.com

Infamous America | Season 8 | Leopold & Loeb

The Leopold and Loeb Files: An Intimate Look at One of America’s Most Infamous Crimes, by Nina Barrett. Agate Midway, 2018.

For the Thrill of it: Leopold, Loeb and the Murder that Shocked Jazz Age Chicago, by Simon Baatz. Harper Collins, 2009.

Leopold and Loeb: The Crime of the Century, by Hal Higdon. University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Infamous America | Season 9 | Lizzie Borden

“The Trial of Lizzie Borden” by Cara Robertson. Simon and Schuster, 2019.

“Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s” edited by Joyce G. Williams, J. Eric Smithburn, M. Jeanne Peterson. T.I.S. Publications, 1980.

Fall River Daily Evening News – “Murder Most Foul” – August 4, 1892
Associated Press – “A Massachusetts Tragedy” – August 5, 1892
Fall River Globe – “A Horrible Crime” – August 5, 1892
Fall River Globe – “The Butchery of Yesterday As Yet a Mystery” – August 5, 1892
New York Recorder – “Lizzie Borden’s Plea” – September 19, 1892
Fall River Daily Herald – “Mike, the Soldier. The Man of Mystery Located At Last.” – January 10, 1893
Salt Lake Tribune – “Lizzie Borden’s Queer Case” – April 13, 1893
Boston Glove – “Lizzie Borden’s Case. How Accused Passes Her Time Away in Jail.” – April 13, 1893
Muscatine News-Tribune – “Lizzie Borden’s Trial. It Will Take Place in June and End in Conviction.” – April 30, 1893
Carlisle Weekly Herald – “Lizzie Borden’s Trial. The Famous Fall River Suspect Defending Her Life.” – May 11, 1893
Fall River Daily Evening News – “Murder Again. Awful Counterpart of the Borden Tragedy.” – May 31, 1893
St. Louis Post-Dispatch – “For Her Life. Lizzie Borden Must meet the Charge of Double Murder.” – June 4, 1893
The World (New York, NY) – “The Case of Lizzie Borden” – June 4, 1893
Philadelphia Inquirer – “The Borden Trial Will Begin To-Day” – June 5, 1893
Fall River Daily Evening News – “The Day is Here” – June 5, 1893
Middletown Times-Press – “Lizzie Borden’s Trial. The Unraveling of Fall River’s Mysterious Tragedy Begun.” – June 5, 1893
Buffalo Evening News – “Lizzie’s Bad Break!” – June 14, 1893
St. Louis Glove -Democrat (reprinted from New York Evening Post) – “Newspapers Barred” – February 4, 1894
American Heritage Magazine – “She Couldn’t Have Done It, Even If She Did” – Kathryn Allamong Jacob – February/March 1978
American Heritage Magazine – “What Made Lizzie Borden Kill?” – Marcia R. Carlisle – July/August 1992
The Herald News, Fall River, MA – “New photos surface of former Lizzie Borden maid after murders” – Deborah Allard – April 9, 2012
The Herald News, Fall River, MA – “Lizzie Borden: Fact vs. Fiction” – Michael Martins and Dennis Binette – August 2, 2013
Rolling Stone Magazine – “Lizzie Borden: Why a 19th-Century Axe Murder Still Fascinates Us” – Elizabeth Yuko – August 4, 2016

https://famous-trials.com/lizzieborden/ — Professor Douglas O. Linder, University of Missouri: Kansas City, School of Law.
https://lizzieborden.org/ — Fall River Historical Society

Original autopsy reports and inquest/trial transcripts were mostly obtained through either “Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s” or the UMKC School of Law website: https://famous-trials.com/lizzieborden (https://famous-trials.com/lizzieborden/)

Infamous America | Season 7 | D.B. Cooper

Colbert, Thomas. The Last Master Outlaw: How He Outfoxed the FBI 6 Times – But Not a Cold Case Team, Jacaranda Roots Publishing, 2016

Gray, Geoffrey. Skyjack:The Hunt for D.B. Cooper, Broadway Paperback, 2011

Gunther, Max. D.B. Cooper: What Really Happened, Contemporary Publishing, 1985

Himmelsbach, Ralph & Worcester, Thomas. Norjack: The Investigation of D.B. Cooper, Norjack Project, 1986

Hubbard, David G.. The Skyjacker: His Flights of Fancy, Macmillan Publishing, 1971

Laurin, Carl & McNeilley, Lisa. D.B. Cooper & Me: A Criminal, A Spy, My Best Friend, Principia Media, 2018

Porteous, Skipp & Blevins, Robert, Into the Blast – The True Story of D.B. Cooper, Adventure Books of Seattle, 2010


Flemming, Karl. “The Tale of a Hijacking”, LA, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 21, 1972

Connolly, Patrick. “D.B. Cooper: A Stupid Rascal,” Free-Lance Star, Fredricksbug, VA, Nov. 11, 1981

Killen, Andreas. “The First Highjackers,” New York Times Magazine, Jan. 16, 2005

Associated Press, Stockton, CA. “Rackstraw Says He’s Not the Cooper of Skyjack Fame,” Eugene Register Guard, Eugene, OR, Feb. 2, 1979

Sanders, Jacquin. “D.B. Cooper New Chapter in Sick Americana,” News Journal, Mansfield, OH, Feb. 10, 1972

Valentine, Dan. “Dan Valentine’s Nothing Serious,” Salt Lake Tribune, Salt Lake City, UT, Nov. 25,1976

Murphy, Mary Pat. “Hijacker D.B. Cooper Becoming Folk Hero,” Santa Cruz Chronicle, Santa Cruz, CA, Nov. 6, 1972

Barret, Eldon. “Is D.B. Cooper Dead or Alive,” Logansport Press, Logansport, Indiana, Nov. 22, 1972

Associated Press, Spokane, WA. “D.B. Cooper’s Identity Revealed,” Spokesman Review, Spokekane, WA, Nov. 18, 1983

Associated Press, Amboy, WA. “Parachute Find Stirs Interest in Legend,” Reading Eagle, Reading, PA, March 27, 2008

Associated Press, Seattle, WA. “Hijacked Plane Makes Landing at Seattle Airport”, Spokesman Review, Spokane, WA, Nov. 25, 1971

United Press International, Salt Lake City, UT. “Suspect in Family Slayings May Be Hijacker D.B. Cooper,” The Desert News, Salt Lake City, UT, June 30, 1989

Associated Press Maine. “Hijacker Caught After Parachuting over Colo. With $500,000,” Lewiston Daily Sun, Lewiston, ME, Jan. 21, 1972

Associated Press Reno, NV. “Thief Sends Letter,” Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, Nov. 29, 1971

Associated Press, Seattle, WA. “Two Plead Innocent,” Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, June 26, 1972

Associated Press, Longview, WA. “FBI Agent Declines Comment,” Port Angeles News, Port Angeles, WA, Dec. 5, 1971

Turner, Julia. “Will Don Draper Become DB Cooper? A Skyjacking Expert Weighs In.” Slate, April 16, 2014 (web, 3/23/2020)

Van Hooker, Brian. “3 Skydivers Weigh in on D.B. Cooper,” Mel Magazine, March 2020, (web, 4/10/2020)

Perry, Douglass. “Ralph Himmelsbach, FBI Agent who led search for D.B. Cooper and also UO bombing case, dies at 94,” Oregonian Live, Oct. 4, 2019 (web, 4/10/2020)

Holley, Peter. “The D.B. Cooper Case has baffled FBI for 45 years. Now it may never be solved,” Washington Post, July 13, 2016 (web, 3/30/2020)

McShane, Larry. “Tina Mucklow, D.B. Cooper-hijacking flight attendant found Woman was go-between for Cooper, Crew,” Daily News, Sep. 2, 2011 (web, 4/10/2020)

Browning, William. “A reporter’s role in the notorious unsolved mystery of ‘D.B. Cooper’,” Columbia Journalism Review, July 18, 2016

Ingalls, Chris. “Scientistis say they many new evidence in D.B. Cooper case,” USA TODAY, Jan 13, 2017 (web, 4/10/2020)

Coreno, Catherine. “D.B. Cooper: A Timeline,” New York Magazine, Oct. 19, 2007 (web, 3/23/2020)

Bressen, David. “Forensic Geology Provides Tantalizing Clues About the Fate of D.B. Cooper,” Forbes, July 16, 2016 (web, 4/10/2020)

Perry, Douglass. “D.B. Cooper letter, newly released by FBI, offers startling clue that might reveal hijacker,” Oregonian Live, May 17, 2019 (web, 4/20/2020)

Steven, Richard. “D.B. Cooper — Perfect Crime or Perfect Folly?,” Seattle Times, Nov. 17, 1996 (web 4/23/2020)

Holden, Robert T. “The Contagiousness of Aircraft Hijacking,” Indiana University, archived July 17, 2005 (web, 4/23/2020)

Angeloff, Sam. “The FBI Agent Who Has Tracked D.B. Cooper for Nine Years Retires, but the Frustrating Search Goes On,” People Magazine, March 3, 1980 (web, 4/10/2020)

Gray, Geoffrey. “The Curse of D.B. Cooper,” Wall Street Journal, Aug. 6, 2011 (web, 4/10/2020)

McDonald, Jeff. “San Diegan featured in program about notious D.B. Cooper hijacking case dies in Bankers Hill home,” San Diego Journal Tribunes, July 9, 2019 (web, 3/23/2020)

Starr, Douglass. “This psychologist explains why people confess to crimes they did not commit,” American Association for Advancement of Science, June 13, 2019 (web, 3/23/2020)

Handy, Bruce. “Glamour with Altitude,” Vanity Fair October 2002 (web, 4/2/2020)

Smith, Bruce. “The Hunt for D.B. Cooper – An Interview with Retired FBI Agent Ralph Himmeslbach,” The Mountain News – WA, Feb. 2, 2011 (web, 4/25/2020)

People Staff. “Six Year’s Later Bobby Ingram Gets a Piece of D.b. Cooper’s Haul,” People, June 23, 1986 (web, 4/23/2020)

Associated Press, New York. “Skydiver Held as Highjacker $500,000 Still Missing,” New York Times, April 10, 1972 (web, 4/23/2020)

Smith, Bruce. “The Barb Dayton Confession – as told by Ron and Pat Forman,” Mountain News – WA, Feb. 11, 2011 (web, 4/25/2020)

Associated Press, Seattle, WA. “FBI Rejects Latest D.B. Cooper Suspect,” Seattle PI, Oct. 10, 2007 (web, 4/23/2020)

Kugiya, Hugo. “The FBI Wants to be less mysterious about a mystery,” Los Angeles Times, April 21, 2008 (web, 4/5/2020)

Aviation Incident Statistics, Aviation Safety Network, Aviation-safety.net, www.aviation-safety.net/statistics/period/stats.php?cat=A1

FAA Historical Chronology, faa.gov, www.faa.gov/about/history/chronolog_history/media/b-chron.pdf (http://www.faa.gov/about/history/chronolog_history/media/b-chron.pdf)

The Hunt for DB Cooper by Tom Kaye, www.citizensleuths.com

History of Piedmont Airlines, www.jetpiedmont.com

Infamous America | Season 6 | Alcatraz

“Alcatraz: A History of the Penitentiary Years” by Michael Esslinger. Ocean View Publishing, 2016.

“Inside Alcatraz: My time on the Rock” by Jim Quillen. Cornerstone Digital Reprint, 2015.

“Battle at Alcatraz: A Desperate Attempt to Escape the Rock” by Ernest B. Lageson. Addicus Books, Inc., 1999.

Infamous America | Season 5 | John Wilkes Booth

“American Brutus” by Michael W. Kauffman. Penguin Random House, 2005.

“Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase to Catch Lincoln’s Killer” by James L. Swanson. William Morrow Books, 2006.

“The Lincoln Assassination Encyclopedia” by Edward Steers. Jr. Harper Collins, 2010.

“John Wilkes Booth: Day by Day” by Arthur F. Loux. McFarland, 2014.

“Lincoln’s Autocrat: The Life of Edwin Stanton” by William Marvel. University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

“Stanton: Lincoln’s War Secretary” by Walter Stahr. Simon & Schuster, 2017.

Infamous America | Season 4 | John Dillinger

”Dillinger: The Life and Death of America’s First Celebrity Criminal” by Dary Matera. Da Capo Press Edition, 2004.

”The Vendetta: Special Agent Melvin Purvis, John Dillinger, and Hoover’s FBI in the Age of Gangsters” by Alston Purvis. PublicAffairs Books, 2009.

”Public Enemies” by Bryan Burrough. Penguin Random House Books, 2004.

Internal Bureau documents:

Letter from J. Edgar Hoover to Kansas City office saying two Thompson submachine guns have been purchased and are being shipped — June 20, 1933

Letter from SAC Ralph to J. Edgar Hoover requesting guns after Kansas City Massacre — June 25, 1933 — and the response from Hoover — June 27, 1933

Memorandum to the Director concerning the types of weapons the Bureau should purchase — June 28, 1933

Memo from Samuel Cowley to the Director reporting on the murder of Sheriff Jesse Barber — October 24, 1933

Report by Special Agent C.J. Endres on the capture of Dillinger, Pierpont, et al in Tucson, Arizona — Jan 27, 1934

Memo from Melvin Purvis to J. Edgar Hoover concerning Henry Voss and others — May 2, 1934

Case file “Attempt to Apprehend John Dillinger, with aliases, Fugitive, et al, National Motor Vehicle Theft Act, at Little Bohemia Inn, Manitowish, Wisconsin” — June 1, 1934

Statements about the shooting of John Dillinger from agents Melvin Purvis, Samuel Cowley, Clarence Hurt, Charlie Winstead, R.D. Brown, Val Zimmer, and Herman Hollis

Memo from Melvin Purvis to J. Edgar Hoover concerning accusations that Sgt Zarkovich wanted Dillinger killed — August 7, 1934

Memo from G. C. Woltz on his interviews with witnesses from case file “John Herbert Dillinger Escape From Crown Point Jail” — April 6, 1935

Memo to the director concerning “Early History of the Bureau of Investigation, United States Department of Justice” by Charles Findlay — November 19, 1943

Newspaper articles:

The Mason City Globe-Gazette *Mason City, Iowa – “St. Paul Mob or Dillinger Gang Blamed in Raid” — March 14, 1934

The Mason City Globe-Gazette *Mason City, Iowa – 𔄚 Men Did Most of Work Inside During Holdup” — March 14, 1934

The Mason City Globe-Gazette *Mason City, Iowa – “Bank Holdup in Sketch Form” — March 14, 1934

Associated Press *- “Tavern Keeper Describes Visit of Desperadoes” – Emil Wanatka — April 24, 1934

Belvidere Daily Republican *Belvidere, Illinois – “Demand Suspension of Purvis for ‘Bungling’ Dillinger Trap” — April 25, 1934

Associated Press * – “These Dogs Barked and Dillinger Jumped Out the Window'” — April 25, 1934

Associated Press *- “Officer Shot in Bank Raid: Detective Identifies Leader of South Bend Holdup as Dillinger” — June 30, 1934

The Daily Journal-Gazette * Matton, Illinois – “Dillinger Sr. Leaves to Get Body of Son” – International News Service — Evening July 23, 1934

The Charleston Gazette *Charleston, West Virginia – “Purvis Relates ‘Killer’ Slaying” — July 27, 1934

The Ogden Standard Examiner* Ogden, Utah – “Roosevelt Held Most Outstanding in World” — Dec 27, 1934

The Times of Northwest Indiana* Munster, Indiana – “Her Nightmare of Hiding” – Lu Ann Franklin — July 22, 1984

The Times of Northwest Indiana* Munster, Indiana – “Family Remembers ‘true hero’ of Dillinger’s story” – Kathleen Quilligan — April 6, 2008

Associated Press* – “Midwest Hopes for Dillinger Tourism” – Carrie Antifinger — May 3, 2009

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel *Milwaukee, Wisconsin – “Wanatka had owned Little Bohemia” – Meg Jones — September 11, 2009

The Washington Post. *Washington, DC – “What the Wall Street Bombing Tells Us About Modern Immigration Scare Tactics” – Kevin Jennings — Jan 29, 2018

Legends of the Old West | LEGEND LITE — Sources
Legends of the Old West | Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo
Legends of the Old West | DEADWOOD — SPECIAL THANKS

W. Earl Brown — he played “Dan Dority” on the show and is the founding member of the Sacred Cowboys band.

Rose Speirs — Communications Director, Deadwood History Inc.

Legends of the Old West | TEXAS RANGERS — Sources and Music

“The Texas Rangers: Wearing the Cinco Peso, 1821-1900,” by Mike Cox. Tom Doherty Associates, LLC, 2008

“The Ranger Ideal: Texas Rangers in the Hall of Fame, Volume 1,” by Darren L. Ivey. University of North Texas Press, 2017

“Texas Rangers: Lives, Legend, and Legacy,” by Bob Alexander and Donaly E. Brice. University of North Texas Press, 2017

“The Texas Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense,” by Walter Prescott Webb. University of Texas Press, 1935

“Comanches: A History of the People,” by T.R. Fehrenbach. Random House, 1974

“Charles Goodnight: Cowman and Plainsman,” by J. Evetts Haley. University of Oklahoma Press, 1936

History of the Colt Paterson revolver: Armourersbench.com

Texas Ranger Hall of Fame: TexasRanger.org

The Battle of Palo Alto: Texas State Historical Association tshaonline.org

Reservation War: Texas State Historical Association tshaonline.org

Abraham Lincoln’s Spot Resolutions: National Archives archives.org

Pease River Fight — “EARLY TIMES IN TEXAS AND HISTORY OF PARKER FAMILY (Ben Parker)” Originally published in The Tracings, Volume 3, No. 1, Winter 1984, by the Anderson County Genealogical Society, copyright assigned to the East Texas Genealogical Society.

Edited and mixed by Michael Martin at Sneaky Big Studios in Phoenix, Arizona.

The theme song, “Yellow Rose of Texas,” was arranged and recorded by The Mighty Orq in Houston, Texas.

Music by Robb Vallier in Phoenix, Arizona.

Additional music from Pond 5 and Free SFX.

“A Texas Ranger” sketch and “General Scott’s Grand Entrance Into The Mexican Capital” sketch provided by Dickinson Research Center, National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum.

Legends of the Old West | Red Cloud’s War — Sources and Music

“The Heart Of Everything That Is,” Bob Drury and Tom Clavin. Simon & Schuster, 2013.

“Autobiography of Red Cloud, War Leader of the Oglalas,” edited by R. Eli Paul. Montana Historical Society Press, 1997.
“Crazy Horse and Custer,” Stephen E. Ambrose. Penguin Random House, 1975.
“The Earth Is Weeping: The Epic Story of the Indian Wars for the American West,” Peter Cozzens. Penguin Random House, 2016.
”The Lakota Sioux Indians: A History of the Siouan People,” Robert D. Bolen. Fort Boise Publishing, 2012.
Sand Creek Massacre: National Park Service
Sand Creek Massacre: Timeline
Bozeman Trail: Wyoming.org
Fetterman Fight: Wyoming.org
Fetterman Fight: Exploring Off The Beaten Path

Music from Robb Vallier and Pond5.com

Select promo video footage from Storyblocks.com and Pond5.com

Legends of the Old West | Jesse James — Sources and Music

“Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind The Legends,” Ted P. Yeatman. Cumberland House Publishing, 2000.
“Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War,” T.J. Stiles. Random House Publishing, 2002.
“Shot All To Hell: Jesse James, The Northfield Raid, and the Wild West’s Greatest Escape,” Mark Lee Gardner. Harper Collins Publishers, 2013.
Jesse James Historical Site https://www.mycountyparks.com/county/Adair/Park/Jesse-James-Historical-Site.aspx
About Kearney Missouri http://www.ci.kearney.mo.us/About-Kearney-Missouri
General Benjamin Butler’s General Order No. 28 www.ironbrigadier.com
History | First National Bank of Northfield www.firstnationalnorthfield.com
Ames Family Papers, 1812-2012: Biographical and Historical Note http://asteria.fivecolleges.edu/findaids/sophiasmith/mnsss358_main.html
Kansas City Times archives, April 1882

Jesse James theme song by The Mighty Orq

Music from Robb Vallier and Pond5.com

Select promo video footage from Storyblocks.com

Legends of the Old West | TOMBSTONE — Sources and Music

“Wyatt Earp: The Life Behind The Legend,” Casey Tefertiller. John Wiley and Sons, 1997.
“Doc Holliday: The Life and Legend,” Gary L. Roberts. John Wiley and Sons, 2006.
“The Last Gunfight,” Jeff Guinn. Simon and Schuster, 2011.
“Too Tough To Die,” Lynn Bailey. Westernlore Press, 2004.
“Tombstone From A Woman’s Point of View: The Correspondence of Clara Brown,” compiled and edited by Lynn Bailey. Westernlore Press, 1998.

Recording by Curtis Grippe at STEM Studios in Phoenix, Arizona.

Sound design by Robb Vallier in Phoenix, Arizona.

Legends of the Old West | LEGENDS — Sources

“Tough Towns: True Tales from the Gritty Streets of the Old West,” Robert Barr Smith. TwoDot, November 2006.

“Dalton Debacle,” Bob Boze Bell. True West Magazine, June 17, 2014.

“Dalton Gang,” Oklahoma Historical Society. The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, December 29, 2017.

“Coffeyville, Kansas,” National Park Service, nps.gov.

“Dalton Gang commits its first train robbery,” History.com

“Coffeyville — The Dalton’s Last Raid,” KansasMediocrity.com

“Heck Thomas — Tough Law in Indian Territory,” LegendsOfAmerica.com

“The Dalton Gang,” TheRobinsonLibrary.com

“The Dalton Gang’s Last Raid, 1892,” EyewitnessToHistory.com

“The Dalton’s Adair Railroad Robbery…A Different Perspective,” Grand Lake News online

Apache Kid - History

Heading in to the Apache Kid Wilderness

Apache Kid Wilderness is located not far from Hwy 25 about 3 hours South of Albuquerque. I had gone to New Mexico to visit friends in Albuquerque and had wanted to do some backpacking while there. Where, I wasn’t sure. It was still high season and I didn’t want to fight the crowds that go to places like the Pecos or the Gila. So looking through the maps at REI I came across a map for Apache Kid Wilderness. The terrain on the map looked interesting and being near the Gila Wilderness – which I had been to before, and really liked – I figured the area was similar to that.

The trip I planned was mostly trail hiking out of the Windmill Camp trailhead, up into Indian Creek, coming back toward San Mateo peak and finally off-trail down into Springtime Canyon and back via the Indian Creek Trail. Four nights total.

The map looked really interesting going through Indian Creek and the write up mentioned the attractions as ‘solitude, rugged beauty, and varied vegetation’ – what I like.

That summer was apparently a wet one for New Mexico, or so my friends stated. Warm, humid with sun breaks and some rain and lightning thrown in for good measure. A bit more humid than I was used to in the Sierra – even in July – but not that bad. The rain actually was a nice relief when it fell.

Started the hike on a Tuesday with some hot sun midday. Typical high desert country, junipers and pines. Once over the pass, the trail dropped down into Indian Canyon and a small creek in the canyon. Another reason I picked this area – reliable water source. It was very pretty along the creek as there were more trees here and a certain lush greenery along the creek itself. And the further along the more scenic the canyon became. Had some slight rain that afternoon, nothing special, just nicely cooled the afternoon down. Set up my first nights camp in the narrows of this canyon… very nice.

The next morning, I scouted the area, heading up one canyon just to check out what the off trail hiking was like. Rugged and brushy. Hiked up to a small falls area where the canyon boxed in and decided that the trail looked like the best route. Also lots of bear sign… though never came across any.

The trail follows the main canyon and then starts to open up in a small high valley. From here the trail winds steeply up to meet with Trail 43 (Apache Kid Trail) and gets hard to follow. The trail was blazed well, but that didn’t stop me from missing a couple switchbacks. Now we’re starting to get out of the high desert flora and into the Fir-Aspen belt. Weather was still warm, but cooler at night.

I followed the Apache Kid trail South and took the spur trail up to the top of San Mateo Peak at 10,000 feet. Good views from there. On top there was a corral, cabin and fire lookout but it didn’t seem to get much use. Flowers were in bloom up here and monarch butterflies were everywhere.

Looking down into Springtime Canyon

From the junction of the trail leading up to San Mateo Peak, I followed the ridge out to the Southeast with plans to drop down into Springtime canyon. What a grind that turned out to be. A 2500 foot drop that was scrubby and with loose rock. Once down in Springtime canyon… no water. I was hoping that there might be some flow through there, but as it turned out there wasn’t any the whole way out. Passed some old mining equipment and what appeared to be remnants of buildings, long since gone, and camped for my last night back out in Indian Creek.

I found the area, overall, interesting with lots of other areas left to explore. The terrain appears to be pretty consistent throughout the wilderness except around Indian Creek where it’s more rugged and rocky.

Key Facts & Information


  • The Apache are a Native American nation that originated around 850 AD in Canada and the surrounding lands.
  • In 1000 AD, they moved to the southwestern United States, where they settled in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
  • Since the region was so large, the Apache divided into two main groups, the eastern and western nations.
  • The Rio Grande River served as a natural dividing line.
  • Today, the Apache are mainly located in reservations in Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma.
  • The name Apache comes from another Native American nation called the Zuni. used the word apachu meaning ‘enemy’ to describe the Apache. The Apache usually call themselves ‘inde’ or ‘dine’, which means ‘the people.’
  • There are six groups that make up the Apache: The Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Western Apache, and Kiowa.
  • Ancient Apache spoke ‘Athapaskan’, a language that many Native American nations spoke.
  • Before Europeans colonised North America, the Apache lived in wickiups.
  • A wickiup is an oval hut covered in grass or straw with a wooden frame.
  • The Apache nation was nomadic, and their lives revolved around buffalo herds.
  • People that move around to follow food sources are called nomadic.
  • They wore buffalo skins, slept in buffalo-hide tents, and ate buffalo meat.
  • They were one of the first Native American people to learn to ride horses, and they quickly began using horses to hunt buffalo.
  • They also supplemented their diet with berries and plants.
  • They did not eat fish or bear because these were considered unclean for eating.
  • Most Apache groups consisted of family and extended family.
  • The men were the warriors and hunters.
  • Only men were allowed to be chiefs or political leaders.
  • The women stayed home to take care of the children and be ready to move the camp when they needed to.
  • The extended family was based on the women.
  • When a man married a woman, he would become part of her extended family and leave his own family.
  • A number of extended families would live near each other in a local group, which had a chief as the leader.
  • The chief would be a man who had earned the position by being the strongest and most capable leader.
  • Women Apache were responsible for the home and cooking food. They would also do crafts, make clothes, and weave baskets.
  • In the late 1800s, the Apache fought a number of battles against the United States government.
  • They were trying to resist European aggression and takeover of their land.
  • Several great Apache leaders arose during this time such as Cochise and Geronimo.
  • The Apache were famous for having some of the fiercest warriors in North America.
  • Although men did most of the fighting, women and children were trained to use guns, protect the family, and ride horses.
  • Until the Spanish arrived in their territory, the Apache and Pueblo Indians had a peaceful and economic relationship with each other.
  • The Pueblo people traded agricultural products from their farms and also their pottery in exchange for buffalo meat and hides.
  • The peaceful trade between the Pueblo and Apache was disrupted because the Spanish wanted to trade with the Apache and did everything in their power to diminish the Pueblo’s trading abilities.
  • The Apache had many ceremonies that they celebrated throughout the year.
  • These ceremonies often had certain dances.
  • They celebrated a girl’s entrance into womanhood with the Sunrise Dance.
  • The Apache believed that when a girl performed the Sunrise Dance, she was given special blessings to help her in life.
  • Another dance was the Crown Dance, also known as the Mountain Spirit Dance. This dance was a masked dance, and the dancers would impersonate mountain spirits.
  • The Apache was never a unified political union.
  • The very loose-knit organization of the Apache nation caused many problems for them throughout history.
  • It was very difficult for them to have good relations with the Spanish, Mexicans, Americans, or other Native American nations.
  • This was because one Apache band might make peace with a group, but another Apache band would remain at war with that same group.
  • This caused confusion among the Spanish, Mexicans, Americans, and other Native American people, and they would often retaliate against the wrong Apache band.

Apache Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Apache across 29 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Apache worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Apache who are Native Americans that have a long and rich history. Ancient Apache were fierce warriors, family oriented, and a people who were nomadic.

Complete List Of Included Worksheets

  • Apache Facts
  • Mapping the Apache
  • Match It!
  • Apache Groups
  • Apache People
  • Let’s Draw!
  • Buffalo
  • Apache Food
  • Women of Apache
  • Great Leaders
  • Dance

Link/cite this page

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Use With Any Curriculum

These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.

Watch the video: White Apache. WESTERN. Full Movie English. Free Feature Film. Cowboy Film