Kadesh Timeline

Kadesh Timeline

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Kadesh Timeline - History

Numbers 14:14 - And they will tell [it] to the inhabitants of this land: [for] they have heard that thou LORD [art] among this people, that thou LORD art seen face to face, and [that] thy cloud standeth over them, and [that] thou goest before them, by day time in a pillar of a cloud, and in a pillar of fire by night.

The Old Testament - A Brief Overview

Bible Survery - Numbers
Hebrew Name - Bemidhbar "in the wilderness"
Greek Name - Numbers "numberings"
Author - Moses
Date - From 1490-1451 BC Approximately
Theme - The Journey to the Promised Land
Types and Shadows - In Numbers Jesus is the Pillar of Cloud by Day and the Pillar of Fire by Night

Photo of the Sinai Wilderness

Summary of The Book of Numbers

The book of Numbers takes its name from the account of the census that happened two times among the congregation of Israel in Numbers 1-4 and Numbers 26. The Greek title was used even though there is really no connection with the "numberings." The original Hebrew title which means "in the wilderness," is much more accurate, because the book of Numbers is it's really an accurate history of the events that happened during the period of wandering in the wilderness and not necessarily a book about statistics. The book of Numbers seems to follow naturally after the book of Leviticus in the order of the books of Moses in the Old Testament. After the children of Israel received the laws at Mount Sinai, they began the journey as described in the book of Exodus, and they were ready to march directly into the land of Canaan. The book of Numbers reveals how the children of Israel became prepared, and went to various trials, and how they were sinful in not trusting the Lord. Their sinful ways resulted in 37 years of wandering through the harsh wilderness. The book of Numbers concludes with the children of Israel once again at the edge of the land of Canaan, where they received instructions for the conquest of Canaan and the division of the land.

Quick Reference Map

Map of the Possible Route of the Exodus (Click to Enlarge)

The principle divisions of the book are as follows:

Outline of the Book of Numbers

1) The preparation for the departure from Sinai (1:1-10:10). The events described here took place in nineteen days. In this time a census was taken of all men who were over twenty and who could serve in military efforts (1-4). The total obtained was 603,550 (1:46). This would indicate that the total population of the group was probably near three million. The census was followed by the cleansing and blessing of the congregation (5-6), the offering of gifts from the various tribes (7), the consecration of the Levites (8) and the observance of the Passover at Sinai (9:1-14).

2 ) The journey from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea (10:11-14:45). This section includes the account of the coming of the quail (11), the rebellion against Moses by Miriam and Aaron (12), and the fateful mission of the spies (13, 14).

3) The wanderings of the desert wilderness (15-19). As noted above, this covered a period of thirty-seven years, from the end of the second to the beginning of the fortieth year in the wilderness. Ch. 15 includes various laws and a record of capital punishment for Sabbath breaking. The rebellion of Korah (ch. 16) and the budding of Aaron's rod (ch. 17) are also mentioned here.

4 ) The history of the last year, from the second arrival of the Israelites at Kadesh till they reach "the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho" (20-36: 13). Notable sections of this are the story of Balaam (22:2-24:25), the zeal of Phinehas (ch. 25), the second census (26:1-51) , instructions for dividing the land (26:52-27: 11), the appointment of Joshua as Moses' successor (27: 12-23), various laws concerning offerings and vows ( 28-30 ), the war with Midian (ch. 31), the settlement of the tribes east of the Jordan (ch. 32), a review of the locations at which Israel had camped during their wanderings (33: 1-49), more instructions concerning the conquest and division of Canaan (33:50-34:29 ), the appointment of the cities of refuge (ch. 35) and instructions concerning the marriage of land-owning Israelite women (ch. 36).

The New Egyptian Chronology

A spectacular new book which was published in England two years ago and which was made into a highly acclaimed British television series is stirring up international controversy because it provides the first evidence of the validity of the stories contained in the Hebrew Scriptures concerning the birth of the nation of Israel.

A Special Book

The book is entitled A Test of Time: The Bible From Myth to History (Century Publishers, London, 1995). It was written by an Egyptologist by the name of David Rohl who is currently completing his doctoral thesis at University College in London. The book was converted by the BBC into a highly acclaimed television series called, “Pharaohs and Kings.”

The book has not yet been published in the United States, but it is scheduled for publication in July by Random House under the title, Pharaohs and Kings.

The Biblical Problem

The book deals with a serious challenge to the Bible that most Bible-believing people are not even aware of. The problem is the fact that there is no archeological evidence to substantiate the patriarchal stories about Abraham and Moses. In fact, archeological evidence relating to Saul, David and Solomon is almost non-existent.

It is true that archeology has corroborated much in the Bible. For example, by 1800 Bible skeptics were pointing to the New Testament references to the towns of Capernaum, Chorazin, and Bethsaida as proof positive that the Bible is full of myth, legend and superstition. “No such towns ever existed,” they claimed. Today, thanks to archeology, you can visit these places.

Likewise, the skeptics pointed to the Old Testament references to Assyria and its capital, Ninevah. Again, they claimed such places never existed. Assyria was written off as a “mythical empire.” The reason for this conclusion was that no secular references to Assyria and Ninevah had ever been found. Then, in 1840 a British explorer by the name of Henry Layard had the temerity to discover evidence of the existence of Assyria, and soon after, another Englishman proceeded to dig up the city of Nineveh.

The skeptics then turned their attention to the Hittites, a nation the Bible mentions 40 times. They were classified an “imaginary” people who existed only in the pages of the Old Testament. But then, in 1905 archeologists uncovered the city of Boghas-Keui in central Turkey which proved to be the former capital city of this “bogus” empire.

The Archeological Challenge

Archeology has substantiated a lot of the Bible, particularly the New Testament, but it has failed to find evidence to verify the stories in the Old Testament. Over and over again archeologists have asked, “How could several million Jews reside in Egypt, then migrate across the Sinai to Canaan, and proceed to conquer the land without leaving a trace of evidence? It’s like a giant walking across the landscape and leaving no footprints!” The conclusion of the vast majority of archeologists is that the Exodus just didn’t happen.

In a similar manner they have written off the stories of Saul, David and Solomon as “tribal legends.” After all, what evidence outside the Bible has ever been found to attest to the reality of these men? The only extra-Biblical reference to David that has been found was discovered only recently at Tel Dan in northern Israel where a stela fragment was found written in Aramaic which mentions “the House of David.” But, as scholars have pointed out, this could still be nothing more than a reference to a legend.

If men like Saul, David and Solomon really existed, why don’t we have letters by them or official documents from their courts? Of course, such letters and documents exist in Scripture, but the skeptics demand extra-biblical evidence. After all, such evidence exists for Egyptian Pharaohs who reigned long before these Hebrew kings.

A good example of the archeological challenge to the Bible is presented by Kathleen Kenyon’s famous excavation of Jericho which began in 1952. She concluded that there simply was no city existing at the time the Israelites entered the land! The mound of Jericho had already been a desolate ruin for several centuries by the time the Israelite tribes crossed the Jordan. Based on her research, many scholars concluded that the biblical story of Joshua’s conquest of Jericho is a myth.

Rohl’s Assault

These smug dismissals of the biblical record have now been thrown into disarray by David Rohl’s revolutionary new book. Without any religious axe to grind, Mr. Rohl has launched an all-out assault on the authenticity of accepted Egyptian chronologies, and a vitally important by-product of that as sault has been the discovery of new archeological evidence that substantiates the Old Testament narratives about the birth of Israel.

Rohl’s basic point is that scholars have been looking for the archeological evidence of the Israelites in the wrong place, because they have been relying on flawed Egyptian chronologies.

Ancient Dating

Before proceeding to consider Rohl’s astounding discoveries, let’s pause for a moment to consider how ancient peoples dated events. The system they used is what scholars call “regnal dating.” That means they dated events to the regnal years (the reigning years) of a monarch. Thus, Egyptian inscriptions tell us that the Battle of Kadesh took place in “year 5 of Ramesses II.” This same dating system is used throughout the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, in 1 Kings 14:25-26 we are told that the Egyptians looted the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem in “the fifth year of King Rehoboam.”

Now, how do scholars end up assigning a date of 1275 BC to the Battle of Kadesh or 925 BC to the plunder of Solomon’s Temple? They arrive at these dates by counting the sequence of regnal years backwards from the birth of Jesus. But, this is not as simple as it sounds. The task is complicated by incomplete records, co-regencies (a father and son reigning together), parallel dynasties (two or more competing kings reigning at once), and interregna (periods when there is no monarch at all).

The biblical records present all these problems. Let me give you an example. If you were to go through the Hebrew Scriptures and add up all the years each monarch of the northern kingdom of Israel reigned, you would come out with a total of 245 years. But we know that the northern kingdom lasted only 209 years, from 931 to 722 AD. Why the difference? Because of co-regencies and parallel dynasties.

The Egyptian Records

The traditionally accepted Egyptian chronology is full of these problems. Look for a moment at the chart to the right. Note the three “Intermediate Periods.” These are time periods when there was no central controlling dynasty in Egypt. Instead, there were several dynasties reigning at the same time, all claiming sovereignty over the whole land, but in fact ruling only portions of the territory, like regional war lords.

The Egyptian chronologies are especially plagued by incomplete data. There are inscriptions that give long lists of pharaohs, but the lengths of their reigns are either omitted or else the numbers have been obliterated over time. The result is that guesses have to be made as to how long they reigned and whether each one’s reigning period was solitary or shared.

Rohl’s contention is that many bad guesses have been made, and he presents a mountain of evidence much of it rather recently discovered to make his point. In the process, he resorts to incredible (and often very tedious) detective work to prove that major errors have been made in compiling the Egyptian chronologies.

Egyptian Chronological Adjustments

Rohl concludes that the Third Intermediate Period is “artificially over extended.” He argues that it should be shortened by 141 years because of parallel dynasties. He then presents a convincing case for lengthening the Second Intermediate Period by 219 years.

These and other adjustments result in a shift of 345 years for the beginning of the 19th Dynasty, from 1295 BC in the traditional chronology to 950 BC in the New Chronology. (See the “Close-up Chart” below.) This is a very significant shift because the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty was Ramesses II. This means Ramesses ceases to be the pharaoh of the Exodus and becomes, instead, the pharaoh who sacked the Jerusalem Temple in 925 BC.

But how can this be when the Bible specifically states that the pharaoh who plundered the Temple was named Shishak (1 Kings 14:25-26 and 2 Chronicles 12:2-9)? Traditionally, this name has been identified with Pharaoh Shoshenk I, the founder of the 22nd Dynasty. But in one of the most fascinating chapters of the book, Rohl shows that pharaoh’s had both reginal names and nicknames (called hypocoristicons). The royal name of Ramesses II was Usermaatre-Setepenre Ramessu-Meryamnn. But his hypocoristicon was Sisah, which transliterated into Hebrew, becomes Shishak. Further, Rohl proves that Shoshenk’s military campaign into Israel never touched Jerusalem whereas the records of Ramesses’ campaign specifically states that he plundered Shalem the ancient name of Jerusalem.

Biblical Adjustments

Rohl makes two adjustments in the traditional biblical chronology. The first is one that Evangelicals will have to wrestle with. He shortens the sojourn in Egypt from 430 years to 215 years, which results in the date of the Exodus shifting from 1250 BC to 1447 BC. (See the “Close-up” chart).

The length of the Hebrew sojourn in Egypt has traditionally been set at 430 years because of Exodus 12:40 which reads as follows: “Now the time that the sons of Israel lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.”

From this passage, the length of the Egyptian sojourn seems to be indisputable. But, Rohl points out that our modern translations of this passage are based on the Masoretic text which dates from the 4th Century AD. Rohl shows that there are three more ancient versions of this text and that all three state that the 430 years was from the time the Hebrews entered the land of Canaan, not Egypt.

The three older sources are The Septuagint (the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek in about 280 BC), the writings of Josephus (who quotes the verse in his First Century AD writings, stating that he is quoting from Temple documents), and The Samaritan Version of the Torah (which dates from the 2nd Century AD). The Septuagint version reads as follows: “And the sojourning of the children of Israel, that is which they sojourned in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, was four hundred and thirty years.”

Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews (Chapter XV:2) puts it this way: “They [the Israelites] left Egypt in the month of Xanthiens, on the fifteenth day of the lunar month four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt.”

It appears that in the compilation of the Masoretic text, the phrase “and in the land of Canaan” was dropped either because of a scribal error or because of an exercise in interpretation.

There are other passages in the Hebrew Scriptures which provide clues that substantiate the revised Exodus date of 1447 BC. These are noted on the “Close-up” chart.

The second adjustment Rohl makes in the biblical chronology is to lengthen the time of the wilderness wanderings, the conquest of Canaan, and the period of the Judges from 220 years to 417 years. This adjustment does not raise any biblical problems since it corresponds to dating clues in the biblical narrative (see 1 Kings 6:1 and Judges 11: 26).

The Amazing Discoveries

Now, with these adjustments having been made (see the “Close-up” chart), archeologists who believe in this New Chronology have suddenly started making some astounding discoveries all because they are looking in the right places for the first time.

For example, according to the New Chronology, the pharaoh of the Exodus becomes Dudimose at the end of the 13th Dynasty. The history of Egypt written by the High Priest Manetho in the Third Century BC contains this remarkable observation: “In his reign [Dudimose], for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us…”

Could this be a reference to the plagues of Moses? Excavations dated to the revised time of Dudimose (mid-1400’s BC) reveal “plague pits” where hundreds of bodies were thrown one on top of the other.

Recent excavations of Tel ed-Daba, located in the Nile delta area and referred to in the Bible as the land of Goshen (Genesis 45:10 and 47:27), have revealed it to be the ancient city of Avaris. An examination of the tombs in this area has produced the startling discovery that the people who populated the area were from Palestine and Syria. Rohl believes these were the children of Israel. Another interesting discovery is that the area has a much higher percentage of infant burials than what has been found at other ancient archeological sites. Rohl believes this is due to the Egyptian slaughter of the Israelite infant males at the time of the birth of Moses.

As further evidence of a significant Jewish presence in Egypt, Rohl points to a tattered papyrus scroll in the Brooklyn Museum (scroll #35.1446). It has been dated to the reign of Pharaoh Sobekhotep III who held power a generation before the birth of Moses, according to the New Chronology. The scroll fragment contains a copy of a royal decree which authorizes the transfer of ownership of a group of slaves. Over half the names of the slaves listed in the document are Semitic, including such common Hebrew names as Menahem, Issachar, and Asher. The bible tells us that prior to the birth of Moses, the Israelite population was subjugated into slavery by a pharaoh “who did not know Joseph” (Exodus 1:8).

Perhaps the most amazing revelation to be found in Rohl’s book relates to Joseph. The excavations at Tel ed-Daba (Avaris in Bible times) have revealed a large Egyptian-style palace dating from the early 13th Dynasty (see the “Close-up” chart). Rohl concludes that this must have been the retirement palace of Joseph, built in the midst of his people.

In 1987 the excavators began to uncover a large pyramid-style tomb adjacent to the palace. They discovered that the tomb had been carefully emptied in antiquity. There was no evidence of the ransacking that characterizes the work of grave robbers. Further, they discovered the head of a very large statue of the man who had been buried in the tomb. The head is most unusual in that it displays very un-Egyptian type features like a mushroom shaped coiffure or wig. The figure is also clean shaven. Most remarkably, this person is wrapped in a coat of many colors!

Rohl concludes that this is a statue of Joseph, and in the process, he reminds the reader that before Joseph died, he made the sons of Israel swear that when they returned to Canaan, they would take his bones with them (Genesis 5:4-25). We are told in Exodus 13:19 that when the Exodus began, Moses ordered that the bones of Joseph be taken with them. And in Joshua 24:32, we are told that Joseph was reburied in Shechem, which is located in the hills of central Israel, in the area called Samaria.

Evidence of Saul and David!

I said the discoveries relating to Joseph were “perhaps” the most amazing related to the New Chronology. The reason I qualified that statement is because Rohl points out that a review of ancient documents, using the New Chronology, may have produced letters referring to David as well as letters written to the Egyptian court by King Saul of Israel!

The documents, known as “The Amarna Letters” were discovered in Egypt in 1887. They proved to be the “House of Correspondence” of the Pharaoh Akhenaten. They exist in the form of 380 cuneiform tablets and they mainly consist of letters sent to the pharaoh by foreign kings.

Now, no one has ever searched these tablets for letters from the United Monarchy of Israel (Saul, David and Solomon) because, according to the conventional chronology, Akhenaten (late 18th Dynasty) lived and died long before the United Monarchy of Israel was established. But the New Chronology places Akhenaten at the beginning of the reign of Saul.

So, Rohl went to these documents with the expectation of finding correspondence from the new Hebrew kingdom an expectation no one else had ever had. The first thing he ran across were letters from city-state rulers of Palestine that contained copious references to a group of marauders called the “Habiru.” These references are obviously speaking of Hebrews, and they have always puzzled scholars because the conventional chronology placed these letters a century before the Exodus. But the New Chronology places them during the reign of King Saul when David and his mighty men kept alive by pillaging the countryside. Rohl concludes that these letters relate to David and his soldiers of fortune who hired themselves out as mercenaries.

Rohl’s second discovery was a series of letters written by a King Labayu of the hill country north of Jerusalem. His name means “Great Lion of Yaweh.” Rohl believes this was the true name of King Saul and that Saul was his hypocoristic name (nickname). Rohl reviews the letters in detail to show that they describe events that parallel incidents during the reign of Saul.

These remarkable letters some by Saul and some by his son, Ish-bosheth (2 Samuel 2:8) contain references to Ayab (Joab, commander of David’s forces) and also to Benenima, Dadua, and Yishuya. Rohl concludes from what is said in the letters the Benenima is Baanah, one of Israel’s tribal chieftains who later assassinates Ish-bosheth (2 Samuel 4). He concludes that Dadua is David and that Yishuya is David’s father, Jesse (Yishay in Hebrew). The evidence he presents in behalf of these conclusions is fascinating and convincing.

The Invisible Evidence

So there you have it — the New Chronology producing evidence all over the landscape that substantiates the biblical records concerning the origins of the Jews, their formation as a nation in Egypt, their exodus and wanderings, and their conquest of Canaan. The evidence has been there all along, but it has been invisible because of flawed Egyptian chronologies.

Remember Kathleen Kenyon’s conclusion that Jericho was destroyed at least 200 years before the Israelites entered the land? Well, she was right when relating the destruction to the conventional chronologies. But the New Chronology has the Jews entering the land at least 200 years earlier, precisely at the time that Jericho was destroyed!

I urge you to read Rohl’s book for yourself. You will find it to be a faith building experience.

The Discovery Channel has recently made the BBC television adaptation of the book available to the public that run a total of 150 minutes. It comes in an attractive slip case box and can be ordered by calling 1-800-938-0333.

Battle of Kadesh - The Armies Clash:

Arriving north of the city with his bodyguard, Ramses was soon joined by the Amun division which established a fortified camp to await the arrival of the Ra division which was marching in from the south. While here, his troops captured two Hittite spies who, after being tortured, revealed the true location of Muwatalli's army. Angered that his scouts and officers had failed him, he issued orders summoning the remainder of the army. Seeing an opportunity, Muwatalli ordered the bulk of his chariot force to cross the Orontes River south of Kadesh, and attack the approaching Ra division.

As they departed, he personally led a reserve chariot force and infantry north of the city to block possible escape routes in that direction. Caught in the open while in a marching formation, the troops of the Ra division were quickly routed by the attacking Hittites. As the first survivors reached the Amun camp, Ramses realized the severity of the situation and dispatched his vizier to hurry the Ptah division. Having routed the Ra and cut off the Egyptians' line of retreat, the Hittite chariots swung north and assaulted the Amun camp. Crashing through the Egyptian shield wall, his men drove Ramses' troops back.

With no alternative available, Ramses personally led his bodyguard in a counterattack against the enemy. While the bulk of the Hittite attackers paused to loot the Egyptian camp, Ramses succeeded in driving off an enemy chariot force to the east. In the wake of this success, he was joined by the arriving Nearin which swarmed into the camp and succeeded in driving out the Hittites who retreated towards Kadesh. With the battle turning against him, Muwatalli elected push forward his chariot reserve but held back his infantry.

As the Hittite chariots moved towards the river, Ramses advanced his forces east to meet them. Assuming a strong position on the west bank, the Egyptians were able to prevent the Hittite chariots from forming and advancing at attack speed. Despite this, Muwatalli ordered six charges against the Egyptian lines all of which were turned back. As evening approached, the lead elements of the Ptah division arrived on the field threatening the Hittite rear. Unable to break through Ramses' lines, Muwatalli elected to fall back.

While police are abundant, lower Kadesh receives far less priority. This has allowed many nefarious individuals a great opportunity to do business and as such lower Kadesh has become a place of vices. Lower Kadesh is similar to any major metropolis - some areas are squalor, some centered towards night life, and others less sketchy. All of lower Kadesh's businesses are geared towards the lower to middle class, most crime syndicates do their work and recruitment in lower Kadesh. Conversely, upper Kadesh houses most company buildings, and their clubs and stores are aimed towards an upper class.

People have lost all hope of returning to their home world, as since none of original group knew magic, no one in this world knows magic. They are reliant upon the technology they made for themselves, and undoubtedly their inability to focus on any sort of magical progression fed their technological progress.

This is a very small divine presence. No deity is the primary focus of worship, and religion has a less than average impact on the culture, and there is not enough connection to provide any divine casting.

Food is sourced from an algae that grows on the vast seabed. It's harvested and turned into edible paste-like bars. This is the only source of food, is plentiful, and has barely any taste. People have been able to work with the algae to imitate many of the food they had back in the homeworld. Certain narcotics have been created by combining this algae with the crystals, most notably the drug Arc Rez.

Krystals are harvested via mines that tunnel into the earth, almost all now started out at sea. Raw materials are sourced from the huge number of meteoroids that line the ocean floor, and still occasionally fall to the planet.

Abimelech King of Gerar

There is more than one Abimelech in the Bible, but he is most commonly referred to as the King of Gerar. He was in power when Abraham was traveling through Kadesh and Shur inside Philistine territory.

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As they entered Gerar, Abraham proclaimed his wife Sarah as his sister so that he would not be killed after hearing this, King Abimelech had Sarah brought to his palace. But God came to him in a dream and told the king that Sarah was married and that he would die upon taking her. Standing up for himself Abimelech responded saying that he was innocent, had not laid a hand on her and had been informed that she was Abraham’s sibling not his wife. God allowed Abimelech to live upon returning Sarah to her husband.

First thing the next day Abimelech told his servants what he had dreamed and confronted Abraham for bringing ‘such great guilt upon his kingdom’. Abraham replied that he did not know there was any consideration for God here and that upon seeing his wife he would be killed to get her. He also condoned that he had not lied, ‘yet indeed she is my sister she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother and she became my wife.’ (Genesis 20:12) Sarah was let go and Abimelech bestowed gifts to Abraham as compensation, also allowing him to live wherever he wanted in his lands. Abraham then prayed for Abimelech and his family.

A long time passed with Abraham and Sarah dwelling in the Philistine land when Abimelech and Phicol confronted Abraham with a violent disagreement at a well. Abraham approached Abimelech because of his servant’s attacks and the loss of his well. Abimelech pretended not to have known of the occurrences. After Abraham had given the king sheep and oxen along with providing proof of his ownership of the well an agreement was reached and they called the location of the well Beersheba.

Archaeology in Israel: Kadesh

Kadesh is the name of several places in Biblical Israel to which a sacred character is attributed.


An important oasis situated on the southern border of Canaan (Num. 34:4 Josh. 15:3 Ezek. 47:19 48:28) in the wilderness of Zin (Num. 20:1 27:14 33:36 Deut. 32:51) – part of the wilderness of Paran (Num. 20:16) – at a distance of an eleven days' journey from Mt. Horeb (Deut. 1:2). Kadesh is alternatively called En-Mishpat ("spring of judgment" Gen. 14:7) and the "waters of Meribah" ("strife," Num. 20:13, 24 27:14 Deut. 32:51), names which indicate its special role as a sacred place of judgment and assembly for the desert tribes.

Kadesh-Barnea appears in the stories of Abraham (Gen. 16:14 20:1) and in the description of the expedition of Chedorlaomer and his allies Kadesh-Barnea, here called En-Mishpat, is said to have been inhabited by Amalekites (Gen. 14:7). During the Exodus it served as an assembly point for the Israelite tribes in the desert (Deut. 1:46). Some scholars regard it as the first amphictyonic center of the Israelites. From Kadesh-Barnea spies were sent to explore Canaan (Num. 13:26) the attempt was made to penetrate into Canaan which was prevented by Arad and Hormah (Num. 14:40� 21:1 33:36�) messengers were sent to the king of Edom and from here the Israelites started out on their eastward march to Transjordan (Num. 20:14ff. 33:36ff. Deut. 1:46ff. Judg. 11:16ff.). Biblical tradition associates Kadesh-Barnea with the family of Moses in particular: here Moses drew water abundantly from the rock here he and Aaron were punished for their lack of faith by being denied entrance into the land of Canaan (Num. 20:2ff.) here his sister Miriam died and was buried (Num. 20:1) and Aaron died nearby at mount Hor (Num. 20:22� 33:37�). Kadesh-Barnea has been identified with the group of springs 46 mi. (75 km.) south of Beer-Sheba and 15 mi. (25 km.) south of Niẓ𞤺nah. The name is preserved at the southernmost spring ⯺yn Qudays, but ⯺yn al-Qudayrāt to the north of it is of much greater importance being a rich spring which waters a fertile plain. In its vicinity a large fortress from the time of the Judahite kings was discovered. Most scholars therefore identify Kadesh-Barnea with the larger spring the entire group of springs may have originally been called Kadesh-Barnea and the name survived at the southern one despite its lesser importance. During the Sinai campaign a large Israelite fortress was discovered also above ⯺yn Qudays as well as numerous remains in the whole region from the Middle Bronze I (c. 2000 B.C.E.) and Israelite periods.

Large-scale excavations in 1976 and 1982 uncovered three superimposed fortresses on the site. The first was dated to the 11 th century, the second to around the time of Hezekiah and measured 65 ft. × 195 ft. (20 × 60 m.) with six rectangular towers and a moat and glacis on three sides, and the third to the seventh century, probably destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. Inscriptions indicate that the inhabitants of the fortress probably spoke Hebrew.

Kadesh in Galilee

One of the principal cities in Upper Galilee in the Canaanite and Israelite periods. In the opinion of some scholars, it is mentioned in the list of cities conquered by Thutmosis III (c. 1468 B.C.E.) and depicted on a relief of Seti I (c. 1300 B.C.E.) others, however, argue that these references are to Kadesh on the Orontes. In the Bible, "Kedesh in Galilee in the hill country of Naphtali" appears in the list of defeated Canaanite kings (Josh. 12:22), as a city of refuge (Josh. 20:7) and a levitical city (Josh. 21:32 I Chron. 6:61), and as one of the fortified cities of the tribe of Naphtali (Josh. 19:37). It was conquered by Tiglath-Pileser III in his expedition in 733/2 B.C.E. (II Kings 15:29) but continued to exist in the Second Temple period eventually becoming a Hellenistic city in the territory of Tyre. Near Kedesh, Jonathan the Hasmonean defeated the army of Demetrius II (I Macc. 11:63� Jos., Ant. 13:154). It is identified with Tell Qadis, a large tell overlooking the fertile plateau west of the Ḥuleh, and containing remains and fortifications from the Canaanite, Israelite, and later periods. A Roman temple was partially excavated in 1981�, dedicated under Hadrian in 117/8 C.E.


The birthplace of Barak, son of Abinoam, located in Galilee in the territory of the tribe of Naphtali (Judg. 4:6, 9�). It is generally identified with Kedesh (2) but this seems unsound for the following reasons:

(a) Kedesh Upper Galilee is far from Mt. Tabor in the vicinity of which Deborah's battle with the Canaanite kings took place

(b) "Elon-Bezaanannim, which is by Kedesh" (Judg. 4:11) is also known from the border description of Naphtali where it is situated between the Tabor and the Jordan (Josh. 19:33).

Kedesh-Naphtali should therefore be sought east of Mount Tabor and in this area Khirbat al-Kadīsh near Poriyyah which contains extensive remains from the early Israelite period has been proposed as the location of the site.

Sources: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.

(1) B. Rothenberg and J. Aharoni, Tagliyyot Sinai (1958) H.C. Trumbull, Kadesh-Barnea (1884): C.L. Woolley and T.E. Lawrence, The Wilderness of Zin (1915) Glueck, in: AASOR, 15 (1935), 118ff. Phythian-Adams, in: PEFAS, 67 (1935), 69ff. 114ff. de Vaux and Savignac, in: RB, 47 (1938), 89ff. (2) J. Aharoni, Hitna𞉚lut Shivtei Yisrael ba-Galil ha-Elyon (1957), index Avi-Yonah, Land, index Albright, in: BASOR, 19 (1928), 12 35 (1929), 9 J. Garstang, Joshua-Judges (1931), 390�. (3) Press, in: BJPES, 1, pt. 3 (1933/34), 26ff. J. Aharoni, op. cit., index Kolshari, in: BIES, 27 (1963), 165ff. (4) M. Péyard, Qadesh Mission à Tell Nebi Mend… (1931) Du Buisson, in: Mélanges Maspéro, 1 (1938), 919ff. Gardiner, in: Onomastica, 2 (1947), index Aharoni, Land, index.

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Kim Kardashian’s Dating History– A Complete List of Boyfriends

What we’ve witnessed over the last 14 years of Keeping Up With the Kardashians is that Kim is a hopeless romantic who has been married more times than we can count.

From naughty tapes to a shocking 72-day marriage, the famous celeb has bared her heart and soul in front of the camera. But just in case you’ve forgotten about her heartbreaks and crazy affairs, we’ve dived into Kim’s past to bring you a complete list of her ex-boyfriends and husbands right up until her now-ended marriage to Kanye West.

Here is Kim Kardashian’s dating history:

Ex: TJ Jackson

Who is He? Record Producer
Dated In: 1995 – 1999

Kim’s first boyfriend was none other than TJ Jackson, Michael Jackson’s nephew. After dating for two years, the curious teen decided that she wanted to lose her virginity to her then-boyfriend. Following an open discussion with her mom, Kris Jenner, the young celeb went on birth control and lost her virginity after spending her 14th birthday at MJ’s Neverland ranch.

The young lovers went separate ways in 1999 and Kim went on to have a string of high-profile relationships, but the two still remain to be good family friends.

Rumored Ex: Joey Lawrence

Who is He? Actor
Dated In: 1999

Kim then went on to allegedly date actor, Joey Lawrence. After a couple of dates, the spark fizzled out and the pair went their separate ways, and have never been spotted in the same room since. We guess it was just a teenage crush that was too good to be true.

Kim’s love life was on the low for a few years after hooking up with TJ and Joey, but in 2004, she met another new man…

Ex-Husband: Damon Thomas

Who is He? Songwriter/ Music Producer
Dated In: 2004

Damon Thomas is the skeleton in Kim’s closet that happened before her reality TV days. At the young age of 19, the star eloped and secretly married the record producer who was ten years her senior.

What then seemed like a fairytale, turned out to be a marriage from hell. According to her divorce papers, Damon was a very controlling husband that physically abused Kim, leaving her battered and bruised. His jealous streak even kept the beauty mogul away from her family and the public, and he forced her to get liposuction to ensure she was ‘perfect’. It’s a good job she managed to get a lucky escape on that one!

Ex: Ray J

Who is He? Singer/ Music Producer
Dated In: 2005-2007

Ray J is the man responsible for the infamous adult tape that leaked and made Kim the person who she is today. While the pair shared a love-filled relationship, it all ended after the raunchy tape was leaked in 2007 and bought by Vivid Entertainment for $1 million.

The businesswoman being Kim Kardashian decided to rise above the scandal and get her own back by suing Vivid Entertainment for $5 million. Later that year, the socialite had her very own reality show with E! and saw the back of another explosive relationship. Is Ray J the real reason why the Kardashians are famous?

Obsessed with Kimmy? Get your hands on some Kardashian merch – only for true fans!

Ex: Nick Lachey

Who is He? Singer/ Songwriter
Dated In: 2006

Another famous face to add to Kim’s boyfriend history! After leaving his wife, Jessica Simpson, Nick set his sights on Kim Kardashian. However, the romance ended before it began, with Nick claiming that Kim used him to get famous. He said that their first date was a quiet one at a cinema and by the time they left, there were 30 paparazzi waiting outside, claiming that Kim set it up in order to get a snap in the papers.

Ex: Nick Cannon

Who is He? Actor & Record Producer
Dated In: 2006 – 2007

Before he set his eyes on his ex-wife, Mariah Carey, Nick Cannon seemed to have a thing for the famous Kardashian. Kim and her ex-boyfriend shared an on-again-off-again relationship for a short while, but things died out over the reality star’s lies.

In a 2013 interview on The Howard Stern Show, Nick revealed that the infamous tape was the cause of their breakup. He said that he confronted Kim about it and she denied being involved. It’s safe to say that the proof is in the pudding! Sorry, Kim.

Ex: Reggie Bush

Who is He? American Footballer
Dated In: 2007 – 2010

After her whirlwind romances, it seemed that the now reality-TV star had found her true match and appeared extremely happy with her then-beau, Reggie. The pair soon became a power couple and covered the pages of glossy magazines on a weekly basis.

With such a busy schedule for both parties, it seems that the distance put a real strain on the relationship causing Kim and her boyfriend to split in 2010 with no hard feelings on either side.

Ex: Cristiano Ronaldo

Who is He? Soccer Player
Dated In: 2010

It seems like the reality star has a thing for athletes this time she moved across the border and hooked up with Spanish soccer player, Cristiano Ronaldo. While their physical attraction was strong, the couple didn’t share any common interests (other than fake tan) and their fling ended after their first public outing together.

Big booties aren’t the only thing that Kim and J.Lo have in common – apparently Jennifer Lopez dated Cristiano, too!

Rumored Ex: Justin Bieber

Who is He? Singer
Dated In: 2010

After sharing a romantic shoot together for Elle magazine, it was reported that the duo were actually in a real relationship (cringe!). In what was one of Kim’s most controversial moments, she was 29 and Justin Bieber was only 16.

Justin added fuel to the fire by tweeting a picture of him and Kim with the caption, “me and my girlfriend” and the media took it and rolled with it. Kim later confirmed that they were never an item and that she wanted to hook him up with her younger sister, Kendall. Yeah, that probably would’ve been less weird.

Ex: Miles Austin

Who is He? American Footballer
Dated In: 2010

Kim moved on with a new boyfriend and NFL player after her public split with Reggie Bush. Although things seemed to be going smoothly with Miles Austin, their romance was short-lived, only lasting a few months. Sources cited that the split was due to their crazy schedules and them not actually spending any quality time together.

Ex: Gabriel Aubry

Who is He? Model
Dated In: 2010

Kim Kardashian and Gabriel Aubry were spotted at a Lakers game together in November 2010 (shortly after he’d split from his baby mama, Halle Berry). Just a month later though, the pair had called it quits as Kim thought that he was just using her for her fame. Other sources however, cited that Kim had already started seeing her next love interest, Kris Humphries.

Ex: Shengo Deane

Who is He? Bodyguard
Dated In: 2010

The ever-spontaneous reality star hooked up with her bodyguard during the filming of Kim and Kourtney Take New York (a spin-off show to KUWTK). However, it was nothing more than what we witnessed on TV – a one-night stand.

Shengo was offered bribes by publications to spill the intimate details of their encounter, but he remained tight-lipped and stayed loyal to Kim.

  • A fun list of facts about Kim Kardashian you never knew until now!
  • An in-depth explanation of the Kardashian family tree!
  • A list of facts about Kylie Jenner all fans should know!

Ex-Husband: Kris Humphries

Who is He? Basketball Player
Dated In: 2010 – 2011

In 2010, Kim met her second husband, Kris Humphries. After dating for just 5 months, the pair got engaged and married in the same year in a lavish $20 million wedding that aired in a 4-part special on E!

After witnessing the clash of personalities and arguments on the reality TV show, it’s not hard to see why the couple weren’t compatible and why their marriage only lasted a short 72 days. At least she didn’t wait four years this time to realize that she’d made a big mistake!

Rumored Ex: Drake

Who is He? Rapper
Dated In: 2018

After Drake’s famous feud with Kanye West, fans broke the internet with elaborate theories that Kim K was the “Kiki” that Drizzy rapped about in the song, In My Feelings.

Kim, however, was quick to shut them down by tweeting a video of the crazy rumors with the caption, “‘It never happened. End of story”. Shortly after, she warned Drake in another social post to leave her family alone, saying that Kanye “paved the way for there to be a Drake”. Seems like she has little admiration for the Canadian rapper.

If you ever wanted to know more about the crazy famous family that Kim belongs to, check out our extensive list of fun facts about the Kardashians!

Ex-Husband: Kanye West

Who is He? Rapper & Music Producer
Dated In: 2012 – 2021

After meeting in 2004, the rapper was immediately smitten with Kimmy, but it wasn’t until 2009 when Kanye West made his affection known through the lyrics to his song, Knock You Down where he rapped ‘”You were always the cheerleader of my dreams…Seem to only date the head of football teams…And I was the class clown that always kept you laughing…We were never meant to be, baby we just happened.”

Later in 2012, he name-dropped Kim in his song, Cold with the following lyrics, “And I’ll admit, I had fell in love with Kim…Around the same time, she had fell in love with him…Well that’s cool, baby girl, do ya thang…Lucky I ain’t had Jay drop him from the team.” After that, Kimye became official with Kanye making regular appearances on KUWTK.

After having a baby together, Kanye (the ever-romantic) proposed in front of all their friends and family in a rented-out San Francisco Stadium, with a full orchestra playing in the background.

The famous couple went on to have a lavish weekend-long wedding in France and Italy, and continued to prove how strong their love was with an ever-growing family of 4 whopping kids!

Sadly, in 2020, it was reported that Kim and Kanye were separating and the fashionista officially filed for divorce in 2021. We don’t know the real cause of their split, but it may be due to Kanye’s recent breakdown. In what what one of the biggest celebrity controversies last year, Kanye ran for president, admitted that Kim wanted an abortion when pregnant with North, and slammed his mother-in-law by naming her “Kris Jong-Un.”

The couple will reportedly have joint custody over their children.

After a lot of love and heartache (and three divorces!), Kim K has clearly struggled to find the man of her dreams.

Did you think that Kimye were the perfect couple? Or do you think that she is better suited to one of her former love interests in this timeline? Let us know what you thought of Kim’s dating history in the comments!

Rumor has it, the men Kim and her sisters date are victims of a curse! Do you believe in it? Read all about the “Kardashian Curse” and tell us what you think!

What is the significance of Kadesh Barnea in the Bible?

Kadesh Barnea is a region located in the Desert of Zin that is mentioned numerous times in the Old Testament. It was located somewhere along the border of Edom and Israel, southwest of the Dead Sea. Kadesh Barnea, sometimes simply called Kadesh, is connected to many significant events in Israel’s history, specifically in the Pentateuch. The name Kadesh Barnea is thought to mean “the holy place of the desert of wandering.”

Kadesh Barnea served as a place of combat in the book of Genesis when Abraham fought the Amalekites there (Genesis 14:7). It is ironic that the very place where Abraham experienced victory over the Amalekites is where the Israelites later failed to believe that God would give them victory in acquiring the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 9:23). The account in Genesis also includes Hagar’s meeting with the Angel of the Lord “between Kadesh and Bered” after she was mistreated by Sarah (Genesis 16:14).

Kadesh Barnea seems to have been a regular camping spot for the Israelites throughout their years of desert wandering (Numbers 13:26 20:1, 14 33:36). It was at Kadesh that Miriam died and was buried (Numbers 20:1).

Two significant events that occurred at Kadesh Barnea were the Israelites’ faithless refusal to possess the Promised Land (Numbers 13:32&ndash33) and their opposition to Moses at not having enough water (Numbers20:2&ndash5). These two events, marked by unbelief, grumbling, and disobedience, directly affected Moses, Aaron, and the Israelites.

The men who had left Kadesh Barnea to scout out the Promised Land, except for Caleb and Joshua, failed to believe that God could give them possession of Canaan (Numbers 14:30 Joshua 14:7). Instead, they insisted that the people of Canaan, who included the Nephilim, were too powerful for them to fight. The ten scouts bringing the evil report persuaded the people that the land would be impossible to acquire (Numbers 13:32&ndash33). Because of their failure to believe, the Israelites had to wander in the desert for another 38 years, waiting until all those who were 20 years and older died, so that the next generation could take possession of the land (Numbers 14:29 Deuteronomy 2:14).

Years later, Moses and Aaron were also denied entrance into the Promised Land because of their disobedience to God at Kadesh Barnea. God had instructed Moses to speak to the rock to bring forth water for the grumbling Israelites, but he disobeyed by striking the rock twice (Numbers 20:12). Because the Israelites had failed to believe and obey the Lord, their arrival into the land “flowing with milk and honey” was postponed until Joshua led the younger generation out of the wilderness by the command of the Lord.

In the desert of wandering, the Israelites experienced plagues, death, and testing. The Israelites failed the tests that took place in Kadesh Barnea, and that remained etched in their memory forever. Their unbelief led to the postponement of entering Canaan and claiming God’s blessings (Psalm 95:8&ndash11 Hebrews 3:7&ndash19). May we not follow the unbelief of those who did not trust God to fulfill His promises. When times of testing come, may we display the faith that Joshua and Caleb had in trusting God at Kadesh Barnea.


–Epochal battle for supremacy of the Levant region, on the banks of the Orontes River in modern–day Syria.

The region under contention stretches from the Egyptian Empire in the south, under Pharaoh and Commanding General Ramesses II, to the Hittite Empire in the north, under King Muwatalli II and Commanding General Hattusili II.

The forces were apparently each comprised of approximately 50,000 men.

Note: These were “chariot warfare” years, and the evolving expertise of the Hittites perhaps surpassed that of the Egyptians in this sphere.

Classically, two wheels were positioned at the back edge of the (Hittite) chariot, and each chariot carried two warriors. In the period leading into the epochal battle, however, Hittite engineers moved the wheels to the center of the chariot’s under–carriage. This forward–adjustment gave the chariot more strength—creating room for a crucial third warrior—that was the margin of victory as the war chariot drove into enemy lines. Apparently, this was one key component that helped tilt the balance of power towards the Hittites.

The Hittites prevail at The Battle of Kadesh, and in the subsequent treaty—the earliest known example of a written international agreement of any sort—the Egyptians are forced to refer to the Hittite King as “the Great King.”

But within decades, the awesome Hittite Empire implodes from civil war. Apparently, subsequent to the Battle of Kadesh, the Hittite king and the commanding general battle each other for supremacy of the empire. The denouement of this civil war is the implosion—and subsequent disappearance from history—of the Hittites.

Watch the video: The Battle Of Megiddo - Ancient Egypt