Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809

Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809

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Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809

The combat of Laa (9 July 1809) was one of a number of minor clashes between the French and the retreating Austrians in the aftermath of the battle of Wagram, and helped the French identify the main Austrian line of retreat. In the aftermath of that battle most of the Austrian army retreated up the highway that led to Znaim, but Rosenberg's IV Corps was forced to move on a line further to the east. On the night after the battle Rosenberg reached Bockfliess, then moved onto the main road to Brünn. After advancing part of the way up that road he branched off to the left and advanced through Mistelbach and Staatz up to Laa on the Thaya River, from where he could guard the left flank of the main Austrian army on its way to Znaim. This move angered Archduke Charles, and he ordered Rosenberg move back to the east, to protect the road to Brünn.

While the Austrians were retreating north Napoleon was busy attempting to discover which road they had taken. One of the forces sent to achieve this, under General Marmont, was sent up the same highway to Brünn, before also turning off towards Laa, leaving Davout to follow the highway. On 9 July Marmont's cavalry, which consisted of Montbrun's light cavalry division from Davout's corps and the Bavaria cavalry, ran into Radetzky's cavalry from Rosenberg's corps. Radetzky was able to shield the rest of the corps as it marched away to the north-east, down the Thaya River towards Davout's advancing columns before escaping himself.

Marmont crossed to the north bank of the Thaya, just as a fresh Austrian force, under General von Alstern (from Hohenzollern's II Corps) arrived from the west. Alstern realised he was badly outnumbered and immediately retreated north-west up the river towards Znaim. Marmont incorrectly identified Alstern's men as being from Rosenberg's corps, and reported to Napoleon that the entire IV corps was retreating towards Znaim, thus correctly identifying the main Austrian line of retreat, although for the wrong reasons. Marmont then continued up the river towards Znaim himself, where on the following day he began the battle of Znaim (10-11 July 1809) by attacking what he believed to be the Austrian rearguard..

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars

Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809 - History

In the Austrian Empire some lands (Tirol, Northern Italy, Netherlands) relied on free recruiting, while Hungary, as for the Insurrectio troops, filled the ranks by local officials according to quotas imposed by the Hungarian Diet and on volunteers. Hungary was ruled by its own &ldquoDiet&rdquo (parliament), which enjoyed a degree of independence.

Against 5.600.000 Germans, 3.770.000 Poles and Ukrainians and 4.730.000 Czechs and Moravians, Hungary opposed 4.500.000 Hungarians, 1.300.000 Slovaks, 1.700.000 Romanians, 600.000 Croats and Serbs [1] . 4.750.000 of others (Italians, Tyroleans and other nationalities) had abandoned the Austrian recruitment. The Hungarians enjoyed great reputation as horsemen and fighters. The Romanians were imagined as short, robust, rancorous and brutal, while the Serbs and Croats were considered as blunt men, "indomitable fighters" and serious drinkers.

Before 1805 the term of service was reduced to 10 years in the infantry, 12 in the cavalry and 14 years in the artillery and engineers. The hussar regiments had no problems with keeping their strength, as there were many volunteers in Hungary, who happily joined their favorite and traditional branch. The 'Hungarian' regiments were the largest of all.

Austrian infantry was divided into two groups 'German' and 'Hungarian' regiments.

The 'Hungarian' regiments were renowned for their fierce fighting spirit, and their grenadiers were best of them. " . The Hungarian infantrymen were at their best when they were in the immediate presence of the enemy, which encouraged Armfeldt to describe them as among the best of Maria Theresa's foot soldiers. The difficulty was not to get them to fight, but to enlist in the first place. they were convinced that they were unsuitable for dismounted service." (Duffy - "Instrument of War" Vol I, p 237)

After 1800 and the first army reorganization the K.K. Österreichisches Heer improved its organization with a new recruiting system and the widening of the duty services, created new units and enlarged the Hungarian troops (probably either for having lost a large amount of crown lands, either under the direct French threats). The great test for this new army was completely failed in 1809, but this, really, could have been considered as the first trial to organize the future &ldquovielen Völkern K.u.K. Armée&rdquo.

The &ldquoStand&rdquo of the Royal Hungarian regular army was, initially, of 12 infantry regiments and 10 light cavalry regiments (Hussars) we must assume the Siebenbürgen or Transylvanian Hussars as part of another territory, the military Border.

From 1802 the peacetime strength of the Hungarian infantry regiment was of 3857 men (without officers and the 63 Musikanten) and comprised 2 grenadiers companies, 18 fusiliers companies, a total of 46.284 &ldquoMagyars&rdquo in the 12 regiments. The Hussar regiments had 1698 hussars (without officers) therefore in 10 regiments the Hungarian cavalry had 16.980 hussars in field.

Rapid reforms were made from 1805, too fastly for the Austrian pace. So when the army began a new campaign, the new rules caused only confusion (Archduke Charles had realised the danger in the field, and apparently never applied the new regulations for his own forces).

The main change would have been each infantry regiment to be arranged in one grenadier and four fusilier battalions, each battalion being of four companies of a nominal 160 men each. The 1807 regulations, supervised by the Archduke Charles, returned to the previous organisation (three battalions and two grenadier companies per regiment, field battalions of six companies and garrison battalions of four), wartime establishments now being the same as peacetime save for the increase of the third battalion to six companies and the detachment of the grenadiers to composite battalions.

Infantry regiment had three field and one depot battalion. Austrian battalion was probably the biggest battalion in Europe. It consisted of approximatively 1.200 men, while the French battalion was only 840 men strong.

All Austrian regular troops were well supplied and equipped. Every soldier carried a fur-covered leather back-pack called Tornister. There was 1 tent for every 5 men, 1 wagon for each company, 4-6 carts and wagons and 30 pack-horses with ammunition (on average 36 rounds for every soldier) for every battalion of 6 companies. Officers were also allowed individual packhorses.

The senior officers and generals however brought excessive baggage, numerous carts and horses. It slowed down movements of the army. In 1809 regiment of infantry had 26 packhorses, while Grenzer regiment only 7. The supplies for infantry regiment were carried on 13 wagons (4 horses each) and 26 pack animals.

In March 1809 Austria had 46 'German' and 15 'Hungarian' infantry regiments. The grenadiers were detached and formed in 21 grenadier battalions. The Hungarian regiment had their Staffs and Depot (Kader) in Hungary (many Hussars regiments had their depots in nearby Galicia). Austria also had one infantry regiment (of 10 independent coys) for the guard and escort of staffs. These troops were called Staff Infantry. The 5th and 6th Regiment were disbanded in 1807 and served as garrisons in numbered battalions.

In 1809 (Europäischen Annalen 1810, St.5, pages 183-184) one Hungarian regiment in companies had 3584 men, or 2 battalions of 6 companies and one (the third) of 4 companies, plus two grenadier comp. and 1 or 2 depot companies. Every company was about 180 men strong. The Hungarian Hussars regiments had 8 squadrons and 1168 horses.

In December 1809 when the army took its quarters, in Hungary came back 19 brigades or 33 regiments counting also the Grenzers.

After the 1809 defeats the 3rd battalions were disbanded, all companies were reduced to 60 privates in 'German' and 100 in 'Hungarian' infantry. Austria also had lost many former recruiting areas and 6 Wallons regiments, recruited in Belgium till the end of the century, were definitively moved to Bohemia. When in 1814 Austria recovered some of its former territories (parts of Northern Italy) they formed new regiments (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Provisional Infantry Regiment and four battalions of light infantry). The provisional regiments became regular units and were numbered: 13th, 23rd, 38th and 43rd. The four battalions of light infantry formed a new 45th Infantry Regiment.

The 1810 Reforme (imperial Handbillet 9 August 1810 sent to FM Bellegarde) stated the infantry companies had to pass from 120 to 100 men (Gemeine) and the Hungarian company had to be reduced from 180 to 120 men. The Hussars squadrons were of 130 men, but they had increments of 20 Ersatz men per year, so, i.e. in 1814, the Hussars squadron had 210 horses.

3 Senior Officers: Inhaber, Oberst (colonel) and Oberstleutenant

6 'Kaiserliche Kadetten' (Officers' sons selected by Hofkriegsrat. The more competent were appointed as NCOs in companies.)

Why Napoleon Kidnapped One Pope After Another

Between the hours of 2 and 3 on the morning of July 6, 1809, French troops under the orders of Napoleon Bonaparte scaled the walls of the gardens of the Quirinal Palace in Rome and penetrated into the part of the palace occupied by papal servants. After an hour of violent skirmishes with the Swiss guards, they arrested Pope Pius VII, spiriting him away in the night to Savona, near Genoa. He would not return to Rome for another five years.

Pope Pius VII, who became pope in 1800.

The kidnapping was the climax of the combative relationship between the global leader of the Catholic Church and the brash Emperor. From the beginning of Pius VII’s papacy in 1800 to the fall of Napoleon in 1815, the two men were continually at loggerheads, with the French military leader regularly infuriated by the pope’s refusal to meet his demands.

But it wasn’t the first time such a thing had happened: in 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, Napoleon&aposs troops had invaded Rome and taken the previous pontiff, Pope Pius VI, as prisoner to France, where he died in 1799. The following year, after the papal seat sat vacant for six months, cardinal Chiaramonti was elected to the papacy, taking the name Pius VII. But because the French had seized the papal tiaras when they had arrested Pius VI, the new pope was crowned on 21 March 1800 with a papier-mฬhé tiara.

Despite his desire to control Europe without rival, Napoleon understood that he needed to reach an accommodation with the all-powerful Catholic Church. In long negotiations eight years before his kidnapping, Pius VII eventually signed the Concordat of 1801, which recognized that the Church was ‘the religion of the great majority of the French people’, but simultaneously limited the size of the French clergy and bound its members tightly to the French state, which would henceforth pay their salaries. The agreement strictly constrained the pope’s authority in France, and approved of the Revolutionary government’s selling off of the Catholic Church’s vast landholdings in France.

Even with all the church&aposs concessions, Napoleon still looked for ways to prove his dominance𠅊nd his opulent coronation in Notre-Dame cathedral in 1804 provided a perfect stage to humiliate Pius VII. Pontiffs traditionally crowned the Holy Roman Emperor, but to show the pope who was really in charge now, Napoleon took the crown from his hands and placed it on his own head. 

The consecration of the Emperor Napoleon, 1804.

Leemage/Corbis via Getty Image

Although the painting by Jacques-Louis David titled The Coronation of Napoleon is probably the best known depiction of this notorious moment, British satirists lost no time mocking the now-diminished status of the ‘Papist’ leader. A cartoon by James Gillray depicts the coronation procession, with a barefoot Pius VII being led by the devil, holding his tiara in his hand, and looking furtively back at Napoleon as if he cannot be trusted. 

After the coronation the Church&aposs uneasy pact with Napoleon deteriorated further as the emperor&aposs expansionist tendencies grew. Still, Pius VII made efforts to mollify Napoleon, participating, for example, in France&aposs Continental Blockade of Great Britain over the objections of his Secretary of State Consalvi, who was forced to resign. The pope&aposs acquiescence would not save him, however: on June 10, 1809, Napoleon once again invaded the Papal States.

Pius VII saw no choice but to issue the papal bull Quum memoranda, excommunicating the Emperor and anyone involved in this assault on the papacy.

The church&aposs warning shot was heard loud and clear in Napoleon&aposs court. The French general Miollis, fearing a popular uprising in support of the pontiff, ordered his troops to move on the palace. Woken up by soldiers, 66-year-old Pius VIIਏound himself spirited away in the dark.

Shortly after his arrival Pius VII consecrated the church at La Voglina in Piemonte with the intention of the area becoming his spiritual base while in exile. But in the spring of 1812, once Napoleon became aware of his intentions, the pope was kidnapped once again and brought to Fontainebleau in France. 

Shortly before the Pope&aposs journey, Napoleon had written to Prince Borghese at Turin: ‘Precautions will be taken to see that (Pius VII) passes through Turin at night . that he passes through Chambery and Lyon at night. . The Pope must not travel in his Pontifical robes . (but) in such a way that nowhere . can he be recognized.’ 

By this point Pius VII was not well: during the journey across the Alps his bowels became blocked and he became delirious with fever. He would be given extreme unction, the Catholic last rites, during the arduous journey over the Mont Cenis Pass. But eventually he arrived at the Château of Fontainebleau, where he would remain prisoner for the next two years. On January 25, 1813, Pius VII would be forced to sign the Concordat of Fontainebleau, in which he relinquished his temporal sovereignty. But a few weeks after it was promulgated, Pius VII began to revoke the concessions he had made in it.

In the end, it didn’t matter: Napoleon abdicated on April 11, 1814 and Pius VII returned to Rome a few weeks later, where he was greeted warmly as a hero and defender of the faith. His tempestuous relationship with the most extraordinary ruler of the century had seen him suffer but his tenacity saw him victorious in the end. 

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This issue is resolved in KB4512478.

Historical Events in 1609

    Daimyo (Lord) of the Satsuma Domain in southern Kyūshū, Japan, completes his successful invasion of the Ryūkyū Kingdom in Okinawa Spain & Netherlands sign 12 Year Resistant Pact

Historic Publication

May 20 Shakespeare's Sonnets are first published in London, perhaps illicitly, by publisher Thomas Thorpe

    Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia takes place Netherlands, England and France sign 12 year Covenant Majesteitsbrief: Emperor Rudolf II grants Bohemia freedom of religion Emperor Rudolf II grants Bohemian protestants freedom of religion Catholic German monarchy forms Catholic League Emperor Rudolf II grants Silezische protestants freedom of religion English mathematician Thomas Harriot is the first person to draw a map of the Moon by looking through a telescope Admiral George Somers settles in Bermuda

Event of Interest

Jul 29 Samuel de Champlain shoots and kills two Iroquois chiefs at Ticonderoga, New York setting the stage for French-Iroquois conflicts for the next 150 years

Sedition Act becomes federal law

On July 14, 1798, one of the most egregious breaches of the U.S. Constitution in history becomes federal law when Congress passes the Sedition Act, endangering liberty in the fragile new nation. While the United States engaged in naval hostilities with Revolutionary France, known as the Quasi-War, Alexander Hamilton and congressional Federalists took advantage of the public’s wartime fears and drafted and passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, without first consulting President John Adams.

The first three acts took aim at the rights of immigrants. The period of residency required before immigrants could apply for citizenship was extended from five to 14 years, and the president gained the power to detain and deport those he deemed enemies. President Adams never took advantage of his newfound ability to deny rights to immigrants. However, the fourth act, the Sedition Act, was put into practice and became a black mark on the nation’s reputation. In direct violation of the Constitution’s guarantee of freedom of speech, the Sedition Act permitted the prosecution of individuals who voiced or printed what the government deemed to be malicious remarks about the president or government of the United States. Fourteen Republicans, mainly journalists, were prosecuted, and some imprisoned, under the act.

In opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison drafted the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves, declaring the acts to be a violation of the First and Tenth Amendments. President Adams, appalled at where Hamilton and the congressional Federalists were leading the country under the guise of wartime crisis, tried to end the undeclared war with France to undercut their efforts. He threatened to resign from the presidency and leave the Federalists with Republican Vice President Thomas Jefferson if they did not heed his call for peace. Adams succeeded in quashing Hamilton and the Federalists’ schemes, but ended any hope of his own re-election in the process.

Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809 - History

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Join us Friday, July 23rd for our Virtual Event, “Centuries of Fascinating Stories in Georgia History: Investigating the Collections at the Georgia Archives,” presented by Georgia Archives Education Specialist Penny Cliff. Meeting Link

A series of 3-day workshops presented by The Georgia Archives Conservation Dept. together with Paintings Conservator Jennifer Bullock. Registration Deadline for Workshop 3, Introduction to the Care and Preventive Conservation of Paintings: Sunday, August 29.

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Convict Ships to Australia

Mary Ann - 9 July 1791
Gorgon - 21 September 1791
Matilda - 1 August 1791
Atlantic - 20 August 1791
Salamander - 21 August 1791
William and Ann - 28 August 1791
Active - 26 September 1791
Queen - 26 September 1791
Albermarle (F) - 13 October 1791
Britannia - 14 October 1791
Admiral Barrington - 16 October 1791

Pitt - 14 February 1792
Royal Admiral - 7 October 1792
Kitty - 18 November 1792

Bellona - 16 January 1793
Boddingtons (F) (I) (P) - 7 August 1793
Sugar Cane - 17 September 1793

William - 10 March 1794
Surprize - 25 October 1794

Lady Shore - 28 August 1797
Britannia (F) (I) (P) - 27 May 1797
Ganges - 2 June 1797

Barwell - 18 May 1798
Britannia (F) - 18 July 1798

Minerva - 11 January 1800
Friendship (I) (P) - 16 February 1800
Speedy - 15 April 1800
Porpoise - 9 November 1800
Royal Admiral - 20 November 1800

Anne (F) (I) (P) - 21 February 1801
Earl Cornwallis (F) - 12 June 1801
Canada - 14 December 1801
Minorca - 14 December 1801
Nile - 14 December 1801

Coromandel - 13 June 1802
Hercules - 26 June 1802
Atlas (I) (I) - 7 July 1802
Perseus - 14 August 1802
Atlas (II) (I) - 30 October 1802

Glatton - 11 March 1803
Rolla - 12 May 1803
Calcutta - 9 October 1803 (Port Phillip)

Tellicherry - 15 February 1806
William Pitt - 11 April 1806
Fortune - 12 July 1806
Alexander (F) - 20 August 1806

Speke - 16 November 1808
Admiral Gambier - 20 December 1808

Aeolus (F) - 26 January 1809
Experiment (F) (I) - 25 June 1809
Boyd (I) - 14 August 1809
Indispensable - 18 August 1809
Hindostan - 28 December 1809

Anne - 27 February 1810
Hunter - 20 August 1810
Canada (F) - 8 September 1810
Indian - 16 December 1810

Eagle - 17 February 1811 (Calcutta to NSW)
Providence - 2 July 1811
Ruby - 28 September 1811 (Bengal to NSW)
Admiral Gambier - 29 September 1811
Friends (F) - 10 October 1811

Guildford - 18 January 1812
Indefatigable - 19 October 1812 (VDL)
Minstrel - 25 October 1812

Archduke Charles (F) (I) - 16 February 1813
Fortune - 11 June 1813
Earl Spencer - 9 October 813

Wanstead - 9 January 1814
General Hewitt - 7 February 1814
Catherine (F) - 4 May 1814
Three Bees 6 May 1814
Broxbornebury (F) - 27 July 1814
Surry 28 July 1814
Somersetshire - 16 October 1814

Marquis of Wellington - 27 January 1815
Frederick - 29 March 1815 (VDL)
Indefatigable - 26 April 1815
Northampton - 18 June 1815
Canada (I) (P) - 5 August 1815
Francis and Eliza (F) (I) - 8 August 1815
Baring - 7 September 1815

Fanny (F) - 18 January 1816
Mary Anne - 19 January 1816
Ocean - 30 January 1816
Alexander (F) (I) - 4 April 1816
Guildford - 8 April 1816
Atlas - 22 July 1816
Elizabeth - 5 October 1816
Mariner - 11 October 1816
Surry - 20 December 1816

Lord Melville - 24 February 1817
Fame - 8 March 1817
Sir William Bensley - 10 March 1817
Morley - 10 April 1817
Shipley - 24 April 1817
Chapman (I) - 26 July 1817
Pilot - 29 July 1817
Canada (F)(I) - 6 August 1817
Almorah - 29 August 1817
Lord Eldon - 30 September 1817
Frederick - October 1817 (VDL NSW)
Larkins - 22 November 1817

Ocean - 10 January 1818
Friendship (F) - 14 January 1818
Guildford - 1 April 1818
Batavia - 5 April 1818
Greyhound - 14 April 1818 (Calcutta to NSW)
Lady Castlereagh - 30 April 1818 (NSW VDL)
Minerva - 30 April 1818
Neptune - 5 April 1818
Glory - 14 September 1818
Isabella - 14 September 1818
Maria - 17 September 1818
Tottenham - 14 October 1818
Morley - 7 November 1818
Guide - 9 November 1818 (Calcutta to NSW)
Shipley - 18 November 1818
Elizabeth (F) (I) - 19 November 1818
Earl St. Vincent (I) - 16 December 1818
Lord Melville - 17 December 1818 (VDL)
Hadlow - 24 December 1818
Martha - 24 December 1818
General Stewart- 31 December 1818

Tyne - 4 January 1819
Globe - 8 January 1819
Surry - 4 March 1819
Lord Sidmouth - 11 March 1819
Greyhound - 21 April 1819
Baring - 26 June 1819
Bencoolen - 25 August 1819
Mary - 26 August 1819
Canada - 1 September 1819
Daphne (I) - 21 September 1819
John Barry - 26 September 1819
Atlas - 19 October 1819
Grenada - 21 October 1819
Malabar - 30 October 1819
Recovery - 18 December 1819
Minerva - 17 December 1819

Lord Wellington - 20 January 1820
Eliza - 21 January 1820
Prince Regent - 27 January 1820
Castle Forbes (I) - 27 January 1820 (VDL)
Dromedary - 28 January 1820 (VDL NSW)
Coromandel - 4 April 1820 (VDL NSW)
Seaflower - 30 April 1820 (Bengal to VDL NSW)
Janus - 3 May 1820
Neptune - 16 July 1820
Hadlow - 5 August 1820
Mangles - 7 August 1820
Earl St. Vincent - 16 August 1820
St. Michael - September 1820 (Calcutta to NSW)
Dorothy (I) (P) - 19 September 1820
Agamemnon - 22 September 1820
Shipley - 26 September 1820
Guildford - 30 September 1820
Morley - 30 September 1820
St. Michael - November 1820 (Calcutta to NSW)
Caledonia - 17 November 1820 (VDL)
Maria - 1 December 1820 (VDL)
Almorah - 22 December 1820
Asia - 28 December 1820
Juliana - 28 December 1820 (VDL)
Elizabeth - 31 December 1820
Hebe - 31 December 1820

Prince Regent - 9 January 1821
Prince of Orange - 12 February 1821
Lord Sidmouth - 19 February 1821
Dick - 12 March 1821
Medway - 13 March 1821 (VDL)
Speke - 18 May 1821
Lady Ridley - 27 June 1821 (VDL)
Countess of Harcourt - 27 July 1821 (VDL)
Adamant - 8 September 1821
Grenada - 16 September 1821
John Barry - 7 November 1821
Hindostan - 24 November 1821
Minerva - 16 December 1821
John Bull - 18 December 1821

Providence - 7 January 1822
Mary - 23 January 1822
Southworth - 9 March 1822
Isabella - 9 March 1822
Shipley - 11 March 1822
Mary Anne - 20 May 1822
Phoenix - 20 May 1822 (VDL)
Guildford - 15 July 1822
Asia - 24 July 1822
Calder - September 1822 (VDL)
Caledonia - 6 November 1822 (VDL)
Mangles - 8 November 1822
Eliza - 22 November 1822
Countess of Harcourt (I) - 21 December 1822

Morley - 11 January 1823 (VDL)
Lord Sidmouth - 27 February 1823 (VDL NSW)
Surry - 4 March 1823
Princess Royal - 9 March 1823
Brampton (I) (P) - 22 April 1823
Woodman - 25 June 1823
Recovery - 30 July 1823
Competitor - 3 August 1823 (VDL)
Henry - 26 August 1823
Ocean - 27 August 1823
Earl St. Vincent (I) - 9 September 1823
Mary - 18 October 1823 (VDL NSW)
Albion - 21 October 1823 (VDL)
Isabella - 16 December 1823
Medina - 29 December 1823

Castle Forbes (P) - 15 January 1824
Asia 1824 - 19 January 1824 (VDL)
Guildford - 5 March 1824
Brothers (F) - 7 May 1824
Countess of Harcourt - 12 July 1824
Prince Regent - 15 July 1824
Almorah (F) (I) - 20 August 1824
Mangles - 27 October 1824
Minerva - 19 November 1824

Ann and Amelia (I) (P) - 2 January 1825
Grenada - 23 January 1825
Asia (1) - 22 February 1825
Henry - 27 February 1825
Hooghley - 22 April 1825
Royal Charlotte - 29 April 1825
Asia (3) - 29 April 1825
Hercules - 7 May 1825
Mariner - 10 July 1825
Norfolk - 18 August 1825
Minstrel - 22 August 1825
Lonach - 4 September 1825
Henry Porcher - 3 December 1825
Medway - 14 December 1825 (VDL)
Midas - 17 December 1825

Marquis of Hastings - 3 January 1826
Sir Godfrey Webster - 3 January 1826
Mangles - 18 February 1826
Sesostris - 21 March 1826
Cawdry (from Calcutta) - 15 April 1826
Providence - 16 May 1826 (VDL)
Lady Rowena - 17 May 1826
Regalia - 5 August 1826
Marquis of Huntley - 13 September 1826
England - 18 September 1826
Boyne (I) (P) - 28 October 1826
Speke - 26 November 1826
Phoenix - 25 December 1826

Marquis of Lansdown - 8 January 1827 (Calcutta to VDL)
Grenada - 23 January 1827
Brothers (F) (I) - 2 February 1827
Albion - 14 February 1827
Midas - 15 February 1827
Mariner - 23 May 1827
Countess of Harcourt (I) - 28 June 1827
Guildford - 25 July 1827
Marquis of Hastings - 31 July 1827
Princess Charlotte - 6 August 1827
Manlius - 11 August 1827
Cambridge (I) - 17 September 1827
Harmony - 27 September 1827
Prince Regent - 27 September 1827
Champion - 17 October 1827
Eliza (I) - 8 November 1827
John - 25 November 1827
Louisa - 3 December 1827

Florentia - 3 January 1828
Elizabeth (F) (I) - 12 January 1828
Marquis of Huntley - 30 January 1828
Hooghley - 24 February 1828
Morley - 3 March 1828
Caroline/ Calista - March 1828 (East Indies to VDL to NSW)
Asia - 13 March 1828
Mangles - 1 June 1828
Borodino (I) (P) - 12 July 1828
Phoenix - 14 July 1828
Bussorah Merchant - 26 July 1828
Countess of Harcourt - 8 September 1828
Competitor (F) - 10 October 1828
Marquis of Hastings - 12 October 1828
Albion - 3 November 1828
City of Edinburgh (F) (I) - 12 November 1828
Eliza - 18 November 1828
Royal George - 24 December 1828

Reliance - 12 January 1829 (VDL)
Governor Ready - 16 January 1829
Vittoria - 17 January 1829
Sophia - 17 January 1829
Ferguson (I) - 26 March 1829
Mellish - 18 April 1829
Edward (F) (I) - 26 April 1829
Lord Melville - 3 May 1829
Princess Royal - 19 May 1829
Georgiana - 12 June 1829 (VDL NSW)
Eliza (I) - 20 June 1829
Waterloo - 9 July 1829
Sovereign - 3 August 1829
America - 18 August 1829
Norfolk - 27 August 1829
John - 13 September 1829
William Young - 2 November 1829 (West Indies to NSW)
Guildford - 4 November 1829
Layton - 8 November 1829
Lucy Davidson - 29 November 1829
Morley - 3 December 1829
Claudine - 6 December 1829
Sarah - 7 December 1829
Larkins - 12 December 1829

Asia (F) (I) - 13 January 1830
James Pattison - 20 January 1830
Katherine Stewart Forbes - 18 February 1830
Dunvegan Castle - 30 March 1830
Forth (1) (I) - 26 April 1830
Mermaid - 6 May 1830
Nithsdale - 12 May 1830
Roslin Castle - 29 June 1830
Lady Feversham - 29 July 1830
Adrian - 20 August 1830
Marquis of Huntley - 21 August 1830
Forth (2) (F) (I) - 12 October 1830
Lord Melville - 21 October 1830
Hercules - 1 November 1830
Royal Admiral - 8 November 1830
Florentia - 15 December 1830
Andromeda - 18 December 1830
Clyde (VDL) - 18 December 1830
Burrell - 19 December 1830

York - 7 February 1831
Edward - 22 February 1831
Lady Harewood - 4 March 1831
Kains - 11 March 1831
Earl of Liverpool (F) - 5 April 1831
Waterloo - 30 April 1831
Eleanor (P) - 25 June 1831
Camden - 25 July 1831
Georgiana - 27 July 1831
Exmouth - 28 July 1831
Palambam - 31 July 1831
Hooghley - 27 September 1831
Jane - 5 November 1831
Surry - 26 November 1831
Asia - 2 December 1831
Bussorah Merchant (I) - 14 December 1831
Research - 14 December 1831 (Calcutta to VDL NSW)

Norfolk - 9 February 1832
Asia - 13 February 1832
Pyramus - 5 March 1832
Isabella - 15 March 1832
Portland - 26 March 1832
Captain Cook (I) - 2 April 1832
Burrell (F) - 20 May 1832
John - 8 June 1832
Southworth - 14 June 1832
City of Edinburgh (I) (P) - 27 June 1832
Lady Harewood - 5 August 1832
Clyde - 27 August 1832
Eliza (I) - 6 September 1832
Planter - 15 October 1832
Hercules - 16 October 1832
Dunvegan Castle (I) (P) - 16 October 1832
Parmelia - 16 November 1832

Mary - 5 January 1833
Fanny (F) - 2 February 1833
Roslin Castle - 5 February 1833
Camden - 18 February 1833
Governor Bourke - 21 February 1833
Surry - 9 March 1833
Andromeda - 11 March 1833
Mangles - 19 April 1833
Diana (F) - 25 May 1833
Portland - 26 June 1833
Asia - 27 June 1833
Waterloo - 3 August 1833
Caroline (F) (I) - 6 August 1833
Captain Cook - 26 August 1833
Heroine - 19 September 1833
Buffalo (F) - 5 October 1833
Lord Lyndoch - 18 October 1833
Royal Admiral - 26 October 1833
Aurora - 3 November 1833
Java - 18 November 1833
Neva - 21 November 1833
Lloyds - 18 December 1833

Enchantress - 16 January 1834
Royal Sovereign - 19 January 1834
Fairlie - 15 February 1834
Parmelia - 2 March 1834
Hive - 11 June 1834
Numa - 13 June 1834
James Laing - 29 June 1834
Susan - 8 July 1834
Dart (F) - 9 July 1834 (Mauritius to NSW)
Surry - 17 August 1834
Roslin Castle - 15 September 1834
Andromeda (F) (I) - 17 September 1834
Merope - 11 October 1834 (Calcutta to VDL NSW)
Henry Tanner - 26 October 1834
Blenheim (I) - 14 November 1834
Hooghley - 18 November 1834
Princess Victoria - 28 November 1834 (Calcutta VDL NSW)
George Hibbert - 1 December 1834

Henry Porcher - 1 January 1835
Royal Admiral - 22 January 1835
Bengal Merchant - 30 January 1835
Forth (I) - 3 February 1835
Lady Kennaway - 13 February 1835 (VDL)
Lady Nugent - 9 April 1835
Marquis of Huntley - 5 July 1835
Westmoreland - 15 July 1835
Hero - 31 August 1835
Mary - 6 September 1835
England - 28 September 1835
Backwell (I) - 29 September 1835
Mary Ann - 26 October 1835
Lady McNaughten - 26 October 1835
Warrior - 20 November 1835 (Calcutta to NSW)
Royal Sovereign - 12 December 1835
Neva - wrecked
Hive - wrecked

Bardaster - 13 January 1836 (VDL)
John Barry - 17 January 1836
Susan - 7 February 1836
Henry Wellesley - 7 February 1836
Roslin Castle - 25 February 1836
Recovery - 25 February 1836
Surry - 17 May 1836
Thomas Harrison - 9 June 1836
Strathfieldsaye - 1 June 1836
Moffatt - 31 August 1836
Waterloo - 6 September 1836
Elizabeth (F) - 12 October 1836
Lady Kennaway - 12 October 1836
Swallow - 23 October 1836 (Madras to NSW)
Captain Cook (I) - 13 November 1836
Bengal Merchant - 9 December 1836
Pyramus - 14 December 1836
Eden - 21 December 1836 (VDL NSW)
Earl Grey (I) - 31 December 1836

St. Vincent - 5 January 1837
John - 7 February 1837
Norfolk - 12 February 1837
Sarah and Elizabeth - 23 April 1837
Prince George - 8 May 1837
Margaret - 30 May 1837
Mangles - 10 July 1837
Heber - 12 July 1837
Lloyds - 17 July 1837
Calcutta - 5 August 1837
Integrity - 17 August 1837 (Mauritius to VDL and Sydney)
Charles Kerr - 9 October 1837
James Pattison - 25 October 1837
Asia - 2 December 1837
Susan 1837 VDL to NSW 24 December 1837
Henry Wellesley - 22 December 1837
Sir Charles Forbes - 25 December 1837

Neptune - 2 January 1838 (NSW)
Neptune - 18 January 1838 (VDL)
Patriot - 1 February 1838 (Mauritius to NSW)
Waterloo - 8 February 1838
Emma Eugenia - 9 February 1838
Regia - 9 February 1838 (Mauritius VDL NSW)
Symmetry - 27 March 1838 (Mautitius to NSW)
Diamond (F) (I) - 28 March 1838
Gaillardon - 30 March 1838 (Calcutta to VDL NSW)
Moffatt - 1 April 1838 (VDL)
William Jardine - 11 April 1838
Bengal Merchant - 21 July 1838
Lord Lyndoch - 8 August 1838
Westmoreland - 22 August 1838
John Renwick - 27 August 1838
Clyde (I) (P) - 10 September 1838
Earl Grey - 21 November 1838
Caledonia - 17 December 1838 (Madras)
Portsea -18 December 1838
Elphinstone (I) - 29 December 1838

Margaret - 5 January 1839
Theresa - 31 January 1839
Planter - 9 March 1839
John Barry - 22 March 1839
Waverley - 17 June 1839
Whitby - 23 June 1839
Parkfield - 1 September 1839
Blenheim (I) - 27 September 1839
Gaillardon - 22 October 1839 (Calcutta to VDL NSW)
Mary Anne - 10 November 1839
Barossa - 8 December 1839
Minerva - 26 December 1839

Canton (P) - 12 January 1840 (VDL)
Middlesex - 25 January 1840
Nautilus - 9 February 1840
Buffalo (P) - 11 February 1840 (VDL) 26 February 1840 (NSW)
Woodbridge - 26 February 1840
Augusta Jessie - 27 March 1840 (Norfolk Island)
Gilbert Henderson - 24 April 1840 (VDL)
Mangles - 27 April 1840
Surry - 13 July 1840
Maitland - 14 July 1840
Isabella - 24 July 1840
King William - 17 August 1840
Margaret - 17 August 1840
Pekoe - 6 November 1840
Eden - 18 November 1840

Maitland - 7 February 1844 (Norfolk Is.)
Blundell - 12 July 1844 (Norfolk Is.)
Agincourt - 9 November 1844 (Norfolk Is.)

Hydrabad - 19 February 1845 (Norfolk Is.)
David Malcolm - 25 August 1845 (Norfolk Is.)

Mayda - 8 January 1846 (Norfolk Is.)
China - 16 May 1846 (Norfolk Is.)
John Calvin - 21 September 1846 (Norfolk Is.)

Pestonjee Bomanjee - 17 February 1847 (VDL)
Tory - 18 March 1847 (VDL)

Hashemy - 9 June 1849
Randolph - 20 August 1849
Havering - 8 November 1849
Mount Stewart Elphinstone - 1 November 1849 (Moreton Bay)
Adelaide (P) (Exiles) - 24 December 1849

Eliza - 30 April 1850 (Norfolk Is.)
Bangalore (Exiles) - 30 April 1850 (Moreton Bay)

Aboukir (Exiles) - 20 March 1852 (VDL)

Crimes Resulting in Transportation

Some of the crimes punishable by transportation included:
Grand larceny - every theft above the value of one shilling
Buying or receiving stolen goods, jewels or plate
Ripping and stealing lead, iron, copper or buying or receiving
Stealing ore from blacklead mines
Stealing from furnished lodgings
Setting fire to underwood
Stealing letters or destroying same
Embezzling naval stores
Petty larcenies
Assaulting with intent to rob
Returning from transportation
Stealing fish from a pond or river
Stealing trees or plants above value of 5 shillings
Stealing children with their apparel
Cutting or burning clothes
Solemnising clandestine marriages
Stealing a shroud from a grave
Watermen carrying too many passengers on the Thames
Machine breaking

Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809 - History is a free database developed and funded by The Battery Conservancy. It contains and makes available eleven million records of immigrants who arrived at the Port of New York from 1820 - 1892. Today more than 100 million Americans can trace their ancestry to this early period of immigration. is a resource for educators, scholars, students, family historians, and the interested public.

With the increased volume of immigrants arriving sick or having died in transit, the U.S. Congress in 1819 passed legislation to limit the number of passengers on each ship. The US Customs Service was designated to monitor immigration.

Beginning in 1820, the captain of each arriving ship prepared a Customs Passenger List and filed it with the collector of customs at the port of arrival. This marks the commencement of the systematic collection of data on immigration to the United States—and the starting point for the database.

During this period, deceptive employers and unscrupulous money changers preyed on immigrants as they disembarked and attempted to secure work and lodging. In response, the State of New York’s Board of Emigration Commissioners established in 1855 the Emigrant Landing Depot at Castle Garden.

From August 3, 1855 to April 18, 1890, Castle Garden was America's first official immigration center, a pioneering collaboration of New York State and New York City. In 1890, the federal government determined to control all ports of entry and take responsibility for receiving and processing all immigrants to the U.S. The Castle was closed and the reception center was moved to the U.S. Barge Office which was located on the eastern edge of The Battery waterfront. It operated until the U.S. Office of Immigration opened the newly built Ellis Island in 1892.

Today all that physically remains of Castle Garden Emigration Center are its original brownstone walls, the historic Battery landscape that surrounds it, and the original manifests recording the names of the immigrants.

The Castle is now known as Castle Clinton National Monument and is owned by the federal government and administered by the National Park Service. It is the major landmark at The Battery, the 25-acre New York City public waterfront park. The Battery Conservancy manages the park in partnership with the City of New York Department of Parks and Recreation. The original passenger list (manifests) are the property of the National Archives and Records Administration.

The Battery is one of the oldest public open spaces in continuous use in New York City. Native Americans fished from its banks, and the first Dutch settlers built a low, stone wall with cannons, a battery, to protect the harbor and the fledgling city of New Amsterdam. The transformations of The Battery and the Castle tell the history of New York and, by association, the growth and development of our nation.

Combat of Laa, 9 July 1809 - History


1771, May 20, Benj. Abbot, of Halifax, sells to William Clark, of Charlotte, 200 acres in Halifax. Witnesses: P. Carrington, Isaac Read, Haynes Morgan, R. Williams.

1839, May 27-Will of Andrew Anderson. Sons: Andrew, Pauldin, Isaac. "To my beloved wife (does not give her name). Daughters: Elizabeth, Melissa Jane Anderson, "My daughter Parthenia Tune," "My daughter Eliza Chaney." Son, Andrew, executor.
1841, Dec. 20-Will of Orpha Anderson.
"On the 20 day of Dec., 1841, in the presence of Edward P. Williams, Thomas A. Powell and Watson T. Powell, Orpha A. Anderson, of Halifax county, Virginia, made the following will:
"I give to my brother, John K. Anderson, two hundred dollars, the balance to be divided among my brother-in-law's children (William Powell), and William W. Powell to act as their agent."
Witnesses: Edward P. Williams, Thomas A. Powell and Watson T. Powell.
"At a court held for Halifax county, January 24, 1842, the within writing, purporting to be the nuncupative will of Orpha A. Anderson, deceased, was exhibited in court by William A. Powell for probate, and thereupon ordered that Anna Denton, formerly Anna Anderson and Mary Anderson, be summoned to appear here on the fourth Monday in March next to contest the same, if they please, and it appearing to the court that the said Anna Denton and Mary Anderson are not inhabitants of the Commonwealth, it was ordered that a copy of this order be inserted in the Danville Reporter for four weeks successively. Later sworn to by Watson T. Powell and Thomas A. Powell and recorded."

Will of John Armstrong, May 20, 1779.
"Sister, Jane Burton (whose first husband was Stephen Norton) my mother, Jane Armstrong my nephew, John Norton.
"I give and bequeath unto my late wife's youngest son, David Boyd, &c.
"John Armstrong."
Executors: Joseph Penir, Charles Burton, David Boyd.
Securities: Isaac Cole, George Boyd, Jr., Richard Gwinn, Wright Bond, John Irvine and James Le Grand.

1796, December 29-Joseph Atkins sells to Charles Irby 154 acres in Halifax. Sarah, his wife, releases her dower before James Tait, William Allen and Thomas Cook, Gents, justices of the peace.

1764, April 6-Will of Joseph Ashby. Wife Rachel, after her death, gives his whole estate to grandson, Joseph Ashby, and "it is my desire that he be learned to read, write and cypher. I appoint my good friend, Thomas Tunstall, my executor." Witnesses: John Orill Tunstall, Epaphroditus White, Robert Farguson.
1779-Will of Joseph Ashby. Wife Rachel, grandson, his whole estate after the death of his wife, who holds lifetime interest in the plantation and home, &c.

1815, May 28-Will of Leonard Baker, Sr.
"To my daughter, Elizabeth (Betsy) Baker daughters, Sarah Roberts (wife of Peter Roberts), Annie Baker, Mararet D. Baker sons, Elijah James Baker, Bartholomew, David C., Leonard Baker, Jr., 'my fourth and youngest son,' my lands to be equally divided between my children by my last wife.
"Leonard Baker, Sr."
Administrators: Elijah Baker, Paul Street.
Witnesses: Benj. Rogers, Robert J. Terry, Nathaniel Terry.

1789, July 21-Will of Nathaniel Barksdale, Sr.
"My wife Mourning," to whom he left four negroes, &c. "To my son, William, five negroes to son, Peter, four negroes (three now in his possession) to son, Nathaniel, two negroes (now in his possession) to son, Elisha, land and negroes to daughter, Fanny, a negro and fifty pounds to daughter, Betty, a negro and fifty pounds to daughter, Sally, a negro and fifty pounds to Sukey, my youngest daughter, two negroes and fifty pounds to my son Peter's oldest son, Nathaniel, one negro." Will probated November 23, 1793.

The name "Mourning" has called forth much comment from various genealogists, and is supposed to have been given as the result of sorrow or calamity, but having seen it recorded in so many families in Virginia, and running through so many generations in families, besides having found it a family name in England and in Henrico county, Virginia, we are forced to conclude that it is in most cases a family name.
Robert Adams, of Goochland county, Va., who made his will in 1738, proven June 17, 1740, names his wife "Mourning," and the will of John Johnston, recorded in Amelia county March 23, 1772, makes his grandson, "Mourning" Johnston, one of his legatees.
Halifax county records a "Mourning" Watkins (the posthumous daughter of Micajah Watkins, Jr.), and there was a "Grief" and "Mourning" Randolph, sorrowful twins, for some descendants to wonder the why and wherefore of such woeful appellations to be borne through a lifetime.

May 5, 1823-Will of Peter Barksdale.
"Wife, Nancy son, Nathaniel son, Armestead my daughter, Susannah Sydnor daughter, Polly W. Logan daughter, Frances (deceased), wife of William M. Williams my son, Elisha Barksdale my daughter, Elizabeth Baker my son, William Peter Barksdale. One-eighth part to each child.
(Signed) "Peter Barksdale."
Witnesses: Anthony Sydnor, William Logan, David Logan.

Will book 8, page 95, June 26, 1809.
Inventory of the estate of Thomas Ballow* (Ballou), Gent., farm, household furniture and farm utensils and twelve negroes.
Appraisers: Robert Chappell, Beverly Borum, John Wood.
Book 29, page 125, will of Charles A. Ballow (son of Thomas):
"I, Charles A. Ballow (Ballou), of the county of Halifax, State of Virginia, do make and publish this my last will and testament.
"First-I desire all of my just debts to be paid.
"Second-I give to my wife, Rebecca A. Ballow, all my household and kitchen furniture. I give to her two horses or mules as she may select, a wagon, two sets of plough geers [sic], one-half of my plantation tools, one-half of my stock of cattle, one-half of my stock of hogs, and all of my flock of sheep, and one ox cart. This I give to her to dispose of as she may think proper. I also give to her to be held in dower during her natural life all of my lands lying south of the road immediately in front of my dwelling house and west of the road running from Union Church to Medley's Mill, on to the creek on Headspeth's line and down to the upper end of the land given to her by her father, lying on the creek and Medley's Mill pond, which line includes my dwelling and other houses. At her decease this land is to be divided between all of my children.
"In testimony whereof I hereby set my hand and seal this 30th day of June, 1865.
"Charles A. Ballow."
*August Court, 1746. William Cabell and Thomas Ballow, Gentlemen, produced their commission and took their oaths as Coronors [sic] of Albemarle county.
First court of Albemarle county met 1744 Thomas Ballow one of the justices.

Witnesses: R. A. Tucker, George C. Carrington.
"I appoint William H. Morton, Jr. (my son-in-law), of Clarksville, Virginia, executor to my last will and testament."
Codicil No. 1: "The negroes which I have given to my children heretofore shall not be counted in any future division of my property, as the fortune of war has taken them from their possession and set them at liberty.
"This codicil signed by me this third day of July, 1865.
"Charles A. Ballow."
Mrs. Charles A. Ballow's securities, Charles A. Ballow, Jr., J. T. Ballow and James Medley, gave bond for $8,000.
Teste: James D. Clay, C.
1803, January 22-Commissioners appointed by a decree of the court of Halifax county: Thomas Ballow, William Hudson, William Wormack.
1807-Thomas Ballow buys from William East and his wife, Polly East, land on Miry creek.
1808-The Commonwealth of Virginia to Thomas Ballow, Daniel Parker and James Chalmers, Gents., justices of the county of Halifax, greeting, &c.

In 1753 William Bean was appointed with others to lay off a road "from William Bean's to the Court House." That seems to have been the last service William Bean performed for Halifax county, for we next find him in 1768-69 pushing on with the tide of emigration that settled on Boone's Creek in East Tennessee, where his wife was captured by the Indians, but subsequently released through the interposition of Nancy Ward, the beloved woman of the Indian tribe and the friend of the white man*
His son, Russell Bean, was the first white child born in Tennessee.
*Summer's History of Southwest Virginia.

Will of Robert Bennett, Will Book 1, October 5, 1781.
"I leave to my beloved wife, Anne Bennett, all and every part of my whole estate during her widowhood, if that continues her life. At the expiration of widowhood all estate to be divided between my children, to-wit: John, Stephen, Mary, Nancy Bennett. My wife being now with child, that child to share equal with the other children in my estate.
"Executors and executrix: Thomas Dobson, Moses Hendrick, 'my wife, Anne Bennett.'
(Signed) Robert (X) Bennett."

Witnesses: James Hendricks, Joshua Irby, John Irby.
Book 14, page 579, will of Richard E. Bennett, February 9, 1827:
"I, Richard E. Bennett, county of Halifax, &c. All of my debts to be paid which can speedily be done by collecting debts due me, and a crop of tobacco now on hand. My mercantile business to be continued in the names of my executors for the benefit of my estate, and that my son, John Bennett, shall continue in the business to assist in the management thereof until he arrives to the age of 21 years, immediately after which an inventory of the stock of goods on hand shall be taken, and he, my son, John, to come in as a partner, if he thinks proper to do so, &c., until my youngest son, William Waller Bennett, arrives to lawful age. I desire the same privileges given by executors to my sons, Richard E. Bennett and Theoderick A. Bennett, each as they arrive at age. I wish all my sons, Richard, Theoderick and William, with all my children to live with their mother, and in common upon my estate, so far as their support and education is concerned, until they marry or arrive to lawful age.
I wish Mary W. Bennett to be educated as well as her sisters have been, and Richard E. Bennett, after he has been one or two years more at school, to live with his mother and manage the affairs of the plantation, for which she may allow him a reasonable compensation.
"I wish my son, Theoderick, to study law and my son, William Waller Bennett, to study physics, and have my books or such of them as treat on law or physics equally divided between them.
"I give to my daughter, Eliza Ann Bennett, one negro woman, &c., to be delivered to her when she marries or becomes of lawful age.
"To my daughter, Ann E. Bennett, same as above.
"To my daughter, Mary W. Bennett, same as above.
"To my seven children, John, Theoderick, Richard, William, Elizabeth, Ann, Mary.
"Executrix, my wife, Ann executors, my son, John Bennett, and my friend, Samuel Williams.
(Signed) "Richard E. Bennett."
Securities: Elisha Botts, Phil. Howerton, James Howerton, Jonathan McCarys, Edward Carrington, Alex. Irvine,

1801-Walter Bennett appointed sheriff of the county with all the august pretensions the occasion demanded, with the following witnesses, "firmly bound to James Monroe, Esq., Governor or Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth of Virginia": Walter Bennett, William Yancy, Jr., A. C. Atkinson, William Terry, John Hewell, William McCraw, Jr., Thomas Ballow, Richard E. Bennett, Nathaniel Terry, Mat. Sima, Robert Easley, Joseph Lankford, Layton Yancy, Joseph Ligon. Witness: John Barksdale.

Thomas Blackwell came to Halifax county in 1780. The Blackwells emigrated from England and were prominent in Northumberland county as early as 1680. Many of them were soldiers in the Revolution, the Civil War and the War of 1812.
1775, January 24:
Edward Booker's proportion of the continued balance 41-4-7½
Richard Merot Booker, for the proportion of Elizabeth Mary Anne Booker and Rebecca Booker 82-9-2
Benjamin Lankford,* for his wife's proportion 41-4-7
*Benjamin Lankford married Henerica Booker, widow of Edward.

1781, April 25-Will of Parham Booker. Sons, Richard and James daughter, Susannah. Beloved wife, Frances, executrix, and James McCraw, Sr., executor. Recorded September 21, 1786. Securities: William Oliver, Gilbert Hunt, Jacob Kilby.
1767, September 10-"I Edward Booker, of the county of Halifax, make this my last will and testament in manner following:
"I leave and bequeath to my wife, Henerica Booker, one negro fellow named 'Joe' during her life, and likewise an equal part of my estate after the legacies are paid."
"Daughters, Eliza and Rebecca son (name not mentioned), land and negroes. "My brother, John Booker." "My wife, executrix."
Colonels Thomas Tabb (of Amelia county), Joshua Morris and James Bates, executors.
Witnesses: Richard Booker, Parham Booker and James Murdock.
Robert Munford, Clerk.
He is called Edward Booker, Gent.
Thomas Tabb could not act as administrator, Paul Carrington and Peter Johnston, Gents., took oath and served as his securities.
1772-73-74, Book I, page 38:
Richard Edward Booker, orphan son of Edward Booker, deceased-
To expenses to and from Amelia.
To Mr. Wythe, on Richard Booker's will, on the division of negroes.
To Colonel Bland, June 13, 1772, to paying clerk of Amelia, copy of Richard Booker's will.
To sundries from John Smith.
Sworn to by Thomas Yuille and recorded.
1772, March-Account current of John Esdale, administrator of the estate of Edward Booker, deceased.
1775-Due Mrs. Henerica Booker for sundries sold at the sale and omitted to be charged in above statements, 16-7-6.
(Signed) Walter Coles and John Smith.
Geo. Carrington, Clerk.
1772-73-74-Rebecca Booker, orphan of Edward Booker, in account with Richard Booker.
Elizabeth Mary Anne Booker, orphan of Edward Booker, deceased, in account with Richard Booker.
Richard Edward Booker's estate listed, negroes, &c., delivered by Thomas Yuille, August 19, 1773. Account returned and sworn to by Thomas Yuille.
Paul Carrington, Clerk.
1771, September-
To balance due the estate of Edward Booker.
To store in Charlotte county, 15-10.
November 18, 1774-
To cash paid Mr. Wythe for advice respecting Mr. Booker's will.
January 23, 1775-
To Colonel Paul Carrington, Clerk.
To Henerica Booker, hogshead of tobacco.

In 1763, July 19-William Borum and his wife, Frances, appears on the records, sells land to William Shackleford, and in 1771 sells land to Roger Atkinson (of Dinwiddie county).
1775-William Borum buys land, or establishes his right to it, through William Byrd, and his attorney, Robert Munford. For 16 shillings he bought the land from Robert Wade, and Wade died without signing or making the title legal, for one thousand and forty acres in Halifax county, with all the rights and titles. The witnesses were, viz.: Thomas Twitty, Reuben Morgan, John McKie, Christopher Watson, Henry Clift and John Whit.
In 1779, William Borroum and Fanny, his Wife, of Halifax county, sell to Willia Collier, of Halifax, and George Isbel, of Caroline county.
1810, August 27-Judith Borum, of Highland county, Ohio, sells land in Halifax county, on Pole Cat creek, to John Hughes. Witnesses: Beverly Hughes, Obed Hendricks and Thomas Burgess (Quakers).
1794 (Halifax Court records)-"John Borum manumitted his slaves."
1814, November 3-Obed Hendricks, administrator for John Borum, deceased, and attorney in fact for Sarah Borum.
1813, June-Indenture between Obed A. Borum for himself and attorney in fact for his sister, Catherine B. Borum, of the county of Highland, Ohio, sells their land on Pole Cat creek.
1781, November 26-Will of Charles Bostick. Wife, Betty sons, William, John, Moses and Absolom daughters, Ann, Elizabeth and Mary. Witnesses: Thomas Yuille, Roger Scott, John Scott, John (X) Adams and Archie (X) Robinson.
1789, July 7-Will of Nathaniel Bowman.
"After all debts and expenses are paid and funeral charges aforesaid, my estate is to be the property of my brother, John Bowman, his heirs and assignees forever. The land to which I am entitled to as major in the New Jersey line in Continental service, also the whole sum of moneys due me in the hands of John Turner, Jr., merchant at New York, and also in the hands of Isreal Heddon, merchant at Newark, in the State of New Jersey, with the interest thereon due, all of which I give to him and his heirs. I order that my executors hereafter named do out of my estate purchase a suit of general mourning for Mr. John Hicks and his lady and son, which I give to each of them. Lastly, I appoint my friend, John Hicks, and my brother, John Borum, executors of this my last will and testament."
Witnesses: Nathaniel Mannin, H. Goare.
"Scottsburg, Va., November, 1856."

"Dear Mac:
"I don't think I shall live long, therefore when I go I want you to go to the court house and get the court to appoint you as administrator of my effects until Robert H. Boxley comes in from Texas should he or you sell the land reserve the graveyard.
"You will find all my papers and bonds in my trunk, which you will take possession of and try and collect as many of them as you can, and you will for your trouble please take a per cent out for your service.
"I have written this to you because I consider you a friend of mine and will do everything that is right and just. I hope, Mack, that you will attend to this business until Robert H. Boxley comes from Texas. Please give him my watch and shirt buttons. I have no other instructions to give.
"Jas. H. Boxley."

"November 22, 1856-My health has not improved since I have been here I continue to grow weaker and feebler. Today is Wednesday, I am going to be tapped again tomorrow. How it will terminate God only knows. I want to be buried at home by the side of mother (Mrs. Hughes knows the place).
1809, January 4th-Will of Benjamin Boxley, Sr.: "I, Benjamin Boxley, Halifax county, Virginia, planter.
"My son, Joseph Spiller Boxley, son Harrison Boxley, land which he sold to William Faulkner.
"My son, George Boxley, my son, Benjamin Boxley, Jr., the land I purchased of James Palmer (the tract whereon I now live, Blue Wing Creek), on Boyd Pinson's line my daughter, Mary Wade, land on Willis' Creek daughters, Wilmoth Boxley and Lucy Boxley.
"I lend to my beloved wife, Tabitha Boxley, &c.
"Benjamin Boxley."
Executors: Joseph Spiller Boxley and George Boxley.
Witnesses: Jacob Faulkner, Joseph Griffin, Thomas McCarler, John (X) Goode, Elizabeth (X) Goode, Martha (X) Willis.

Will of John Boyd, "planter of Lunenburg county," July 2, 1748:
"I, John Boyd, of the county of Lunenburg, planter. To Margaret, my dearly beloved wife, &c., until my son, John, comes of age, other sons, George, William and James, give to John, my son, plantation I now live on.
"All that is left I desire that it may be equally distributed among my children, and that James Boyd be one executor, my wife the next, and Francis Lawson the third, and Thomas Douglass the fourth.
(Signed) "John Boyd."
Wife, Margaret, executrix son, James, executor.
Witnesses: David Graham, Patrick Boyd, John Humphrey, Lawrence Winfoil.
Recorded at a court held for Halifax county, May 19, 1757.
The last will and testament of John Boyd, deceased, was exhibited in court by Margaret Boyd, widow, relict and executrix of said testator, and the same was proved by Lawrence Winfield, one of the witnesses thereto, with William and John Lawson as securities of witnesses.
1762, January 26-Nuncupative will of George Boyd. Wife, Ann sons, Richard and Henry, not yet of age.
1803, January 9-Will of George Boyd, Sr. wife, Amey daughter, Mary Wade, wife of --.
1769, March 16-Will of David Brandon. Wife, Rebecca sons, William and Thomas daughters, Elizabeth, Margaret, Mary and Agnes, children all under age and to be educated. Only and sole executors: John Lawson and William Edwards. Witnesses: William Brandon, Frances B. (X) Brandon and John Brandon. George Carrington, clerk.
November 15, 1799-Will of Charles Bruce.
"Item first: All of my debts to be paid.
"Item second: I give to Elizabeth Williams, of Orange county, Va., all the title and interest I have to the estate of negroes held in reversion by stepmother, Mrs. Frances Bruce, of Orange county.
"Item third: Balance of my estate, consisting of lands, negroes, horses, cattle, goods, wares and merchandise debts, and every other thing in possession or to which I am entitled, I give and bequeath to my brother, James Bruce.
"Lastly, I do hereby constitute and appoint the said James Bruce my executor to my last will and testament, who is authorized to take into possession all my estate to him willed without the usual formality required by law of giving security or taking inventory.
"Charles Bruce."
Witnesses: John R. Hall, Beverly Sydnor, John Light, Thomas Donohoe.
1823, July 19-James Bruce appointed sheriff of the county. "Know all men by these presents that we, James Bruce, John H. Wimbish, Samuel Williams, Elisha Barksdale, Paul Street, Armistead Barksdale, William Thackston, Elijah Baker, Richard Daniel, John S. Vaughan, Thomas Spraggins, William Sydnor, Elijah Vasser and Richard E. Bennett, of the county of Halifax, and firmly bound, &c., to His Excellency, James Pleasants, Jr., Esq., Governor of the Commonwealth," &c.

Will of John Carter, Halifax county, Virginia, Book 1, page 370, June 18, 1781:
"I, John Carter, of Halifax county, Virginia, &c. My beloved wife, Mary Carter my daughters, Ann Waddill, Elizabeth Carter, Mary Carter, Sally Carter my three oldest sons, Richard, Theoderick and Robert Carter. Item: "To my son, James Carter, the land whereon I now live." Son, Francis Carter. Wife, Mary, executrix Mr. William Boyd and my brothers, Richard and Theo. Carter, my executors.
(Signed) "John Carter."
Teste: Benjamin Hobson, David Bates, Charles Carter, Noel Waddill, Theo. Carter. June 18, 1781.

1823, September 20-This indenture between George Carrington, of Halifax county, of the one part, and James Bruce, sheriff of said county, of the other.
Witnesseth: That whereas the said George Carrington hath been imprisoned at the suit of William Bailey & Company and hath taken the oath of an insolvent debtor and hath subscribed and delivered in schedule his whole estate, from which schedule it appears that the said George Carrington is possessed of one-ninth part of an undivided interest on six tracts of land whereof Sarah Carrington, deceased, died possessed.
One tract of 1,350 acres, one 750 aces, lying in Halifax county, three tracts lying in the State of Kentucky, one thousand acres each, and one other lying in the State of Kentucky of 150 acres also.
Two lots lying in the town of Milton, N. C., an undivided interest in the purchase of lands made by Joseph W. Scott in the county of Northampton, N. C., and an undivided interest in the purchase of lots made by Joseph W. Scott in the town of Plymouth, N. C., and one debt due from William McGehee, now in suit in the County Court of Halifax for $1,100.
Witnesses: John Carrington, Newman Haynes, Peter Franklin, Joseph Boxley, Jr., M. Hall and John E. Irvine.
Creditors: William Bailey & Co., John H. Wimbish, Samuel Stevens, Christopher Robertson and George K. Cabell.
1807, June 1-Will of George Carrington wife, Sarah (Tucker).
"Having the most unbounded confidence in the justice and maternal affection in my dear wife, Sarah Carrington, towards all of my children and hers, and having in a long course of conjugal felicity with her ever experienced the most affectionate regard and attention to myself in which has been manifested the highest possible fidelity and honorable attachment, I feel no hesitation, but most cheerfully and with pleasure confide to her control and disposal so far as in her power the future welfare of our said dear children.
"I give to my dear wife my whole estate, real and personal, of whatever kind or quality and wheresoever found, either within or without the Commonwealth and to her and her heirs, &c., forever.
"Executrix, my wife, Sarah Carrington.
"Executors, my dear friends, Isaac H. Coles and James Bruce.
"Geo. Carrington."
Witnesses: James Bruce, Berryman Green, Isaac H. Coles.
All debts to be paid of every and any kind.

A Copy of the Will of John Clark, Made From Will Book No. 14, Page No. 258.

I, John Clark, of Halifax county, do make this my last will and testament in manner following: I have given to my deceased daughter Maria ten negroes and five thousand dollars in money. I have also given to my deceased daughter Elizabeth ten negroes and six thousand dollars in money. I have also given to my daughter Mary ten negroes and six thousand dollars in money, and I now give her my interest in the following negroes belonging to the firm of William Bailey & Co. and now in the possession of her husband, to-wit: Judy, Granville and Peter, and the lot at Halifax Courthouse on which the storehouse now in the occupancy of the firm of Wm. Bailey & Co. stands and I give to my daughter Martha fifteen negroes and six thousand dollars in money and she may take my Mount Laurel tract of land at valuation, not to exceed two thousand dollars in part of her pecuniary legacy if she shall elect so to take it and I give to my daughter Ann, fifteen negroes and six thousand dollars in money and she may take my long branch plantation at valuation which is not to exceed three thousand dollars in part of her pecuniary legacy if she shall elect so to take it. And I give to my daughter Phebe Howson exclusive of what I have already given to her and her deceased husband my mill plantation, the mill to be completed as now contemplated out of my estate by my executor and all the stock of every description and plantation tools attached to and belonging to that plantation, and the following twelve negroes, to-wit: Dick, Rachel, Colen, Harriet Phebe, Reah and her three children, Henry, the miller, Johnson and Ethelbert, and I also give her the land which I purchased of Rowlett and adjoining the aforesaid mill tract, and I give to my son, William, my Banister plantation, together with the stock of every description and the plantation tools and other conveniences attached to and belonging and upon the said plantation. I also give him all the negroes on the said plantation, except Dick Coats and his family. I also give him two other negroes, to-wit, Delphy and a boy named Washington. It is my will that my said son shall take possession of the plantation and other property above bequeathed and devised to him immediately after my death and take the crop made the year in which I may die to his own use. And I give to my son, John Thomas, my Staunton River plantation, which includes the mansion seat and all the land attached thereto, supposed to contain about twenty-two hundred acres, subject, however, to the provision hereinafter made in relation thereto in favor of my beloved wife and my daughter, Martha and Ann, and my son, Charles. I also give him fifteen negroes, and at the death of my beloved wife all my household and kitchen furniture. And I give to my son, Charles, one hundred shares of bank stock, forty of which are now standing in my name on the books of the Bank of Virginia and the other sixty are at present loaned to the firm of William Bailey & Co. It is my will that my exector [sic] do forthwith have the said stock transferred in due form to my said son and that they annually receive the dividends and some time invest the same in bank stock of a productive character until my son comes of age, so that he may then receive the said stock with all the accruing dividends thereon. But it is my will and I do hereby authorize my executors if they shall think that the interest of my said son will be advanced thereby to lay out the whole of the said stock or any part thereof and the dividends thereon in the purchase of a tract of land for my said son. I also give him fifteen negroes and I give to my beloved wife, so long as she remains unmarried, my Staunton River plantation, all the stock of every description and the plantation tools and conveniences upon and belonging to the said plantation, my carriage and all my household and kitchen furniture, and all my negroes not otherwise disposed of. If my said wife shall remain unmarried I give at her death the negroes, stock, carriage and plantation tools to all my children and grandchildren, that is to say, one-ninth part to each of my children, one-ninth part to the children of my deceased daughter, Maria, and one-ninth part to Ann G., the daughter of my deceased daughter, Elizabeth, if the said Ann G. shall live to attain the age of twenty-one or marry. In case my said wife shall marry again, I give to her from the time of her marriage during her life, instead of the property above given to her, one-half of the negroes above bequeathed to her, one-third of the stock and one-third of the household and kitchen furniture and the carriage and that part of the Staunton river plantation purchased of William Thewatt and the lower land which I purchased of the children of Mathew Sims upon the death of Mrs. Sims upon the marriage of my said wife should she marry, the two-thirds of the household and kitchen furniture are to go immediately to my son, John Thomas, and the half of the negroes and stock are to go immediately to my children and grandchildren to be divided among them in the manner above mentioned. It is my will that my said wife shall take possession of the plantation and other property above given to her as aforesaid immediately after my death and take the crops made thereon the year in which I may die to her own use. In case my son, John Thomas, shall die before he arrives to the age of twenty-one years, it is my will that the land bequeathed to him shall go to my son, Charles, and in that event the bank stock hereinbefore given to Charles with the dividends which shall have accrued thereon shall be divided among my children and grandchildren, that is to say, one-eighth to each of my children and one-eighth to the children of my deceased daughter, Maria, and one-eighth to Ann G., the daughter of my deceased daughter, Elizabeth, if she shall live to attain the age of twenty-one years or marry. It is my will that the negroes bequeathed in this will not particularly named shall be divided off in families as convenient and as much to the satisfaction of all concerned as possible as my executors may think, proper regard being had to the wishes of my wife and the children and the interest of my estate. It is my will that my son, Charles, shall be educated in such manner as my executors may direct, money enough for this purpose, I hope, may be raised from the profits of his negroes and from what his mother can spare from the profits of the property bequeathed to her, but in case this should not be the case, I direct that the deficiency shall be made up out of any fund belonging to my estate in the hands of my executors so that he may be clothed, educated and supported without breaking in upon the bank stock bequeathed to him or the dividends thereof. It is also my will that my daughters, Martha and Ann, shall have the privilege of living in my dwelling house with my wife or my son, John, so long as they remain unmarried, and my son, Charles, until he shall attain the age of twenty-one years. My three houses and lots at Halifax Court House, two of which are now occupied by Dr. T. H. Averett and Henry Call and the third lately occupied by John S. Lewellyn I give to my son, William, and my daughters, Martha and Ann, to be equally divided among them. It is my will that William Bailey shall have my interest in the mill on Terrible Creek belonging to the firm of William Bailey & Co., and if he chooses so to do, upon his paying to my executors the costs of the original purchase and all subsequent expenditures. I have sold my interest in the Mount Laurel store to John Coleman upon a credit until 1842, the interest in the meantime to be paid annually. It is my wish that my executors shall lay out from time to time the interest thus to be received and such part of the principal as the said John Coleman may pay before the same shall become payable in productive bank stock to go on accumulating until the debt shall become payable and then I give the principal of the debt and the interest which may have accrued thereon to my children, Phebe H., Martha, Ann, William, John and Charles, to be equally divided among them, and if either of my said children shall die before the said money shall become payable not leaving children or other decedents, in that case I give the part above bequeathed to the child or children so dying to their survivors of the said Phebe H., Martha Ann, William, John and Charles. It is my desire that my court house co-partnership shall be adjusted as soon as possible and that my executors (the pecuniary legacies bequeathed in this will being first paid and the bank stock properly transferred) may lend to William Bailey any sum which he may want to carry on his mercantile business not exceeding ten thousand dollars, taking bonds and the security for payment thereof with interest when my son, John Thomas, shall attain the age of twenty-one years. And I authorize my executors to receive at equitable prices any property belonging to the court house concerning part payment of the debt due to me from it. It is my desire that the pecuniary legacies bequeathed in this my will if not immediately paid to the legatees or their guardians shall by my executors be put out to interest to persons of undoubted credit and taking also good security and to remove all doubt. I hereby declare that none of the bequests in this will in favor of my granddaughter, Ann G. Coleman, daughter of my deceased daughter, Elizabeth, are to be considered vested legacies, but that the same are by me intended to be contingent so that she shall receive no benefit from any bequest to her in case she shall die before she shall attain the age of twenty-one years or marry. It is my will that the crop made upon mill tract of land in the year in which I may die shall go to my daughter, Phebe H., for her own use. After the payment of the pecuniary legacies and after the bank stock shall have been properly transferred for the benefit of my son, Charles, I give the whole of my estate not herein particularly disposed of, including debt money funds and every other kind of property belonging to me, to be divided among my children and grandchildren in the following manner, that is to say, one-ninth to each of my children, one-ninth to be divided among the children of my deceased daughter, Maria, and one-ninth to my granddaughter, Ann G. Coleman, if she shall live to attain the age of twenty-one years or marry. It is my desire that my executors shall lend at interest to John Coleman, the father of my granddaughter, Ann G., such sum as my granddaughter may be entitled to under this will in case she shall live to attain the age of twenty-one years or marry the said John Coleman, giving bond and security to pay the same when my said granddaughter shall attain the age of twenty-one years or marry or at her death in case she shall die before she shall attain that age and before she shall marry. And I do appoint my brother, Howson Clark, and my son, William Clark, executors of this my last will and testament.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 10th day of March in the year 1827.
John Clark.
Signed and published and declared by the said John Clark as his will and testament in presence of us, the words "dividends" on the second page, the words "and all my negroes not hereinafter disposed of" on the third page, and the words "wife" and "have" and "Henry" on the title page and the words "the" and "the part" on the fifth page being first' interlined.
Henry W. Tucker,
James H. Hudson,
Wm. X Driscoll,
Wm. Leigh.
At a court held for Halifax county the 29th day of May, 1827, the within written last will and testament of John Clark, deceased, was exhibited in court and proved by the oaths of two of the witnesses thereto subscribed and ordered to be recorded whereupon on motion of Howson Clark and William H. Clark, the executors therein named, who made oath thereto according to law, and with John Sims, John Coleman, William Bailey, William Leigh and Samuel Williams, their securities entered into and acknowledged bond in the penalty of five hundred thousand dollars conditioned according to law certificate is granted them for obtaining probate thereof in due form.
Teste: Samuel Williams, C. H. C.
1824, May 24-Inventory of the estate of Dr. Robert Clark (deceased, March 21, 1820). The names of Nancy Clark and Thomas Clark are mentioned in the account of sales, also the name of Henry B. Johnson a long list of household furniture, farm products, horses, cattle, &c.

Will of Paul Chiles, September 2, 1761:
"To my son Henry, negroes and land on Bottom Town creek in Halifax county.
"To my son, Paul Chiles, negroes and land in Bedford county and in Halifax county.
"To my son, Rowland Chiles (not yet baptized), land I now live on, and after my wife's decease, also 110 acres at mouth of Bottom Town creek, also 70 acres on Sycamore creek in Halifax county, and negroes.
"To my daughter, Elizabeth Chiles, 728 acres on both sides of Smith's river in Halifax county, also negroes.
"To my daughter, Frances Chiles, 200 acres on Mayo's river and 400 acres joining the same not yet cleared, out of the office in Halifax county also 130 acres on the other fork of the Mayo and 400 acres joining it not yet cleared one of the offices to be cleared with my estate also negroes.
"All personal estate sold at public sale, giving six months credit.
"All debts paid from it, and all back lands not mentioned in the will to be sold and equally divided among the children.
"To my loving wife, Anne, 60 pounds to be at her disposal.
"Anne Chiles, my wife, executrix John Chiles and Captain John Ward, executors.
"Paul (his-X-mark) Chiles."
Witnesses: William Cadwell, R. Robinson Hunt and William W. Glass.

1761, April 9-Indenture between Stephen Clement, of Bedford county, and John Alston, of same county, for sale of land. Witnesses: Francis Pollard, Goram Brown, Adam Clement.
Deed, June 23, 1760-Adam Clement buys of John Jones, 20 acres of land in Halifax county. Witnesses: Benj. Clement, Jr., Benj. Clement, Sr., Thomas Strother, Annie Flanagan and John Clement. Robert Munford, clerk.

1754, November 13-Nuncupitive [sic] will of Judith Coats, deceased. In the words and figures following: November 13, 1754-Memorandum of the will was proved by oath of James Irwin, Gent., and David Lawson, and ordered to be recorded. On the petition of Judith Sherman certificate is granted her for obtaining letters of administrator of all, and singular the goods and chattels, rights and credits of the said Judith Coats, which were of the said Judith's at the time of her death, with the said will annexed, she having first taken the oath of administrator by law prescribed and with the said James Irwin and David Lawson, securities.

1811, November 3-Will of Samuel Cobbs:
"To the wife of James Dabbs sisters, Susannah Dabbs, Polly Lipscomb (wife of Richard Lipscomb) to my two sisters, Judah Cobbs and Catherine Dabbs (wife of John Dabbs).
"Samuel Cobbs."
Executors: William Brittain and John Dabbs.
Witnesses: Benj. Morton, Mat Davenport, James McAllister, Samuel Merry.

1784-Nov. 5, Nathaniel Cocke, sells to William Thompson, land in Halifax.

Whereas Richard Cocke of the county of Surry (deceased) father of Nathaniel and John Cocke, leaves them land in Halifax county, and whereas because of the great difficulty and inconvenience attending the remote situation of aforesaid land from the Executors, two of them could not come, &c.
Signed and sealed in the presence of William Thompson, John Coleman, Howard Cain, John Bruce and William Terry. Recorded 1784.
John Cocke of the county of Sussex, wife Lucy.
Nathaniel Cocke, of Halifax county, wife Rebekah.
Nathaniel Cocke, of Halifax county, being about to remove therefrom, have fully empowered my friend, and kinsman, William Thompson & William Terry, to act as my Attorneys in disposing of my lands, tenements, negroes or property of every and all kinds, &c.
Witnesses William Thompson, Sr., J. Williams, John Coleman, & Jos. Terry. April 12, 1784.
1814, Oct. 24-Will of Herbert C. Cocke.
Wife, Sally two children, legatees (names not given).
Executors: "My brother John R. Cocke, and William Bailey, I give my gun as a memento to my brother, John R. Cocke."
Witnesses: William T. Scott, Benj. E. Terry, Leonard E. Baker and John R. Cocke.
1800-John R. Cocke's Account Cur, with William Thompson, who was his guardian, mentions H. C. Cocke & J. R. Cocke.

1764-This Indenture, Feb. 17th, 1764, fourth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord, George III, King of Great Britain, etc., between James Collins of Halifax County of the part and John Hurt of the same County of the other part. Land lying on both sides of Buffalo Creek.

1810, April 8-Will of Isaac H. Coles.
"It is right that all has to dispose of their property by Will, life is uncertain, God gave us existance [sic] and the time of its discontinuance is at His will, which is hidden from human eyes or knowledge I therefore give to my three nieces, Nancy Carrington, Lightfoot Carrington, and Mildred Bruce, to my nephew James Bruce, my cousin Isaac Coles, Jr. &c.
"I give my Dan River estate to my nephew Edward Carrington, with all the negroes that are working on the land, and stock of every kind on the plantation.
"I give my nephew Walter Carrington, the Buck Skin Tract, with all negroes, horses and stock on the plantation.
"I give my nephew William, the home tract with all the negroes, stock on the plantation.
"I give my "Cub Creek" Tract to my nephew Paul Carrington all my land in Charlotte, negroes, stock, and bonds.
"I wish my estate kept together until all special legacies are paid, and then divided.
"I will mention so far from feeling small for every neice [sic] and nephew, children of my Bruce, as expressed by the same, all proportion given of my estate, my sentiments are the reverse, but my friend Bruce, whom I am sincerely attached to must know his wealth is sufficient for their happiness, and friendship to all my relations is the best will of
"I. H. Coles."
1814, Feb. 8-Administrator appointed by court, Isaac Coles, Jr. Securities: Paul Carrington, Henry E. Coleman, Howson Clark, Edward C. Carrington.
Bond in penalty for four hundred thousand dollars.
1814-Memorandum from Act of sales of Isaac H. Coles estate.
All the personal estate of Isaac H. Coles has been disposed of agreeable to a "Decree" of the High Court of Chancery for the Lynchburg District.
Edward Carrington, 69 negroes valued at 6224 pounds, horses, mules, cattle, sheep, wagon horses, household and kitchen furniture, books, blacksmith's tools, carpenter and plantation tools, provisions, carriages &c., (valued at 1912 pounds) attached to the Dan River plantation. To Edward Carrington, guardian of William A. Carrington, 49 negroes, (valued at 3673 pounds) horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep, wagon horses, household furniture, blackmith [sic] and carpenter's plantation tools, provisions carriage gears, &c., (valued at 576 pounds and 20 shillings) attached to the "Mildendo" plantation.
"To Walter C. Carrington 30, negroes, (valued at, 2275 pounds) horses, mules, cattle, sheep, hogs, (valued at 248 pounds and 14 shillings), corn, oats, &c., (valued at 148 pounds) attached to the Buck Skin plantation.
Walter C. Carrington, guardian of Paul T. Carrington, negroes, stock &c., attached to Cub Creek plantation.
To Dr. Charles D. Fontaine, sales valued at 108 pounds taken from Dan River, and Evilina, valued at 96 pounds, from "Mildendo." Detained heavy and specific legacy value 160 pounds, taken from Dan River. Hannah valued at 90 pounds, Peggy 90 pounds, (devised to my wife,) taken from Mildendo.
"To Mrs. Mildred Carrington, all the Bonds, each amounting to 508 pounds-1-8.
"To Dr. Charles D. Fontaine, in right of his wife."
Dec 1820-Estate of Isaac Coles, Jr. In Account with Edward C. Carrington.
Doctor Tuck-Medical account.
Benjamine Anderton-crier at the sale.
Mrs. Powell-services as mid-wife.
Robert Chappell-Blacksmith account.
Henry Elliott-services as overseer, for 1820.
Dr. Senn-Medical account.
Adam Toot-Tannery account.
Cash to messenger to Mr. Ravenscroft, (twice), to Mecklenburg to preach the funeral.
Mrs. Fontaine-for money paid by her.
To shoes for the children.
Bruce & Williams-for bedticking for the children in Charlotte.
Mrs. Mildred H. Carrington,-for money paid by her.
Ferriage of articles to Charlotte.
William Hughes-for shoemaking for the negroes.
Walter Coles-for two bushels of clover seed, bought in Lynchburg.
Mrs. Anne Fontaine-for expenses of children.
To the 6th Instalment of 6 shares of Roanoke Stock.

1837, March 23-Will of Henry E. Coleman.
"To my daughter Jane Coleman, 20 slaves, Mahogany beds, wardrobe tables and furniture.
"To my son Charles B. Coleman, my parlour furniture, my dining room furniture including the new sideboard and china press, beds &c.
"My silver plate including tea pot, sugar dish, cream pot shall be taken at valuation by one of my five sons.
"To my daughters Margaret M. Logan, (wife of Richard Clark), Sarah E. Chalmers, (wife of David Chalmers, Esq,) and Jane C. Coleman."
"To William Baskerville, Henry E. C. Baskerville, Mary A. E. Baskerville and Charles Baskerville, (children of my daughter Elizabeth A. Baskerville, deceased).
"My sons, John Coleman, Thos. G. Coleman, Henry E. Coleman, Ethelbert A. Coleman & Charles B. Coleman. Extras: Sons John & Thomas Coleman, Henry E. Coleman. Gold Watch to his grandson Henry E. Logan.
1800-Henry E. Coleman guardian of M. M. Watkins orphan to Micajah Watkins deceased of county of Halifax Commonwealth of Virginia of one part and Chas. Irby, of the other part. He rents to Chas. Irby the plantation of M. M. Watkins on the mouth of Birches Creek on Dan River, bounded by the lands of Charles Meriweather and Jas. Chalmers.
Witnesses: Jas. Chalmers, Nathan Hensley, Tarlton Moore.
Henry E. Coleman,
Chas. Irby.

1820, February 25-Will of Elisha Cox, Sr.
Wife, Elizabeth daughters, Sally, Patsy, Judith and Peggy sons, Elisha, Francis and William.
"I hereby nominate and appoint my friend, Robert Hurt, sole executor of this my last will and testament."
Witnesses: Elisha Barksdale and James H. Yeates.
Elisha Cox.

1865, June 16-Will of Charles J. Craddock.
Wife, Fannie Y. Craddock, executrix, upon whom he lays no restraint as to marrying again, "having the fullest confidence in the purity of her character and soundness of her judgment."
Brother, John Craddock, and brother-in-law, William L. Owen, to advise and assist his wife sons, John and Thomas Craddock two daughters (names not given).
John W. Craddock and Charles B. Easley, securities.
Charles J. Craddock.
December 9, 1819-Will of Granville Craddock.
"This is the last will and testament of Granville Craddock, of the county of Halifax, &c.
"I give and bequeath to my wife, Elizabeth Craddock, the whole of my household furniture and my carriage and horses, and no other part of my estate, either real or personal. I make no further provisions for my said wife in consequence of the belief that she will be amply provided for out of the estate left by her deceased father.
"I give to William Towns Craddock and Thomas Averett all my medical books, surgical instruments, medicine on hand and shop furniture, to be equally divided between them.
"I give to my son, Charles James Fox Craddock, all my books not included in the bequest to William T. Craddock and Thomas Averett, and my watch, my watch chain and seal I give to my son, Charles James Fox Craddock.
"I give to my daughter, Sarah Cornelia Craddock, all the rest and residue of my estate, both real and personal, to be equally divided between them, share and share alike to them and their heirs forever.
"I do give the custody, tuition and guardianship of my said son, Charles James Fox Craddock, to William Leigh, of the said county, during his minority.
In the event by refusal, death or removal the said William Leigh could not accept the guardianship of said son, it was to be transferred to Thomas T. Bouldin, and in case of his failure to accept, then to Samuel Williams.
"I give the custody of my daughter, Sarah C. Craddock, to my wife, Elizabeth Craddock but if my said wife should marry, then the custody of my daughter should cease and be given to Mrs. Nancy Wimbish. And it is my earnest wish and desire that should the guardian appointed for any reason fail and it be necessary that guardians should be appointed, it is my most earnest wish and request that no stepfather under any circumstances shall be appointed their guardian.
"I wish my children to have as good education as their respective estates will afford.
"Granville Craddock."
Executors: Samuel Williams, William Leigh, John H. Wimbish.
Witnesses: Michael Roberts, Joseph Boxley.

1820, March 21-Will of Ephriam Crews.
Wife, Rachel sons, Ephriam, Joseph McHaney and Matthew daughters, Patsy Richardson, Sally Tucker, Rebecca Lax and Rachel Moorefield.
Witness: Robert Hurt.
Ephriam Crews.
1819, May 9-Will of Richard Crews.
Wife, Susannah sons, Andrew, Thomas, Josiah, WilIiam, Gideon, Edward John, and the heirs of my son James daughter, Martha Hailey.
Witnesses: Mel Spragins, Henry Cardwell, Benj. Hankla, Catharine (X) Cardwell.

1784, March 18-Will of Elias DeJarnette.
"My well beloved wife, Frances DeJarnette daughters, Frances, Hannah, Sarah and Nancy DeJarnette mother, Elizabeth DeJarnette, and sister, Annaker DeJarnette my son, Reubin."
Thomas DeJarnette, of Halifax, and James Hines, of Charlotte, executors.
Witnesses: Nathaniel, John and Ursley Hall.
Will of Rebecca DeJarnette:
"I give and bequeath to my cousin, Elias Palmer, for trouble and expense he has hitherto been at in maintaining me, and for the purpose of paying all my just and lawful debts and expenses the following slaves, &c. To cousin, Jeffry Palmer, a negro girl, &c.
"Ann R. (her-X-mark) DeJarnette."
1831, May 3-Will of Daniel DeJarnette.
"I, Daniel DeJarnette, county of Halifax, State of Virginia, &c., do place in the hands of Richard Thornton as agent for my wife, Nancy DeJarnette, land and a good many slaves, some slaves to be hired to William Collins for mining purposes, together with the fishery. To my nephew, Daniel DeJarnette (son of George DeJarnette), slaves, &c. I also loan my wife during her widowhood one cery desk, one walnut burow, one bookcase, one bottle case, one chest of drawers, one large 'still,' and at her death I give them to the above Daniel DeJarnette. To James Pitts' wife (formerly Rebecca DeJarnette), $200.00. The residue of my estate to be sold, and from the proceeds thereof I give to Anney Sims (formerly Anney Betterton), $100.00, and the balance I want equally divided between my brother, James DeJarnette, and my sister, Susan Ranson, and my nephews, James, Thomas and Daniel DeJarnette, and sons of George DeJarnette."
William Collins, executor.

1831, October 19-Indenture between Benjamin Denton and Ann Denton (formerly Peggy Ann Anderson) and William W. Powell and Thomas A. Powell. They sell to the Powells 89 acres on the west prong of Pole Cat creek, it being the lot of land assigned to the said Denton and wife by commissioners appointed by decree of court of Halifax county to divide the land belonging to the estate of the late Richard D. Anderson.
We see no more of Benjamin Denton and his wife, Peggy Ann, until by accident we stumble over their graves in Botetourt county. Died perhaps on their way to Kentucky, where so many Halifax people went.
This is what was found by a student at Hollins College, a friend who knew our penchant for history from old burying grounds. The stones were so time-worn as to be almost illegible:
"Benjamin Denton, born 9th day of April--
Peggy Anderson, born 18th day of Jan.--
Were united in marriage July 24, 1793.
One child, John A. Denton, born Augt. 6, 1794.

"Once loved, once valued, now availeth me not,
Though my relations have not me forgot.
Sleeping in dust I still must here remain,
Till the Archangel calls his numerous train."

Milestones along the road to the wilderness, we find them through the Southwest and on to Kentucky.

1786, January 12-Will of Daniel Easley.
Wife, Elizabeth son, Daniel, Jr. son, Isaac daughters, Ann Easley, Mary Ann Parker, Phoebe Adams grandson, Robert Easley, son of John Easley granddaughter, Elizabeth Easley, daughter of John Easley.
Executors: Isaac Easley, Daniel Easley, Jr., Daniel Parker and Hawkins Landrum.
Witnesses: Charles Old, Robert Chappell, Daniel Easley, Samuel Landrum.
In 1812, October 26-Administrator with will annexed granted to Thomas Easley.
1810, September 22-Will of Isaac Easley.
Wife, Judith sons, Isaac, John, "tract of land on Dan river, where Samuel Easley now lives" to my son, William Easley, land I bought from Tom Easley, north side of the road leading from Meadesville to Halifax C. H. daughter, Polly wife, Judith, to support the young children, Nancy, Judith, Martha, Daniel, Phoebe and Betsy until they are able to support themselves.
Executors: Isaac Easley, John Easley, William Leigh.
1783-From the estate of John Easley, deceased, Martin Palmer bought for 15 pounds and 5 shillings, fatted hogs, one gun, one bead and furniture.
To John Edmunds, one box, a Holy Bible, for one pound and twelve shillings and six pence.
To John Hurt Hendrick, one pair of leather breeches, for two pounds and fifteen shillings.

February 3, 1819-Will of Samuel Edmundson.
Wife, Caroline sons, Samuel and Richard, "all lands in the counties of Halifax and Mecklenburg counties" daughters, Margaret and Susannah, Lucinda, Nancy Hamner, Rachel Phillips, Patsy Anderson and Polly White.
Two faithful old servants to the care of son, Richard, neither to be hired out or sold.
Executors: Sons, William, Banister, Samuel and Richard Edmundson.

1779-Will of William Estes.
Wife, Mary brother, John sons, Patrick and Ezekiel daughters, Leana, Levina, Sala and Drusilla.
Witnesses: James Hardwick, Elizabeth Harris.
Wife, executrix.
Micajah and Moses Estes, securities.
1764-John Ezell and Hannah, his wife, of Lunenburg county, sell to Anthony Irby, of Brunswick county, 600 acres in Halifax county on Difficult creek.

March 12, 1782-The first we find of the name of Farmer is an inventory of the estate of Frederick Farmer, deceased, March 12, 1782.
The county has many worthy families by the name of Farmer living in it now, most of them members of the old "Pleasant Grove Church," where for generations they have worshipped, and there in the old churchyard have laid their dead to rest.
They have always been well-to-do land and slave owners, and some of them have grown rich by economy and persistence.
Book 15, page 482, December 16, 1825-Will of David Farmer.
"My wife, Jane Farmer son, Obediah grandson, Henry Farmer granddaughter, Polly Farmer. Balance of my estate divided between Hannah East, Ruth Farmer and my granddaughter, Polly Ragland. Executor, my son, Obediah Farmer.
"David Farmer."
Witnesses: Archer Farmer, Jeremiah Farmer.
Recorded August 24, 1831.
1856, March 24-Will of Archer Farmer.
Wife, Nancy son, Joseph E. Farmer grandson, John Harrison Farmer, "when he arrives at the age of 21." Confirmed what he had already given (which was very liberal) to Lucy A. Farmer, William W. Farmer, Elizabeth Russell, Harriett C. Chappell, Archer Farmer, James R. Farmer. Remainder of property to be equally divided among the last named six children.
"My will and desire is that my old negro man Gilbert and his wife Nancy shall have the privilege of choosing their master or mistress from among my children, said master or mistress to pay their appraised value. I appoint my son, William W. Farmer, or Archer H. Farmer, my executor and request that the court will not require security.
"Archer Farmer."
Witnesses: D. Chalmers, John Hughes, William Holt.
(Archer H. Farmer gave bond for $60,000 without security.)

1780-Moses Fontaine, of Halifax county, sells to Edward Palmer, of Mecklenburg county, a parcel of land on Hyco river.
(Signed) Moses Fontaine.
1817, December 27-Will of Dr. Charles D. Fontaine wife, Anne.
Leaves his whole estate to his wife in fee simple.
"No inventory shall be taken after my death, nor my negroes, stock and household furniture divided to the great discomfiture of my widow.
"It is my will that my dear Nancy remain in possession of every kind of interest or property just as if I were living.
"I will nothing to any person on earth, but justly to my wife in part for the reason above and because I do not know whether anything can be spared of my fortune without great inconvenience to my wife. I therefore merely suggest as a wish that she would inquire from time to time into the situation as respects the money matters of my dear and revered old mother and my other near and dear relatives in Henry county.
"These and all other things I leave to the distribution of my dear wife, in whom I have the utmost confidence.
"C. D. Fontaine."
Will was exhibited in court, whereupon J. H. Wimbish and Berryman Green appeared in court and swore to the handwriting of C. D. Fontaine, decedent.
Will was ordered to be recorded, January 26, 1818, but the will was again exhibited, on motion of William A. Carrington, who made oath, according to law (and for reasons appearing to the court), certificate is granted him for obtaining letter of administration with the will aforesaid affixed.
His securities: Isaac Coles and John and Henry Carrington. Bond in penalty of fifty thousand dollars.

March 13, 1779-Will of Anthony Gholston.
Wife, Mary sons, John, Joseph and Dabney daughters, Eunecy, Sucky, Sarah Powell, Ann Flemin, Mary Jones, Betty Jones.
"Anthony Gholston."
Wife Mary, John and Joseph Gholston, executors.
Witnesses: Edward Garlington, Richard (his-X-mark) Hatter, Susannah (her-X- mark) Hatter.
1787-William Goode sells to Edward Palmer, of Halifax county, 200 acres lying along Blue Wing creek, by Joseph Fontaine's line, and leading along the line of Edward Palmer.
(Signed) William Goode.
1800-Nathan Glenn and Elizabeth, his wife John Hilliard and Pheby, his wife Jeffery Palmer and Susannah, his wife Elias Palmer and Hannah, his wife Elisha Palmer and Anen, his wife John Nichols and Mary, his wife Nathan Glenn as guardian and agent of and for the orphans of Francis Irby, deceased, as legatees of John Le Grand, deceased, unto William Keene & Co., of Halifax, for a certain tract or parcel of land in Halifax county, lying on the branches of Difficult creek (it being the tract which includes the mantion house wherein John Le Grand, deceased, lived in), for 84 pounds paid in hand, &c.
Witnesses: John T. Palmer, Peter Palmer, Benj. Traynham, Thomas Palmer.
Jonathan as to Nathan Glenn, in all cases Elizabeth Glenn and Pheby Hilliard.
1758-Thomas Green and Peter Irby took by order of worshipful court the just and full sum of 16 pounds of good and lawful money of Virginia for building a good and well fixed bridge, at least ten feet broad, and in good repair for the term of seven years.
Signed, sealed and released in the presence of Robert Wooding and Abraham Maury.
To build and maintain for seven years.
1758, March Court-Ordered that Thomas Green build a bridge over Difficult creek at a place called Madins Ford.

1819-Book II, page 470-Will of Thomas Hall.
"I give to my loving Wife, Mary Ann Hall, as her just right and title, land, &c. to my children, James, Presilla, Mildred, Elizabeth and Mary Ann Hall my sons, William and James B. Hall. Must pay all of my debts and divide the land among my children or sell it, if they prefer to live elsewhere, but bury me decently on my own land, as it will be the last favor I can ask of them in this world.
"Thomas Hall."
Witness: John and Thomas Neal.
1808, January 25-Book -, page 525-Will of Wilmouth Hall.
"My unmarried daughters, Sally J. Hall, Chloe Hall sons, William, John, Robert and Thomas Hall married daughter, Caty Miller. All liberally provided for. Son, William Hall, executor.
"Wilmouth Hall."
Witnesses: James Terry and Willis Yeates.

1829, October 15-Will of Thomas Halleburton.
"In the name of God, Amen. I, Thos. Halleburton, being of sound mind and memory, do make this my last will and testament, thereby revoking all others.
"I leave to my beloved wife, Sallie Frances Halleburton, all of my estate, real and personal, during her natural life after all my just debts are paid, and subject to the following legacies:
"I give to Nancy Taylor the sum of one hundred dollars, to be paid out of my estate as soon as convenient.
"I give to my brother, David Halleburton, my Napoleon colt, to him and his heirs forever.
"At the death of my wife I give to my sister, Martha Holloway, one-tenth part of my estate loaned my wife, both real and personal, to her and her heirs forever.
"At the death of my wife I give to my brother, John C. Halleburton, the remaining nine-tenths of my estate, both real and personal, to him and his heirs forever.
"I do hereby constitute and appoint Thos. Easley my executor of this my last will and testament.
"In witness whereof I set my hand and seal, October 15, 1829.
"Thos. Halleburton."
Witnesses: Richard Wade, Henry Easley, Richard H. Owen.
December 23, 1829-Inventory of Thos. Halleburton.
Negro boy Lewis, $350 girl Susan, $250 girl, $175 boy, $100 boy, $150 boy, $100 woman, $50 man, $50 a long list of cattle, horses, household furniture, all amounting to $3,259.17.
Signed-Alen Halleburton, Elisha Betts, Richard Wade, Sr.
Samuel Williams, C. H. C.
Richard E. Bennett, large estate in slaves and many books.

Will of Elkanah Hampton.
Wms-burg, Va., May 29, 1776.
Dear Mr. Baker.
By William Royal, I send you my love-to you and your Mother,-and to let you know that this day we are going to Gloucester, in order to give Dunmore a meeting where he is now landed, with a large number of Troops, and God knows whether I ever shall see you again,-but if I am spaired [sic], I shall come and see. If I don't return, I desire you will receive the money from Alexander Moor, and all my cloathes [sic], bridle and saddle which I left with him, and if you should hear of my death Give the money, and all the rest of my Effects to my sister Judith. She lives on Childers Creek, in Halifax county.-As my brother is in the army I desire that she shall have it-for I did not expect him to come in the army at all.
To Mr. Leonard Baker, Halifax, Banister River.
Per Favor of William Royal.
Elkanah Hampton.
Will Book 16, page 435, Oct. 15, 1832:
"Inventory and appraisement of the estate of Richard W. Haymes, deceased. Considerable estate in land, slaves, household goods, and horses, sheep, hogs, cows, etc."

January 9, 1761-Will of John Harrison.
"Wife, Sarah my eldest son, James John and Andrew Harrison, my sons Richard and Isam Harrison, my sons daughters, Mary, Anne, Martha and Elizabeth.
"Executors: John Chisum, my friend, and John Williams Daniel (my wife's brother), and Sarah Harrison, my wife, executrix.
"John Harrison."
Witnesses: Joseph Collins, Francis Luck and Thomas Greenwood.

In 1751, Samuel Harris obtains an attachment against the estate of Daniel Baskett. Rachel Sizemore, the garnishee, appears in court on oath and declared, "I have nothing of the estate or the effects of Daniel Baskett in my hands." Attachment dismissed.

1820, January 27-Will of Laban Hawkins.
"I give to my son, Joel Hawkins (or rather have given), &c.
"To my son, Mastin Hawkins to my daughter, Nancy R. Jennings daughters, Elizabeth B., Sarah M., Frances W. and Martha M. Hawkins.
"I give to my youngest son, Tazewell M. Hawkins, when he shall become the age of 21. My two sons, John and Royal Hawkins, to remain with my beloved wife during her life and be supported out of my estate, not yet mentioned.
"Executors: My son, Mastin, and David B. McGehee.
"Laban Hawkins."
Witnesses: John B. McGehee, Paschal Waddill.
Saml. Williams, C. H. C.

1772-James Henry, of Accomac county, sells to Alexander Douglass, for 70 pounds, 1,128 acres on Burches creek, the land James Henry purchased from Champness Terry, called the "Order Land."
Witnesses: Benj. Echols, William Powell and Phil A. Malone.
1772, October 31-James Henry, of Accomac county, leases to Peter Wilson, of Halifax county, land for the term of twenty-one years on south side of Sandy creek at Williams line. Wilson agrees to build a good square log dwelling house, 20x16 feet, shingled with heart of pine shingles and put on with nails a barn, 30x20 feet, built in the same manner. He was to plant 200 apple trees of good grafted fruit and 500 peach trees in seven years from commencement of the lease, leaving everything in good tenantable condition at the expiration of the lease.
Witnesses: Thomas Lovelace, Lewis Haley and John (X) Scurlock.
1772, October 31-James Henry, of Accomac county, leases to Barnard McColluch 400 acres on Sandy creek. McColluch agrees to put a good stone cellar under the new dwelling house, built with lime and good brick lime built chimney to the said house, lath and plaster the house and glaze the windows build a good barn, at least 40x20 feet, of square logs and heart pine shingles plant and raise 300 apple trees and 500 peach trees, and make and leave on the premises 20 acres of meadow ground in good timothy or other meadow grass. The land not to be let to under tenants, and as soon as land sufficient can be cleared the said McColluch not to put Indian corn or tobacco in the same land more than once in three years. If rents were behind (except in case of sickness) six months, the contract was forfeited.
Witnesses: Thomas Lovelace, William Ryburn, John Henry, Joseph (X) Scurlock.
1759, March 13-Indenture between Hugh Henry and Mary, his wife, of Halifax county, parish of Antrim. Sells to Archibald Gordon 325 acres, the same being the patent bearing date November 14, 1758, granted to Hugh Henry and being in the county of Halifax and parish of Antrim.
1780, October 17-James Henry, of the county of King and Queen, sells to John Pankey parcel of land on Burches creek, 200 acres.
William Ryburn (for James Henry).
1772, October 31-James Henry leases to Thos. Lovelace tract of land, same contract as McCulluch's (on Sandy creek).
1772, November 7-James Henry leases to Mark Milner, 400 acres on north side of Sandy creek. Contract same as the foregoing.
(Signed) William Ryburn (for James Henry).
1757, March 28-John Hickey, county of Halifax, merchant, against Samuel Girdon, surviving partner of James Boyd, in the town of Blandford in the county of Prince George, merchant, suit to recover losses by Boyd.
Witnesses: James Fowles, L. Claiborne, Jr., Will Eppes, Francis Poythress.
1859, April 22-Will of John Hodges, Sr.
Wife, Sarah daughters, Ann Eliza, Catherine and Rebecca Hodges sons, Alexander, Aaron J., William M., Beverly and George F. Hodges.
John F. Hodges, Sr.
1769-John Hodge, of Orange county, sells to Hedgeman Warren, 125 acres in Halifax county on his creek.
John Hodge.

Witnesses: Timothy Holt, Timothy Warren, Hackley Warren.

1798, September 4-Will of Nancy Holt.
"To my sisters, Tabitha Boyd and Christian Holt brother, John Holt.
"Executor, John Holt.
"Nancy Holt."
Witnesses: Mary Holt, Jerry Terry.
1792, February 10-Will of Peter Holt.
"I, Peter Holt, &c.
"And first being sorry from the bottom of my heart for my sins past, most humbly desire forgiveness for the same, &c.
"My well beloved wife, Molly sons, John, Richard and Peter daughters, Nancy, Tabitha, Kitty, Molly and Sally.
"Peter Holt."
1778, October 15-Henry Hopson, Sr., sells to Henry Hopson, Jr., for the sum of 2,000 pounds, good and lawful money, 309 acres on north side of Dan river.
Witnesses: William Pettus Martin, Joseph Hopson, Samuel Hopson.
1778, October 20-Henry Hopson sells, "as well for the consideration of two pounds of good and lawful money, as the natural love and affection I have for the said Joseph Hopson."
Witnesses: Henry Hopson, Jr., and Samuel Hopson.

January 26, 1829-Will of Thomas Howerton.
Wife, Tabitha sons, James H. Howerton and Robert W. Howerton (mentions young children by my present wife). "To my daughter, Mary Ann F. Howerton, one chest of drawers, one large folding table, one curtain bedstead, bed and furniture, which came to me by intermarriage with her mother my sons, William Howerton and Thomas Howerton my daughter, Jane Wayne a large number of slaves, and at her death to be divided with their increase between all of her children by William Pointer, her former husband. To my daughter, Elizabeth Hester, ten slaves, &c. to my daughter, Mary Ann F. Howerton, all the land I derived by intermarriage with my second wife, Elizabeth Graves, devised to her by her former husband, Howell Graves.
"Money bequeathed to my son, Thomas Howerton, to be equally divided between my five oldest children, viz.: Elizabeth Hester, Jane Wayne, William Howerton, Thomas Howerton and Robert W. Howerton.
"Wife, Tabitha (or Tulucha), executrix William and Thomas Howerton and Robert Hester, executors."
Witnesses: Daniel Shelton, James Howerton, John Blane and William Sydnor.
(Philip Howerton one of the securities.)

1783-Moza Hurt sells to Philemon Hurt land in Halifax county lying on Terrible creek.
1793, January 17-Phebe Hurt, widow of Moza Hurt, deceased, for the sum of ten pounds, paid by Philemon and James Hurt, executors for Moza Hurt, sold to them her third of the estate with rights and titles.
Witness: Polly Mann.
1788, April 2-Moza Hurt, of Bedford county, sells to Thomas Hodges, of Halifax county, 30 acres of land, being a part of Wilson Mattox's survey.
1793-Will of Moza Hurt.
Sons, Philemon and James.
"To my son, James Hurt, the land whereon he now lives in Campbell county, containing 617 acres."
Daughters, Patience and Prudence Hurt, Sarah Prewett (wife of Michael Prewett), Jane (deceased), wife of John Adams.
"My poor daughter, Jane, already departed this life, whereas, by the tender indulgence and earnest importunity of my wife, in the year 1763, I believe, I made a deed of gift of sundry of my negroes to my then four children, namely, Jane, Bettie, Philemon and Sarah Hurt. This is recorded at Campbell Court House.
"Some years ago I loaned to John Adams and Jane, his wife (my daughter), a negro girl, and to Michael Prewett and Bettie, his wife (my daughter), a negro girl, &c.
"Those who have had the greatest trouble raising the negro children should have their preference in their choice.
"I appoint my sons, Philemon and James Hurt, my whole and sole executors.
"M. Hurt."
Witnesses: William Mann, Stith Harrison, Robert Mann, Polly Mann.

Estate of Joseph Hunt appraised March 18, 1756. Wife, Rachel.

Will Book III, page 123-Will of George Isbell.
Wife, Mary sons, John, George and Thomas D. Isbell daughters, Sarah, Nancy, Polly and Agatha.
Executrix, wife Mary executor, Isaac Oakes.
Witnesses: William Collins, Jacob Faulkner, Richard Holland, Elizabeth Holland, George Foster, Caty Faulkner.

1792, July 19-Anthony Irby sells to William Irby, for 200 pounds of current rent money, four hundred acres of land on both sides of Banister river.
Witnesses: Armis Watlington, James R. Hall, Henry Thomas, Jr.
1791, June 25-Charles Irby, of the county of Pittsylvania, and William Sampson, of the county of Charlotte, for fifty pounds, Irby sells to Sampson, 153 acres on both sides of Bye creek.
Witnesses: John Stewart, Francis Sampson, Nancy Williams, Samuel Irby, Edmund Irby.
1790, August 6-William McDaniel and Patty, his wife, sell to Charles Irby, 620 acres of land on both sides of Bye creek, beginning at Luke Williams' corner.
1793-Charles Irby, "for and in consideration of good will and affection I bear and have to my son, Edward Irby," a negro boy, &c.
Witnesses: James Henry, Will J. Tunstall, David Fuqua.
Geo. Carrington, C. C.
Wm. Thompson, D. C. C.
1795, July 11-"I, Harrison Irby, of Halifax county, for three hundred pounds to me in hand paid by said Nancy Willey and William Irby, as also for the love and natural affection I have for my two daughters and son, William, above named," gave each a negro.
Witnesses: John R. Hall, William Irby and Thomas Robins.
1797-Charles Irby sells to Richard Waslne 35 acres on Banister river.
Witnesses: Samuel Landrum, John Hannor, Robert Mann.
1803-Charles Irby sworn in for constable.
1802, May 20-Deed of gift between Harrison Irby and Elizabeth Irby, his wife, of one part, and Dolly P. Irby, Harriott Harvey and Mildred Irby of the other part. Witnesseth, that the said Harrison Irby and Elizabeth, his wife, "for and in consideration of one ear of Indian corn, to them in hand paid, but more especially for the natural love and affection which the said Harrison and Elizabeth Irby hath and doth bear to the said Dolly P. Irby, Harriott Irby and Mildred Irby, children of the said Harrison and Elizabeth," gives them negroes, stock, cattle, hogs, horses, household and kitchen furniture, all and every part of his estate to be equally divided between them, &c., "but nevertheless saving to the said H. and E. Irby the whole and sole use of the above mentioned estate during their natural lives."
William M. Irby, John S. Irby, Samuel J. Irby, John Chandler, Jacob H. Ferguson, B. B. Browder, Jane Adams, Elizabeth C. Jones, James Adkisson, assignee of John McGregor and Mary, his wife, on the first day of November, 1838, did give to the said Armistead Barksdale, Sr., the power of attorney authorizing him to sell and convey their interest in the lands of the late Samuel Irby. Armistead Barksdale sells to William S. Barksdale, of Halifax, a certain portion of the land of which the said Samuel Irby died seized, 121 acres, the dower land held by Mrs. Nancy Irby, it being a part of the land of which Samuel Irby died seized and claimed by the said William M. Irby, John S. Irby, Samuel J. Irby and Jane Adams, as the children of the said Samuel Irby, deceased.
(Signed) John Barksdale,
Elisha Barksdale.
1825, February 25-Indenture between Wm. M. Irby and Polly, his wife, and James Bruce and Gerard Banks, Jr., partners trading under the firm of Gerard Bruce, Jr., & Company, sells them 158 acres, bounded as follows, &c. Anthony Irby, Samuel Irby, Jarrett Irby, Elisha Dismukes and Zachariah Williams.
An account of the sales of the personal estate of William Irby, deceased:
To John Ashlock, rug and two blankets.
To Michael Brewer, ten barrels of corn.
To William Boyd, six deep pewter plates.
To Benjamin Boxley, glass cann., cruets and sugar chest.
To George Boyd, four basins, one dozen knives and forks.
To John Brewer, one loomb and five ganders.
To William Chandler, three old Bibles and one prayer book.
To James Hill, large oval table, tumblers and wine glasses.
To Harrison Irby, horses, plantation utensils, &c., rush bottom chairs, leather bottom chairs, six silver teaspoons, case of bottles, one dozen flowered queens china, coffee cups and saucers.
To John Irby, Lucy Irby, Susannah Irby and Anthony Irby and Charles Irby, various and sundry articles of more or less value.
To Nathaniel Terry a horse named Scott.
To Robert Wooding, a negro woman named Martin and her child.
To ---, six Latin books.
Paul Carrington,
Clerk of Court of Halifax ---.
I have only copied a partial list of the sales, as the entire list filled several pages, and evinced considerable holdings, by William Irby.
1797, October 22-Will of Anthony Irby.
"Wife, Catherine sons, Charles and William daughters, Sarah Turner, Chloe Moore, Wilmouth Hall and Elizabeth Motley granddaughter, Nancy Irby (daughter of Harrison Irby granddaughter, Wilmouth Irby (daughter of Harrison Irby) "my daughter, Ann Irby, and my daughter, Caty Irby" Anthony Irby Moore (son of Reuben Moore) grandson, William Irby (son of Harrison Irby).
Executors: William Irby, Charles Irby, Harrison Irby.
Geo. Carrington,
Clerk of Court.
In 1746, Joseph Ironmonger takes up 200 acres, then again 272 acres, beginning at Isham Kenner's, and again 76 acres on Banister river.
He comes into the county for a brief spell, buys land, gets in debt, has a lawsuit and leaves.
Ironmonger (a dealer in iron), not a common name he furnished the Colony with some sons of iron nerve to fight in the Revolution.
The name has disappeared from this county, but the emigrant may be found in Gloucester county records, where William Francis and Eliza Ironmonger came to the Colony in 1653, and in 1658 Francis took up land in his own name.
1774, March 3-Inventory of William Irby's estate. Given under our hands this third day of March, 1774.
William Thompson,
Nathaniel Cocke.
1773, December 17-Will of James Irvine, county of Halifax, Colony of Virginia.
"My dearly beloved wife, Jennett my Well beloved son, John my second and well beloved son, James my third and well beloved son, Samuel my fourth and well beloved son, William my fifth and well beloved son, Alexander, and my well beloved daughters, Mary, Margaret, Jane and Isabel my son by law, Robert Sharmon."
(Signed) "James Irvine."
Witnesses: David Lawson, Joseph Johnston, John Shaw and William Kimsey.

James Johnston, planter of Halifax county, buys from William Byrd land at Hickory on Hico river. Paid sum of forty shillings. Must have been a friendly gift.
1779-Will of Joseph Johnston.
Wife, Janette. Bequeaths her all he has after her death to go to Joseph Jones, of Dinwiddie county-"all my estate, real and personal."
Wife executrix Thomas and Joseph Jones, executors.
1829, December 11-Indenture between Robert Jordan, of the one part, and Edward M. Carrington of the other. Robert Jordan sells to Edward M. Carrington, for the sum of one thousand and ninety-seven dollars, a parcel of land containing 219 acres, beginning at Fourqurean's and John Carrington's corner, thence on John Carrington's line (which is a little crooked), crossing Stokes creek and the Boston road.

Book 11, page 48, May 5, 1815-Inventory and appraisement of the estate of Samuel Kirby, deceased, late a lieutenant in the army of the United States:
One negro boy, Stephen.
One dark colored or black gelding.
One saddle, bridle and martingale.
Two sealskin trunks with wearing apparel.
One sword belt.
Book 19, page 98, January 22, 1836-Will of Mary Kirby.
"To dear and beloved sister, Orpha Hamblin (wife of John Hamblin).
"To three other sisters, Esther Farmer, Sarah Ferguson and Edith Anderson."
Executor: "My much esteemed and respected Benjamin Kirby."
Book 11, page 229, December 7, 1817-Will of Henry B. Kirby.
"To the heirs of my son, Obediah Kirby sons, Jeremiah and Richard Kirby to the heirs of my daughter, Orpha Hamlin son, Hezekiah Sarah Orpha Hamlin, Mary Edith Anderson and Mary Kirby Joel, a son of Jeremiah Kirby, and my grandson, James Kirby, son of Richard Kirby."
Hezekiah Kirby, a "person of unsound mind." The children are to give annually a certain sum from their part of the estate to the support of Hezekiah.
1775-Indenture, Leonard Keeling sells to James Johnston 300 acres of land in Halifax county. Both James Johnston and Keeling lived in Charlotte county.
1781, August 30-Will of Richard Kirby.
"To my beloved wife, Sarah, I bequeath during her natural life one hundred acres of land on Burches creek, a feather bed, cow and calf, a sow and pigs, two good ewes and lambs, iron pots, hooks, pewter dishes and basins, two knives and two forks, a trunk and a feather bed left her by her father. Sons, Joseph, Richard and William Kirby. Brother, Henry Kirby.
"Richard Kirby."
1809, July 24-Will of Obediah Kirby.
Wife, Ruth sons, Samuel, John, Moses, Jacob and Pleasant Kirby (last four not of age).
In 1769, July 27, Richard Kirby married Esther Anderson (daughter of Richard Anderson).
In 1786, December 19, Joseph Kirby married Orpha Anderson.

1802, December 12-Will of Thomas Lacy.
"To the children of my deceased son, Elisha Lacy, viz.: Tatum, Elisha, Thomas and Betty Epps Lacy.
"To my son, Matthew Lacy son, Reuben Lacy daughters, Drusilla Pound, Magdelena Abbott, Christian Godby and Sally King granddaughters, Betsy Roberts.
"Executors: Matthew and Reuben Lacy.
"Thos. Lacy."
Witnesses: John Tuck, Benj. Rodgers, Edy (X) Tuck, Rebecca Tuck, Drusilla Lack.

1774, November 15-Will of David Lawson.
"To my seven children, viz.: Anna, William, David, Aaron, James, Elihu and Elizabeth Lawson.
"To well beloved wife, Frances Lawson, &c.
"Executors: Wife, Frances, and well beloved friends, John Lawson and John Armstrong."
Witnesses: Alex. Irvine, William Powell, Jane (X) Lawson, Mary (X) Irvine.
Inventory of the estate of Captain Francis Lawson (deceased), July 11, 1755. Appraised by Joseph Johnston, Alex. Irwin, David Lawson and Charles Smith.
George Currie, teste, and clerk.
The inventory was lengthy and included a pair of leather breeches, beaver hat, shoes and buckles, money, scales, large Bible and small Bible, a Testament and two books, "one still and the vessels belonging to her, 21 pounds."
1776, October 14-Will of John Lawson.
"To my oldest son, John Lawson, &c. to my son, Thomas Lawson to my son, Francis Lawson (not yet of age) to my daughter, Mary Brandon to my daughter, Elizabeth Irvine to my daughter, Margaret Lawson (not yet eighteen years old) to my well beloved wife, Prisilla Lawson, &c.
"Executors: My brother, William Lawson, Micajah Watkins, John Brandon and John Irvine.
"John Lawson."
(A large estate and very liberal will.)

1779, January 7-Will of John Ligon.
"Wife, Judith sons, Blackman. In case my son, Blackman, is dead, or should die before he leaves the army, the land shall return to my son, John Ligon.
"To my son, Joseph Ligon, &c., and it is my desire that he shall act and dispose of his estate as if he was actually 21 years of age.
"Executrix: My wife, Judith executors, my sons, John, Thomas, James, Obediah, Henry, Blackman and Joseph.
"John Ligon."
Witnesses: John Flinn, Jr., Robert Jordan, Ety Jordan.

1813, May 22-Will of David Logan.
"To my brother, William Logan nephew, Richard Logan sisters, Rosy Caldwell and Martha Walker (deceased) brother, James Logan.
"To the children of my brother, Robert Logan (deceased), all were to share and share alike."
Executors: William Logan, Epaphroditus Sydnor.
Witnesses: "In the presence of us, the Wards, and brother Robin's children, John Stone, Rawley White, Jr., Wm. McCraw, Wm. Walne."
David Logan had a large estate for that day and generation, including fifty slaves, household and furniture, plantations and utensils and products, horses, cattle, &c., and a "large Bible, Watts' hymns, Life of Washington, Life of Pope, a parcel of old books and books on surgery."
1807, August 10-Will of John Logan.
"To my sons, David and William Logan, &c. to the children of my son, Robert Logan (deceased) to my son, James Logan, twelve hundred acres in the county of Franklin, State of Kentucky (lands I bought from David Caldwell, October 17, 1803).
"To my daughter, Rosy Caldwell my daughter, Martha Walker, thirteen slaves, left by the will of Richard Dudgeon, to be equally divided among my children. My sons, David and William Logan, executors.
"John Logan."
1779, October 28-Will of Richard Logan.
"My brothers, David and William, executors.
"Richard Logan."
Witnesses: George Landrum, John Moore.

1758, August 20-Will of William Maybee.
Wife, Susannah sons, Vardry, James, Mathias, Samuel daughters, Elizabeth Howard, Johannah Walters and Mary Austin.
William (his-X-mark) Maybee.
Teste: Richard Davis, Henry Farmer, Christopher Snead.

1866, July 8-Will of Parham Moon.
"It is my will and desire that all of my property of whatsoever description be kept together until my youngest child becomes of age, then I wish said property to be divided between my wife and children according to law.
"I desire that the portion of my estate falling to my daughter, Mary Ann Graves, be held in trust for her benefit by her brother, James A. Moon, free from the claim or claims of any person whomsoever the same as if she had never married, and if she dies without legal heirs, issue of her body, then the portion falling to her I wish to revert back to my heirs at law. I have made advances to four of my children in negroes and money, viz.: Thos. A., Jas. A., Edward B. and Mary Ann Graves. In the division of my property I do not require Mary Ann Graves to account for any advance heretofore made to her, but wish her to share equally with my younger children who have received nothing. And as the slaves given to the older sons have been liberated by law I do not require them to account for said slaves, as an advance of property from me to them.
"My sons, James A. Moon and Edward B. Moon, executors, and I request that the court will not require them to give security.
"Parham Moon."
Witnesses: W. T. Fourqurean, Jos. E. M. Palmer, Walter C. Carrington.

1780, July 14-Will of Robert Mann.* Wife, Phoebe.
"It is my will, and I accordingly order, that all my estate, which I have lent unto my said wife, Phoebe Mann, of every sort and kind, except such as is herein given, be after her death sold, and the money arising from such sale be equally divided among all my children, namely: Lucy Nichols, Sally Easley, Agnes Harrison, Betsy Mann, William Mann, Francis Mann, Phoebe, Patience, Robert, John, Joel and Polly Mann. And lastly I appoint and constitute my friends, Paul Carrington, Matthew Sims and Evan Ragland, my executors.
"R. Mann."
Signed, sealed, published and delivered by the said testators in the presence of H. Goare, Elizabeth C. (X) Younger and William (X) Ferguson.
Evan Ragland and John Irby, securities for Phoebe Mann, relict of Robert Mann.
*Robert Mann was the son of Francis Mann, of Amelia county, whose will was dated there in 1753, September 4th, and names "My sons, Page Mann, Francis Mann, Cain Mann, Robert Mann, Abel Mann, Joel Mann and John Mann. Daughters, Lucy Mann and Agnes Mann." Wife Elizabeth. Executor, "My son, Robert Mann." Agnes Mann married Hezekiah Coleman.

1823, January 7-Will of Drury Major.
"Wife, Elizabeth daughter, Elizabeth R. Jeffress grandsons, Drury James and Samuel Bedford Major my grandchildren, Eliza Ann Major, Martha Green, M. Elizabeth, Robert M., and Samuel Spotsville Major (children of my son, Samuel Major, deceased).
"Drury Major."
Witnesses: Sarah, Samuel and Anne Hill.

1795, November 3-Will of Daniel Malone.
"To my daughter, Mary Irvine daughter, Elizabeth Tranum son, Thomas son Nathaniel daughter, Becky Andrews sons, Drury, John, Jameson and Banister.
"Daniel X Malone."
Executors: James Irvine, Clement Tranum and John Andrews.
Witnesses: James Reynolds, Saml. Pate, Wm. Irvine, John Irvine, Burwell Grant.
Codcil [sic] to Daniel Malone's will:
"I give to my daughter, Polly Harding, one shilling.
"I give to my daughter, Susanna Reynolds (deceased), one shilling.
"I give to my son, Peter Malone, one shilling.
"Daniel (X) Malone."

1805, October 28-Will of James Medley.
"To my three daughters, Jenny Adkisson, Lucy Medley and Mourning Medley and Polly Wood sons, James Towles Medley, Isaac Medley.
"I do appoint my sons, Isaac Medley and Jesse Atkisson, my executors.
"James Medley."
Witnesses: Jas. T. Medley, Mourning and Lucy Medley, Benj. Wood, Henry Tally and John Henson.
1785-Mark Milner, of Halifax county, sells to Charles Irby, of same county, 100 acres on Banister river.
1851, February 22-The will of Isaac Medley, who was sheriff in 1811:
"To my beloved wife, Martha F. Medley, the dwelling house in which I now reside and the lands contiguous Miry creek land until it strikes the land I purchased from Benjamin Word's estate, thence on the road known as the Danville road, thence on to my store house twenty-three slaves, all dividends, my carriage and horses, farm horses, cows, calves, oxen and ox cart. Such as she shall select of beds, furniture, table furniture, household and kitchen furniture, not to exceed one-half of my stock."
As a token of regard he bequeaths to Nathaniel Duval Thomas, infant son of Martha Thomas ("niece of my wife") a slave named "Victoria."
"To my sons, James Medley and Isaac Medley, nine hundred acres on Dan river which I purchased from John G. Chalmers, embracing about five hundred acres also, which I purchased from Joseph W. Chalmers.
"In consideration of services rendered me by my son, James Medley, I also devise to him my tract of land on Dan river known as my "Marseilles tract," adjoining the lands of my brother, James T. Medley above and of James Bruce below, embracing the storehouse and lot on the road where James Medley now resides.
"I give to my son, James Medley, one thousand dollars, to be held in trust for the benefit of my grandson, Edwin F. Medley. I give to Edwin F. Medley also a horse, to be worth not more than $75.00, and a bridle and saddle.
"To my daughter, Rebecca Ballow, 190 acres on Miry creek, above the sawmill of Charles A. Ballow, which land the said Ballow has used with my consent for some time. I also give to my daughter, Rebecca, my lands between road leading from "Union Meeting House" to my mill on Miry creek.
"To my daughters, Martha C. Jackson, Mary A. Lea and Sarah D. Burks, lands lying along the Danville road that I purchased of James Bruce.
"All of my slaves not otherwise disposed of I bequeath to be equally divided among my children, James Medley, Isaac Medley, Granville C. Medley, Martha C. Jackson, Rebecca A. Ballow, Mary A. Lea and Sarah D. Burks.
"All advancement in slaves, &c., heretofore made to my said children or to their husbands are to be brought into the calculation upon the principles of 'Hotch Poch.'
"To my son, James, my large shotgun. To my son, Granville, my gold watch.
"Executors: My son, James Medley and my son-in-law, Charles A. Ballow.
"Isaac Medley."
Witnesses: Woodson Hughes, William T. Ballow, Thos. M. McCraw.
Codicil: "I also give my wife, Martha Medley my cook, Lucinda, and yellow Sam, 1,000 pounds of pork, 50 barrels of corn, 6 barrels of flour, 150 pounds of wool, 100 pounds of sugar, 40 pounds of coffee, and three sacks of salt as provisions for the first year after my death also give her six barrels of flour annually for five years after my death." February 22, 1851.
1837-"We, Isaac Medley and James Medley, magistrates of the county of Halifax." "We, Isaac and James Medley, justices of the peace, do testify," &c.

July 9, 1760-Will of Hugh Moore.
"My well beloved wife, Martha my beloved sons, John and Alexander my dear brother, John my daughters, Mary and Anne.
"I also desire that a right be made to Jos. Terry of 400 acres lying on Birches creek whereon he now dwelleth." (Balance torn out.)
1758-Haynes Morgan, Gent., produced a discharge from the 80th British Regiment, commanded by Montague Wilmott, Esq. Signed by James Grant, Esq., captain, commandant. A part of which said regiment was raised in this state in 1758.

1753, March 20-Exhibited in court the will of Joseph Morton, Sr., of Lunenburg county (Luningburg).
"Wife, Elizabeth sons, John, Joseph, Jehu my daughter, Jane Royl (Royal) daughter, Martha daughter, Ane.
"Executors: Captain Charles Anderson, Joseph Morton, Jr. son, John, and wife. December 7, 1749.
"Jos. (his-X-mark) Morton, Sr."
Witnesses: Thomas Morton, Joseph Morton, Jr., and Samuel Morton.
Teste: Geo. Currie.

1801, October 28-Will of William Nance.
"To my son, Thomas Vaughan Nance his wife and six youngest children to two grandsons, William Nance (son of Thomas and James Nance, son of Zachariah Nance), Zachariah Nance, and Daniel Palmer, trustees.
"To my daughter, Elizabeth Palmer to my daughter, Sarah Tucker to granddaughter, Lavinia Frances Bates granddaughter, Mary Vaughan Winter Tucker granddaughter, Mary Nance granddaughter, Kitty Palmer grandson, William Palmer to James W. Bates, son of James Bates granddaughter, Martha Vaughan (now deceased).
"Executor: Peter Barksdale.
"William (X) Nance."
Witnesses: William Sydnor, Anthony Sydnor, Josiah Clay.

1807, May 3-Will of Isaac Oates.
"Wife, Susannah son, Alxeander [sic] daughter, Caty Oates.
"Out of the profits of my estate I hope my wife may render my mother a comfortable support during her life. My children, Alexander, Catey, Thomas, William, Elizabeth Ricketts, Jane Sawyers, Sarah Haley grandsons, Theopholus and Isaac Haley, enjoy the part of their mother, Judith Haley, deceased Nancy Faulkner and Martha Easley to them and their heirs forever.
"Wife executrix executors, Alexander Oates, Joseph Faulkner.
"Isaac Oates."
1794, January Court-William Oliver appointed guardian for Thomas Bottom, orphan of Thomas Bottom, deceased.

1808, March 22-Will of Ambrose Owen.
"Wife, Mary sons, Champness, Daniel, "land on the road from Sims Ferry to Halifax" daughters, Sarah R. Nichols, Obedience Hudson, Mary Hudson, Tabitha Owen.
"Executors: My friends, John Clark and Charles Hundley.
"Ambrose Owen."
Witnesses: William Bailey, John Bacon, William Irby, Jr., William Hill, Sr.
1816, February 19-Will of John Owen.
Wife, Nancy children, Nancy E. Owen, Robert E. Owen, William E. Owen, Polly B. Owen and Thomas E. Owen. Each child to have a common school education.
Executor: "My friend, Thomas Easley."
Witnesses: Zach Rice, John W. Rice.
John Owen.
1753, August 7-Will of Richard Owen.
Wife, Elizabeth Owen.
"To Mary Owen (daughter of Richard Owen, Jr., and Lucy, his wife) a legacy, provided she lives with her grandmother until her decease or she herself marries and proves dutiful to her grandmother, Elizabeth Owen. To eldest son, John Owen, &c. to my daughter, Mary Nicolds, &c. to my son, Richard Owen, &c. to my son, Ralph Owen, &c. to my son, Henry Owen, &c. to my daughter, Elizabeth Stovaul to my son, William Owen, &c. to my son, Thomas Owen, &c. to my daughter, Sarah Wamaack to my well beloved sons, James Owen and Ambrose Owen, &c.
"Wife, Elizabeth, executrix James and Ambrose Owen, executors.
"Richard (his-X-mark) Owen."
Witnesses: David Green, Wm. W. Chandler, William Chandler, Jr.
1752, October 23-Will of William Owens.
"To my son, -- Owen, I give to him and his heares [sic] for Ever, -- Starlen also to my son, William Owens, I give hem [sic] one Shellen Starling also to my son, Lansford Owens, I give to hem [sic] One Shellen Starling to my daftor [sic], Mary Gevens, One Shellen Starling to my daftor [sic], An Medlin my daftor [sic], Joaner Kearbey my daftor [sic], Lyda Adkins, and also to Francis Kerby to grandson, John Kerby, a horse, bridle and saddle.
"John Kerby, Sr., and Francis Kerby, executors.
William (his-X-mark) Owens."
Witnesses: William Muller, Jacob Adkins, Jos. Kealton.

1819, February 22-Will of Sylvester Overby.
Sons, Byrd, Peter, John, Albert and William.
Sylvester Overby.
Executors: Stephen P. Pool, Byrd Overby.

Will Book 9, page 131, March 24, 1912:
"I, Skeron Osborne, of Halifax county, State of Virginia, etc. My son, John H. Osborne, son Edward, daughters Mary Osborne and Frances Preston. My beloved wife Lucy Osborne, to have all the residue of my estate not given to the above children during her life, as she will have the care of my three last children, Burwell Osborne, Pacca Osborne and Johannah Osborne, to be divided equally between them at her death.
"Executors: Edward Osborne, Burwell Osborne.
"Witnesses: Zachariah Rice, Samuel Osborne, Elizabeth (X) Osborne.
"Skeron Osborne."

1777, February 18-Will of John Parrott.
Wife, Ruth, executrix Thomas Stanfield and John Link, executors. Speaks of "all of my children," but does not name them.

1758, December 10-Will of James Patty.
"I, James Patty, planter, &c." Wife, Sarah sons, James, Charles and Jessey two daughters (names not given).

1794, June Court-Thomas Dobson appointed guardian for Elisha Palmer, orphan child of Ann Rebecca Palmer.
1794, September Court-Appraisement of the estate of Ann Rebecca Palmer (deceased). Deed of gift between Ann Rebecca De Jarnette and Elisha Palmer, James Palmer, plaintiff.
Augustine Palmer, being of proper age, came into court and made choice of Elisha Palmer as his guardian, who is appointed guardian of Archie, and therefore the said Elisha came into court with William Keen and Henry Bass, his executors, and entered into and acknowledged his bond in the penalty of five hundred pounds.
1806-Edward Palmer, of Halifax county, sells to Drury Palmer land on north side of Hico river.
(Signed) Edward Palmer.
This deed was recorded in 1806. Esther, the wife of Edward Palmer, cannot conveniently travel to our court in Halifax, relinquishes her dower, etc.
(Signed by Justices)
William Faulkner,
John Baynham, Gents.
1797-Edward Palmer, of Halifax county, sells to James Palmer, of the same county, 385 acres on south side of Hico river.
(Signed) Edward Palmer.
1778, March 17-Edward Palmer, of Mecklenburg county, bought a parcel of land in Halifax county on Hico river, beginning at Fontaine's corner, 160 acres.
(Signed) Eleazer and Mary Andrews.
1783-Deed, Thomas Palmer, Jr., of the Parish of Antrim, a tract of land to Elisha Palmer for sum of fifty pounds, land on which Elisha Palmer now lives, adjoining the land of Thomas Palmer, Sr., on the branches of Difficult creek.
1786-Deed of gift from Betty LeGrand, county of Halifax, in consideration of the great love and affection and regard for the said Elias Palmer, her son-in-law, "all her dower, both real and personal, of her late husband's estate, John LeGrand, deceased."
(Signed) Betty LeGrand.
Witness: David Traynham.

1759, August 4-Will of John Phillips.
"To my loving sister, Jane Jones to Annie Finch, provided her mother will swear me to be the father of her to John Phillips, son of Priscilla Phillips, land in Caroline county to my loving friend, Radford Maxey, my wearing clothes, a negro and land in Lunenburg county to my friend, Peter Hudson, &c.
"Executors: Radford Maxey, William Fuqua.
"John Phillips."

1803, November 25-Will of Jesse Pleasants.
Wife, Elizabeth daughters, Elizabeth Waddle, Mary Keen, Nancy Woodson, Martha Pleasants and Judith Pleasants.
"To my son, John Pleasants, all my tract of land whereon I now live after my wife's decease also a tract of land that came by my wife in Greenbriar county.
"Jesse Pleasants."
Executors: William Keene, William Button, Thomas Dobson.
Witnesses: Giles Thweat, Richard Abbott, William (his-X-mark) Owen.

1837, May 16-Will of Eliza J. Poindexter.
"I give to my husband, Abraham M. Poindexter, the privilege of living on my land on which I now reside so long as he may choose as a home to him and family." Then the lands are to be sold and divided in seven parts, her husband receiving one-seventh with her children.
"To son, Charles J. Craddock, one-seventh to son, John W. Craddock, two-sevenths to Sarah (Craddock) Jarvis, two-sevenths, and the remaining two to my daughter, Fannie R. Poindexter.
"Do not wish my husband to pay back the money that I have loaned him (heretofore mentioned). My will is that he shall be released from payment thereof except so far as he may find it convenient to pay without the sale of property.
"I give to my husband five slaves to Charles, three slaves and my silver ladle to John W., four slaves and Louisa also (if he will have her), otherwise put her up to the highest bidder among my four children.
"I give also to Sarah Jarvis one slave in fee simple.
"Eliza J. Poindexter."
Mrs. Poindexter had a large estate and made very wise and liberal legacies.

1753, September 20-Deed from Francis Pollard and Betsy, his wife, of Bedford county, Virginia, to Stephen Clements and heirs, Benjamin Clements, Sr., Benjamin Clements, Jr., and John Wheeler, testators, fourteen pounds of current money of Virginia.

1766, July 18-Will of Edward Powell.
Wife, Elizabeth sons, William, David, Mark and Luke Powell.
"To my daughter, Jane Medlock my daughter, Mary Tuck grandson, Zachariah Medlock."
Executors: William Powell and William, Gent. Ed Powell.
Witnesses: Anthony Colquitt, Christian Colquitt, James William, Gent.
1774-Inventory of the estate of Edward Powell (deceased), David Powell, William Powell, Luke Powell, Mark Powell, John Tuck, for his wife Moore Matlock, for his wife.
1766, July 18-Will of Edward Powell, "of the Parish of Antrim."
"My loving wife, Elizabeth Powell my four sons, William, David, Mark and Luke."
Executors: William Powell, William, Gent.
Witnesses: Anthony Colquitt, Christian Colquitt, James Williams, Gent.

1779, March 13-Will of James Pulliam.
Mentions as legatees brothers and sisters, John, Joseph, Drusilla, Jane Allen, Agnes Allen, Susannah, Molly, Nancy and George.
"My well beloved father, Joseph Pulliam, Sr.," he appoints sole executor. Witnesses: Stephen and Agnes Wade.

1755, May 16-Will of Daniel Pruitt,
Wife, Sarah sons, William and John Pruitt daughters, Ann, Welthy and Lucy. Wife, Sarah Pruitt, executrix William and John Pruitt, executors.
Witnesses: John Austin, Sr., and John Austin, Jr.
Daniel (his-X-mark) Pruitt.

1792, November 13-Will of Evan Ragland.
"To my son, John Ragland, 600 acres, seven negroes, farm products, &c.
"To my son, Lipscomb, 620 acres, seven negroes, household and farm products.
"To my daughter, Anne Hopson, eight negroes, furniture, a black walnut chest and ninety pounds and eight shillings.
"To my son, Evan Ragland, all the remainder of my land.
"To son, John, also a horse and riding chair.
"To daughter, Anne Ragland, also eight negroes, furniture, farm products, cattle and my black mare "Pilgrim" and a new side saddle also the black Walnut chest known by the name of "My chest" also two trunks and two hundred pounds in cash to be paid in gold or silver.
"I nominate, constitute and appoint my sons, John Ragland, Lipscomb Ragland and Evan Ragland and Henry Hopson my sole executors.
"Evan Ragland."
Witnesses: E. Ragland, Adam Winders, Reform Boyd, Mary (X) Winders.
1818, December 28-Estate of Clement Ragland. John Ragland, administrator. Witnesses: Thomas Easley, Richard E. Bennett, Robert E. Scott.
1813, October 2-Estate of Lipscomb Ragland. Clement Ragland, administrator.
1764-Clement Read, eldest son and heir of Clement Read, deceased, of Parish of Cornwall, county of Lunenburg, sells to Anthony Irby, of the county of Brunswick, land on Banister river in Halifax county.
1765-William Drew and Sarah Drew, his wife, sell to John Irby, 200 acres in county of Halifax, being the land and plantation conveyed from Peter Fontaine to said Drew by indenture bearing date April 9, 1760.

1823, August 29-Wife, Rebeckah, "all of my land or such as may fall to me hereafter in Halifax, Powhatan or Cumberland counties, or lands that I may be entitled to of the estate of Ray Moss, of Mecklenburg county.
"My daughter, Eliza H. M. Redd, Sally Woodson, Amanda Mayo Redd, Ann Redd sons, George William Redd, Rebeckah Redd, Thomas Redd, James Tucker Redd, Robert Hoyt Redd, Anderson Cooke Redd, and Martha James Redd.
"My wife, Rebeckah, executrix my friends, William Thaxton, of Halifax, and Richard W. Mechaum, of Pittsylvania county my brother, Robert Redd, of Mecklenburg county my son-in-law, Thomas Jefferson Woodson, of Kentucky, my executors.
"Thomas Redd."
Witnesses: John P. Woodson, John F. Farley, James Faulkner.

1829, August 24-Will of William T. Reves.
"To my wife, Mechael Reves my children, William, Thomas, Elizabeth Nancy, Peter, Sally S. and John Y. Reves.
"My friend, Joel Hubbard, executor.
"William T. Reves."
Peter Reves, William C. Ferrell, Leonard Milner, John C. Clark and John Ferrell, securities.

1794, September 29-Will of Jane Roberts.
Sons, Moses, William, Peter, Daniel and Thomas daughters, Molly Anderton and Sally Fulkerson.
1774, November 5-Will of John Roberts.
"Loving wife, Jane." Sons, Francis, Moses, William, Daniel, Peter and Thomas. Daughters, Jane Wooldridge, Molly, Betsy and Sally Roberts.
Executors: Francis and Moses Roberts.
(A large estate in land and negroes.)
1801, April 30-Will of Peter Roberts.
Beloved wife, Sarah daughters, Patsy, Betsy, Nancy Willingham (wife of Jarrell Willingham) sons, William and Peter.
"Executors: Trusted and beloved friends, William Terry and George Camp.
"Witnesses: Joseph Allen, Charles Allen.
"Peter (X) Roberts."
Book 3, page 1795-Will of Janne Roberts.
Sons, William, Peter, Moses, Daniel and Thomas daughters, Jane Wooldridge, Molly Anderton and Sally Fulkerson.
Janne (X) Roberts.
Executors: William Roberts, Theo. Roberts.
Witnesses: Thomas Dobson, William Chandler, Edward Hall.
1774, November 5-Book 1, page 145-Will of John Roberts.
"Loving wife Jane," to whom he was very liberal. "My sons, Francis, Moses, William, Daniel Roberts, Peter Roberts, Thomas Roberts daughters, Jane Wooldridge, Molly Roberts, Betty Roberts, Sally Roberts."
John Roberts.
Executors: Francis Roberts, Moses Roberts.
Witnesses: Reuben Ragland, John Hughes, George Camp.
Recorded March 21, 1776. Inventory shows a goodly estate and twenty slaves.
Book 3, page 82, December 23, 1793-Will of Francis Roberts.
Daughters, Susannah, wife of John Bruce Polly, wife of Josiah Chandler.
"My four children, Humphrey Roberts, Susannah Bruce, John Roberts and Polly Chandler, equal parts in my estate.
"Executors: My beloved brothers, William and Thomas Roberts.
"Francis (X) Roberts."
Witnesses: Thomas Dobson, Simon Holt, David Street.
Dec. 23, 1793.
Book 29, page 426, September 5, 1866-Will of James P. Roberts.
"To my loving wife" (does not mention her name), all of his estate, which is to be sold at her death and divided among the following children: "My daughter, Margaret T. Watkins, Patty C. Faulkner and Anna G. Walthall.
"I wish Thomas A. Watkins and Isaac M. Faulkner to carry this my said will into effect."
Jas. P. Roberts.
Witnesses: William G. Morton, E. B. Spencer, Thomas Hamilton.
1797, January 27-Michael Roberts, Gent., sheriff of the county, sells certain lands (the property of the Commonwealth) to Charles Irby.
1836, February 22-William D. Roberts, guardian for Lucinda B. Hill (daughter of John Hill, member of General Assembly for Halifax county, 1813-15).
1837, November 1-Settlement of his estate with William Bailey, executor.. Names mentioned in bill of settlement: Jas. P. Roberts, Jas. T. Hill, Paul Street (security for J. W. Scott), H. Clark, Thos. Hubbard, Thos. H. Averett, Robert Hurt, Stephen Palmer, George Boyd, Hartwell Chandler, William Roberts, William H. Lewis, John M. Clark, William Bailey, William D. Roberts, Mrs. Hill, Isham Rice, Thos. Webb, Paul Taylor.
1774, February 10-Indenture made the fifth day of March between Walter Robertson, merchant, of the county of Halifax, and John Patterson, of the county of Lunenburg, merchant. Robertson sells to Patterson 210 acres on Hazell Creek joining the lands of Aaron Williams.

1775, March 7-Will of William Russell.
Wife, Anna son, William Russell, Jr. daughters, Anna Light, Sarah Walters, Lucreasy Dodson, Elizabeth Russell and Judith Bennett sons, Buckner, Russell and Absalom Russell.
Witnesses: John Pulliam, Mary Watkins, Micajah Watkins.

1756, March 8-Will of Daniel Ryan.
"I, Daniel Ryan, planter, Halifax county, Colony of Virginia, &c.
"My wife, Elizabeth son, Darby Reyan Mary, my oldest doter dafter, Elizabeth." Children under age.
Dannel Ryan.
Executor: Robert Jones.

1818, January 27-Will of Alex. Scott.
"I, Alex. Scott (now of Fauquier county).
"My last wife, Sarah (Batten or Batter) my son (by this wife), Patrick Henry Scott," to whom he leaves a tract of land to be rented for his benefit until he becomes of age.
"This is all I can do for my dear child."
"To my dear wife, slaves, carriage, one-third of the best horses" and requests her to employ Mr. William Leigh, of Halifax, to adjust some law business and prosecute Christopher Hunt for claim against him.
"I give this to my wife in fact as a payment to her for a large sum of money which I have used of hers, having a balance of seventeen hundred due, which I have bequeathed to my son, Patrick Henry Scott.
"My first children cannot complain at this arrangement when I assure them that the use of their mother's money was the salvation of my personal property and has enabled me to make the present provisions for them.
"To my son, Alexander Brown Scott to my four daughters, Sarah, Fanny, Harriett and Christian Scott, till Christian arrives at the age of 18 or marries.
Executors: "My son-in-law, Edward Cute, and son, Alex. Brown Scott, and my dear wife, executrix."
He requests his son, Alex. Brown Scott, to visit his mother in Halifax county and render her all the assistance he can and employ for her a reliable overseer.
Codicil to his will: His son, Patrick Henry Scott, not to have the tract of land he left him, "as he will be amply provided for by his mother," and he wishes it sold to pay his debts.
"My desire is that my estate in Fauquier be liable to my daughter, Henrietta Dandridge Scott, for one thousand dollars, to be paid to her at her marriage, or comes to the age of 16 years, the interest to be annually paid from my death.
"This is all I can give her, and indeed it is not as much as I owe her mother for monies used from her estate.
"All my stock at this place (Seven Islands), except my sorrel riding mare, which I give my son, Alex. Brown Scott, and my sorrel colt (Roanoak) I give to my daughter, Fanny Carter.
"I appoint my kinsman, John Scott, and my son, Alex. B. Scott, guardian, to my son, Patrick Henry Scott, who will take entire management of his education in the event of my wife's marriage and not otherwise, and I earnestly request them to assist and advise as to his education.
"A. Scott."
Several other codicils. Probated October 25, 1819.

1819, May 25-At a court held in Halifax county, John W. Scott, guardian of James B. Scott and Frances T. Scott, orphans of John B. Scott, deceased, who hath been authorized to sell the interests of his said wards, in the hands of the late General John B. Scott, deceased, in pursuance of an act of the Assembly in that case made and provided, came into court and, together with Granville Craddock, his security, entered into and acknowledged bond in the penalty of six thousand dollars as prescribed by said act.
1814, February 10-General John B. Scott, who is extremely ill and expected to die, therefore we think it proper and necessary to commit to writing a communication which he made to us this morning.
To-wit: In the first place that his whole estate, real and personal, should be subject to the payment of his debts. 2nd the rest of his estate should be at the disposal of his wife for the purpose of raising his children and to be distributed among them as they come of age, as she may think proper.
Third that he wished the Cotton Factory should be carried into oppercution (execution) for the benefit of his family, believing it would be profitable.
Signed John Robertson,
C. Scott,
Stephen Cook.

1772, October 30-James Spradling and Mary, his wife, sell to James Henry, of Accomac county, land lying in the counties of Halifax and Pittsylvania granted by patent 14th day of July, 1769, unto Theophilus Lacy, and by him conveyed to Spradling, 400 acres.
1772, October 31-James Henry leases to Joseph Chapman a tract demised by said Henry to David Huddleston, to extend out and square up Henry's "Order lands."
1772, January 2-John Lewis, Jr., of Halifax county, Colony of Virginia, Gent., and Catherine, his wife, sell to James Henry, of Accomac county, for 650 pounds, two tracts of land and a water grist mill lying on both sides of Sandy Creek and partly in Pittsylvania county.
John Lewis, Jr.
Witnesses: Alex. Gordon, Thos. Tunstall, William Wright, Jos. Fontaine.

1755, October 5-Will of William Spragins.
Wife, Martha to sons, Thomas and William, each "one shilling starling" to daughters, Susannah, Anne, Glory and Elizabeth, "one shilling starling" each to son, Nathaniel, and my daughters, Mary, Hannah and Martha, land wife, Martha, and son, Nathaniel, executors.
William (his-X-mark) Spragins.
Witnesses: Mary Spragins, Hannah Spragins, Abram Abney.

1842, May 10-Will of John Stanfield.
"My children, Frances Scott, Ephriam Stanfield, Eliz. M. Covington son, Mark M. Stanfield, eight negroes" and other bequests, and at his death Mark to receive eight hundred dollars for his services the eight years he lived with his father.
"My beloved wife, Martha Stanfield, 14 slaves and the place I now live on, and all the household kitchen furniture, and farm utensils, and products, and at her death to be equally divided among the above mentioned children and grandson, Henry A. Stanfield (son of Ephriam).
"Executors: My friend, Chas. K. Turbeville, Mark Stanfield.
"John (X) Stanfield."
1825, December 11-Thomas St. John, of Halifax county, constituted William Howerton and Elanra Howerton, of Essex county, Virginia, lawful attorneys to sell all he has in Essex and collect all debts and moneys due him from his mother, Ann St. John's (deceased) estate.
Thos. St. John.
1780, January 11-Will of Charles Stewart.
Wife, Agnes sons, Thomas, Robert and Charles (not yet of age) daughters, Rachel, Ruth, Eleanor and Hannah.
Wife, executrix, and "friend, Thomas Weakly," executor.
Witnesses: John Stewart, David Logan and James Echols.

1780, September 12-Will of Charles Stokes.
Wife, Elizabeth sons, Silvanus, Charles, Jr., Joel, Richard, Henry, Sherwood daughters, Sally Strange, Ann Jones, Elizabeth Strange.
Executrix, wife Joseph Pulliam, executor.
Witnesses: John Comer, Moore Comer, Thomas (X) Comer.

1826, February 18-Will of Elizabeth Sydnor.
"My sister, Ailcy Barksdale my sister, Nancy Barksdale my late sister, Judith W. Barksdale (wife of Armstead Barksdale) her children legatees, William S. Barksdale, Nathaniel Barksdale, John Barksdale, Elizabeth A. Barksdale, and Judith A. Barksdale. I appoint my brother-in-law, Armstead Barksdale, guardian of the infant children of my late sister, Judith W. Barksdale.
"Elizabeth Sydnor."
Executors: Anthony and Abraham Sydnor.
1781-William Sydnor, guardian for Nancy Williams and Thomas Jasper Williams.
1815, December 20-Will of William Sydnor.
Wife, Judith. "To live in the house with my son, Anthony." Sons, Thomas, Abraham, Anthony. "My late son, Epaphroditus." Daughters, Nancy Logan, Elizabeth Sydnor, Ailcy and Judith Brockwell.
William Sydnor.
He gave to each child twenty slaves with their increase, also land. Had a large estate in land, slaves and money.
Witnesses: Thomas Davenport, Samuel Lacy, Joel Neal.
Recorded July 27, 1818.

1778, June 10-Will of Nathaniel Terry.
Wife, Sarah. Estate to be equally divided between his children, except his son, William, for whom he has already provided by giving him 400 acres of land, a horse, cattle, sheep, household furniture, and a negro man named Charles.
"I appoint my trusty and well beloved friends, Paul Carrington, William Terry and Nathaniel Cocke my executors.
"Nat Terry."
Witnesses: Evan Ragland, Isaac McCarty.
1806, December 22-Will of William Terry, Sr.
"My wife, Susanna daughter, Sarah Royal Wooding daughter, Rachel Coleman Terry sons, Thompson, William Royall, Nathaniel and Henry Dickerson Terry.
"I do exclude my daughter, Elizabeth Green, or any person claiming under her from recovering any part of my estate, her husband, Peter Green, having wrongfully, unrighteously, unjustly, dishonorably and dishonestly recovered a negro man named Guilford of me, so that it is not meant or intended that my said daughter shall receive any part of my estate, directly or indirectly.
"I do constitute my brethren, General John B. Scott, administrator Nathaniel Terry and my son, William Terry, executors.
"William Terry, Sr."
Witnesses: Robert Read, Robert Haskins, Edward M. Thompson, William F. Baker.
Recorded 1811.

1803, April 22-Will of William Thaxton.
Wife, Lucie. "My daughter, Martha Degraffenreid to my daughter, Elizabeth Johnston my daughter, Lucy Overby.
"My son, Charles Thaxton to my son, William Thaxton (land also in Pittsylvania county) my son, Yelverton my son, Thomas my daughter, Mary Clay."
All property and slaves lent to his Wife to be equally divided, at her death, between Elizabeth Johnston, Lucy Overby, Charles Thaxton, William Thaxton, Yelverton Thaxton, Thomas Thaxton and Mary Clay Thaxton. Mal Clay and Lucy Thaxton, whole and sole executors.

1780, March 31-Will of William Thompson.
Wife, Rachel son, William daughter, Mary (wife of Haynes Morgan) daughter, Susannah Terry (wife of William Terry) daughter, Rebecca Cocke daughter, Ann Thompson daughter, Patsy Thompson. Son, William, not yet 20 years of age.
Executors: "My son, William Thompson John Williams, and Nathaniel Cocke my wife, Rachel, executrix."
Witnesses: John Coleman, Jos. Leggon and Henry Townes.

1805, April 8-Will of Otho Thorpe.
Wife, Janey three children, John, James and Patsy, "all my land in Cantuck."
Executors: James Thorpe, William Caldewell, Deverux Hightower.

1816, February 1-Will of Henry Tucker.
"My beloved wife, Nancy Tucker my son, Randolph Tucker, who is to support my said wife daughter, Elizabeth Martin son, Henry Tucker, &c.
"Henry Tucker."
Witnesses: William Sydnor, William Boxley, Joseph Epperson.

Petition of Thomas Tunstall, of Halifax County,
May 20, 1774.

To the Honourable Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of Burgesses.
The petition of Thos. Tunstall humbly showeth that for many years past your Petitioner has acted as Deputy Clerk of Halifax county, and as such always endeavoured to comply with the order of the House with the utmost punctuality in transmitting to their Clerk the said County's account against the Public together with the number of Tithables, before the meeting of every Session of Assembly Your Petitioner further showeth that this Honourable House met on the 10th day of February 1772, and that the levy for the said county for the preceding year was not laid till the 14th day of March following the said 10th day of February. * * * That immediately after the levy was laid, that your Petitioner made out the said County's accounts against the Public, and delivered the same to Nathaniel Terry Esq. one of the Representatives, who waited in the county some time for the levys [sic] being laid that he might carry down the said account,-but soon after the same was made and delivered to the said Nathaniel Terry an Express came to your Petitioner's house for a Copy thereof, the Express which amounting to a considerable sum is levied on Robert Munford Esq., who was at that time Clerk of the County, and for which your Petitioner is liable to the said Robert Munford, as his Deputy, which he humbly conceives is extremely hard, inasmuch as he could not make out said account sooner than he did, as the said levy was not laid till five weeks after the meeting of the said Session.
Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays that this Honourable House will reimburse him the said expenses, and he as in duty bound shall pay.
(Endorsed) 20th of May, 1774. Referred to the Committee of Public Claims. Rejected.

1766, January 14-Will of Andrew Wade.
"To my grandson, Benjamin Wade, son of John Wade, &c. son, Henry son, Benjamin granddaughter, Isbell Wade (daughter of Benj. Wade) son, Andrew son, Joseph son, William. To William, a tract of land on Blue Stone which I purchased of my son-in-law, William Robinson, 245 acres he, the said William Wade, paying balance of money due for same. I also give him six negroes, my riding horse and saddle, and one feather bed and furniture, on condition that he marry Miss Dorothy Brooks, whom he is now addressing for that purpose but in case he does not marry the said Miss Dorothy Brooks, then the negroes to be divided among the other children. To my son-in-law, William Robinson, fifty pounds.
"Andrew Wade."
Executors: John Wade and William Robinson.
Witnesses: Richard Brown, Thos. Tunstall and William Scott.
Robert Munford, Clerk.
1813, April 17-Will of Charles Wade.
Sons, Robert, John Jones, Hampton and Baird Wade daughters, Margaret Downey (and son, Robert Downey), Sarah Wilson, Mary Torian granddaughter, Isbel Boyd (daughter of Jane Boyd).
Chas. Wade.
Witnesses: Nath Torian, Royal Henley, Jas. (X) Simmons.
1776, February 12-Will of Edward Wade.
"To my beloved wife, Letty Wade daughter, Betty Marshall Wade (not yet of age) sons, William, Abraham, Martin and Washington Wade.
"Edward Wade."
Executors: Memucan Hunt, William Stokes, William Rawlins, Samuel Perrin.
Witnesses: Charles Wade, Wm. Wade, P. Moss, Ance Wade.
Will of Richard Wade.
"I lent Richard and Mary Wade his wife, 39 pounds and 13 shillings, in cash which they must return to my estate or come out of value given them.
"My daughter, Elizabeth Adams my daughter, Hannah Adams, one negro woman named Rose, &c., on the proviso that she does not marry Benjamin Chapman, but if she does marry Benjamin Chapman, my will is for all that I have given her be immediately the property of her children begot by Richard Adams, deceased, to them and their heirs forever.
"To my son Patrick Boyd, &c. to my son, Robert Boyd, &c., to my daughter, Sarah Wade to my daughter, Nancy Pettipool, part of the land whereon John Boyd now lives, beginning on the road that leads from South Boston to Black Walnut Meeting House to my daughter, Rachel Wall to my son, George Boyd, &c. to my wife, Amey, also my old servant, Peter, as long as she lives, and then with whichsoever one of my sons that he chooses. He is to work half of the time for himself to my grandson, George Adams, (son of Richard Adams).
"Richard Wade."
Executors: Patrick, John, Robert and George Boyd.
Witnesses: James Boyd, Sr., James Boyd, Jr., Hampton Wade.
Securities: Robert Wade, Robert Pettipool, Daniel Collins, Parham Wall, William Adams, Nathaniel Terry."

1764, Jan. 19.-Will of Robert Wade, Jr.
"To my daughter, Sarah Wade, land in Bedford County certificate of which being returned in my name by Edmund Booker, of Amelia county to my son, Robert Wade son, Hampton Wade daughter, Betty Wade my beloved wife, Ann Wade.
Executors: Paul Carrington, Clement Read, Wm. Stokes, Memucan Hunt, Hampton Wade.
Witnesses: Edward Wade, John Armstrong, William Borroum, William Wade, Jas. McDaniel.
"Robert Wade, Jr."
Robert Munford, C. H. C.

1767, May 1.-Will of Robert Wade, Sr.
"To my beloved wife, Elizabeth," land and mill on Difficult Creek. All estate to be divided at wife's death between children and grandchildren-"share and share alike." Sons Robert (deceased) John, Stephen, and Susannah, his wife, "My daughter-in-law, Ann Wade, wife of Robert Wade, (deceased) Hampton Wade, (son of Robert deceased) not yet of age, my son Charles Wade, my daughter, Mary Hunt, daughter Sarah Stokes, my son Edward Wade, grandson Benjamine Walker, grandson Robert Wade (son of Hampton Wade, and Jean his wife) nephew Stephen Jones."
Executors: "My son Edward Wade, Memucan Hunt, William Stokes.
"Robert Wade, Sr."

1803, Nov. 2.-Will of Armstead Watlington.
Sons, Paul, John and Thos. A. Watlington.
"I confirm to my daughter Betsy Barksdale &c.
"I confirm to my daughter, Fanny Boyd, wife of Joshua Boyd) &c.
"I confirm to John Thompson, William Thompson and Elizabeth Thompson (children of my daughter, Polly Terry, by her first husband, William Thompson,) &c.
"I lend to my said daughter Polly Terry, and her husband, William Terry.
"I give to my wife, Susannah, in lieu of her dower, &c."
If Polly and William Terry have no children, their part is to go to Polly's children by her husband, William Thompson.
Executors: William Thompson, Henry E. Coleman and John B. Scott.
Witnesses: Patsy Scott, Sally Carter, Polly C. Scott, John B. Scott and Clement Read.
The slaves bequeathed to Paul Watlington were only intended as a loan during his life time, at his death, they with their increase to be equally divided between John Armistead, Thompson, and Henry Watlington, sons of the said Paul Watlington.

William Watkins, of Halifax county, October, 1799.
Only daughter, Sally Watkins, servants, furniture and nine hundred acres of land in Gates county, N. C., adjoining Col. Jos. Rendick brother, James Watkins son, James Watkins, not yet of age, (is at school).
Estate to be kept together to educate his two sons, William, and John Watkins. His friend Hector McNeal, of Petersburg to bring them up to the mercantile business, and requests that his friend Clement Trainham, have charge of their education, and that he be handsomely rewarded for the same.
"I direct that my negroes may all be brought in from the State of Tennessee, at the expense of the estate, that the produce of the crops be brought in also except one 4th for Noel Watkins as he is his own man.
The negro my daughter Sally makes choice of, may be delivered up as soon as it comes in, for her hole sole youse and benefit. The balance, of the negroes shall be kept together, or hired ought as my Executors hereafter named shall sucdure, while my son John Watkins arrives at the age of 20, and when my son John comes to the age of 20 years my will is that my estate that has not already been given away may be equally divided between my four (4) sons, Noel, Mansfield, William and John Watkins.
"My will and desire is that my brothers, Thomas and Abner Watkins must prosecute the sale depending in Chancery between John, Thomas, Abner, William Watkins, Elizabeth Branch, Edith Ligon, Sarah Damron and Mary Hudson, plaintiffs, against James Watkins, Executor of Micajah Watkins (deceased) and who was executor of John Watkins deceased."
Defendant further, "My will is that if Samuel Estes gives up my bond, he may take my daredevil colt, and there is a bay mare in the Cumberland, that will serve to bring the negroes in, and lastly I continually and ordain my friend, Robert Terry, Esq., and Clement Trainum, executors to my last will and testament. This the 18th day of October, 1798.
"Wm. Watkins."
Witnesses: Robert Terry, and Thomas Watkins Gent:
1801, October.-Will of William Watkins.
Wife Mary, Daughters Molly Younger, Sally Brown.
Philemon Hurt and Henry E. Coleman, securities.
"William Watkins."
1812, August.-Will of William Watkins.
"To my neice [sic], Fanny Watkins, daughter of Pleasant, and Patty Watkins."
Exor: Richard Ligon.

1780, January 15-Sons, Micajah, Jr., and Francis.
Executors: "My friends, George Boyd, James Watkins, James Turner and William Watkins."
Witnesses: William P. Martin, James Smith, John Boyd, Andrew Boyd.
George Boyd and James Coleman, Gent., securities.

1782-Will of George Watkins.
Wife, Susannah sons, Thomas and John Watkins daughters, Rebecca Mannin and Anna Roberts.
Executrix, "my wife, Susannah."
Executors: Colonel Robert Williams, Reuben Ragland "my sons, Thomas Watkins, John Watkins, and my son-in-law, Nathaniel Mannin.
Geo. Watkins.

1762, April 3-Will of John Watkins, Sr.
Wife, Elizabeth sons, George, John, Thomas, William and James daughters, Mary Welch, Elizabeth Watkins, Sarah Dickie, Fannie Mackmahany (deceased), "to them and their heirs."
Executrix, "my beloved wife, Elizabeth."
Executors, "my sons, Thomas and George."
Witnesses: Micajah Watkins, Elizabeth Watkins, John Watkins and Mary Mackmahaney.

1803, September 1-Mourning Micajah Watkins (posthumous), daughter of Micajah Watkins, Jr. Colonel Henry E. Coleman, guardian.
James Watkins, Thomas Watkins and Thomas Stanfield take oath of office of ministers to solemnize the rites of matrimony. The bill passed October, 1784. James gave bond for the same.
1797-July Court-Susannah Watkins gives James Bruce deed of trust on all of her property.
1798, July-Thomas Watkins sells to William Oliver, 534 acres in Halifax county.
Witnesses: Joel Watkins, John Watkins, Thomas Watkins, Jr.
1796, June-Samuel Watkins, of Halifax, sells to Mary Watkins, of Pitts county, 83 acres.
1784-Indenture. James Peterson and wife, Ann, to Thomas Watkins.
1786-There was a William Watkins, Sr., and a William Watkins, Jr.
1783, May-Thomas Watkins and John Watkins (silversmiths), sons of George Watkins, deceased, deputized Robert Williams, attorney, to settle the estate of George Watkins, collect what was due and pay all debts.
Signed by legatees-Susannah Watkins (his wife), Thomas Watkins, Moses Roberts, Nathaniel Mannin and John Watkins.
1783, November-Quit claim. William Davis and Susannah, his wife, late widow and relict of Filmer Wells of one part, and Susannah Watkins, widow and relict of George Watkins, deceased.
1759, November 14-George Watkins sells to Benj. Lankford, plantation tract on both sides of Banister river.
1759, December 12-George Watkins, of Halifax county, Parish of Antrim, sells to Alexander Caldwell, land on Banister river. Elizabeth, his wife, relinquishes her claims.
1785, June Court-William Watkins, of Georgia, sells to James Holt, of Halifax county.
1786-William Watkins, Sr., of Halifax, sells to John Ball. Thomas Watkins and James Watkins, witnesses.
One Thomas Watkins, of Halifax county, was the son of William M. Watkins, of Charlotte county, as was also Richard V. Watkins, of Halifax county, who married first Miss Sims and second Miss Mary A. Baskerville.
Indenture, August, 1762, between John Watkins, of Prince Edward county, and Daniel Easley, of Halifax county. (Ann Easley, daughter of Daniel, married John Watkins.)
Indenture, 1800, July-Joel Watkins and "my son, William M. Watkins."
Deed of gift, 1802-William Watkins and Sally Watkins, his wife, to Sarah Brown (daughter of James Brown), all of Antrim Parish. Witnesses: John Palmer, Drury Seymore, John Brown, Jr.
1784-William Watkins and Nancy, his wife, sell to Richard Dillard.
1796-Thomas Watkins and Magdaline, his wife, sell to Daniel Gay.
1793, February 22-William Watkins and Martha, his wife, sell to Thomas Boyd.

1798, January 27-Will of Robert Weakley.
"My beloved wife, Eleanor Weakley sons, Samuel, Thomas and Robert daughters, Mary, Jane, Martha and Isabel Weakley grandson, Thomas Parker granddaughters, Rhoda Parker and Betty Hatfield.
"Executrix, my wife, Eleanor executor, my son, Samuel.
"Robert Weakley."
Witnesses: Rawley White, Robert Tucker, Wm. (X) Walker

1836, May 17-Beverly E. West and his wife, Mary, sell to James Clay tract of land on Childrey's creek.

1796, January 25-Estate of Gunnery Wilbourn,* deceased.
*There is a tradition among his descendants that Gunnery Wilbourn on a visit to England played before the Queen, being an expert with the violin, and it is said she expressed great pleasure at his wonderful performances, for which she should have knighted him.
The name is variously spelt Wilbourne, Welbourn and Wellborn, the mode of spelling used by the Southern families, which spelling has been traced back to the original in England, and a book of the same has been compiled by the descendants in the Southern States.
Many Wilbourns are still citizens of Halifax county, among them the present mayor of South Boston, Mr. J. B. Wilbourn.

Wife, Judith sons, John, Thomas, William and Robert Wilbourn daughters, Nancy, Obediah and Jane Wilbourn, Sally Allen legatee Charles Allen on the bond.
Inventory of Judith Wilbourn (wife of Gunnery Wilbourn), mentions sons, John, Thomas, William and Robert daughters, Nancy, Obediah and Jane Wilbourn. Sally Allen legatee Charles Allen legatee through wife, Sally.
1799, August 10-Will of Lewis Wilbourn.
Wife, Mary son-in-law, John Whitlock, and Sary Whitlock, his wife, 100 acres of land, the old "Clays tract" grandson, Richard Whitlock son-in-law, Robert Page, and wife, Elizabeth Page, 100 acres.
Witnesses: Robert Wilbourn, Sary Whitlock and Elizabeth Page.
Inventory of Robert Wilbourn's estate, March 15, 1815.

1812, January 18-Will of Diana Williams.
"To my children, William Williams, Sarah Terry, Fanney Chasteen, and the heirs of my deceased children, John Williams, Elizabeth Clay and Nancy Mosely.
"My deceased husband, John Williams granddaughter, Elizabeth W. Ligon my son, Coleman Williams.
"Executors: My sons, Coleman Williams and William Williams.
"Diana Williams."
Witness: Henry E. Coleman.
1813, March 17-Will of William Williams.
Sons, Robert Coleman Williams, Howell L. Williams, Fielding L. Williams, Charles L. Williams, Coleman Williams and Warner Williams "my daughter, Mildred L. Williams."
Executors: "My brother, Coleman Williams my sons, Robert C. Williams and Warner Williams."
William Williams.
Witnesses: John K. Linn, Margaret Roberts, Jas. P. Roberts.

1790, October 6-Will of Jarrell Willingham.
"To my beloved wife, Mary sons, John, Jeremiah, Johnson and Jarrell Willingham, Jr.
"Jarrell Willingham."
Executors: Jeremiah Willingham, Joshua Towles.
Witnesses: Jeremiah Pate, Samuel Pate, John Malone, Daniel Malone.
1809, September 25-Will of Johnson Willingham.
"My wife, Polly Willingham (children all under age, names not given).
"Johnson Willingham."
Witnesses: John Nance, Fred Nance, William Chandler, John Daniel.

1762, October 18-Will of Peter Wilson.
"To my wife, Alice seven children, John, Agnes, Nancy, Peter, William, Isbell and Margaret Wilson.
"Wife, Alice, executrix.
"Peter Wilson."
Witnesses: Samuel Harris, George Guy, Ally Teat.

1796, May 14-Will of Robert Wooding.
"I, Robert Wooding, of the county of Halifax, Parish of Antrim, being of sound mind and memory," &c.
Legatees: James and Mary Taylor, James Chappell (son-in-law), Elizabeth Hill, Thomas Hill (Wooding), John Wooding (brother).
To Benjamin Rodgers (husband of Nancy Hill) bequeathed five slaves, six silver spoons and silver ladle, to be delivered after the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Hill, who is to have the use of them during her lifetime.
To John Hill (son of Elizabeth Hill), 75 acres of land.
To Porterfield Kent, husband of Elizabeth Hill (the daughter), 50 pounds.
To Catherine Wooding (niece), 50 pounds.
To Sophia Wooding (niece), 50 pounds.
Thomas Hill (Wooding), executor.
Witnesses: John Stanley, Morris Roberts, Thomas Roberts.
Thomas Hill (Wooding), on motion of the court, was appointed executor, giving security, amount of twenty thousand dollars, with Isaac Coles, George Carrington, Moses Roberts, Simon Holt and Benjamin Rodgers as bondsmen.
Teste: Geo. Carrington, C. H. C.
Berryman Green, Dep. C. H. C.

1846, January 13-Will of John Yeates.
Sons, James and Gilderoy. "My daughter, Polly Hall daughter, Christiana Brown granddaughter, Sarah Thomas Whiteman John Coates (husband of my daughter, Sally) to children of Willis Yeates (John Yeates and Betsy Hankla) Patsy Guthrie, James Yeates.
"John Yeates."
Executor: Gilderoy Yeates.
Witnesses: Thos. C. Whitworth, David B. McGehee, Wm. H. McGehee.

In 1787, May 10, Nathaniel Cunningham, of Halifax county, Virginia, buys a hundred acres of land from Thomas Carter, on the waters of Dan River, known as Rocky Mouth.
Witnesses: David Clark, William Richardson, Jesse Carter, Thomas Carter.
1791, January 4-Nathaniel Cunningham sells to Thomas Word, parcel of land in Halifax county, on Wynn's Creek and Dan River.
Witnesses: Theo. Carter, Thomas Carter, Samuel Carter, Francis Brandon, William Richardson.
1802, September 2-Alexander Cunningham, of Person county, N. C., buys from William Chambers a parcel of land in Halifax county, adjoining William Stanfield.
1803-Alex. Cunningham buys from Armistead Turner 52 acres of land in Halifax county, on the main road from the Red House to Irving's Ferry.
1809, February 28-Alex. Cunningham, of Person county, N. C., buys from James F. Brooks, of Halifax county, Virginia, 117½ acres of land in Halifax county.
Witnesses: John Stanfield, William Stanfield, Joseph Kirby, Richard Carnal, John Warrin.
Justices of the county at this time: Thomas Watkins, James Warrin, James Howerton, gentlemen.
Susannah Brooks, wife of said James F. Brooks, relinquishes her dower right. (There follows many deeds of Alex. Cunningham to James F. Brooks.)
1774, June 4-John Brooks, of Orange county, N. C., buys of John Hodges, of same county and State, land in Halifax county, Va.
Witnesses: Timothy Holt, William Holt, Benton Link.
1769, August 9-Robert Brooks, of Orange county, N. C., sells to Artha Brooks, of Halifax county, Va., 115 acres on the south side of Hico, at the mouth of Cold Branch.
Witnesses: William Stokes, William Wade, William Hawkins, Isaac Coles, John Phelps.
Robert Munford, Clerk.

1809, September 25-Samue1 Brooks and Sarah, his wife, of the county of Halifax, sell to William Jeffress, of said county, 62 acres adjacent to Drury Major's, John Stanley's, Gerald Winnegame's and the orphans of Edward Tuck, deceased.
Samuel Brooks,
Sarah (X) Brooks.

1810, September 19-John Brooks (deceased). Elizabeth Brooks, relict of John Brooks, George Gray and Fanny, his wife, Warrin Brooks, Rachel Brooks and James Brooks, heirs and devisees of John Brooks, deceased. The children being of lawful age agreed to divide the land left them by the said John Brooks.
Witnesses: Jacob Faulkner, Timothy Holt, William Stanfield, Edward Clay, Henry Gray.

1805, November 20-Commonwealth of Virginia to Joab Hill, Jr., and Isaac Lane, Gents., justices of the county of Clairborne, State of Tennessee. Whereas James Brooks by his certain indenture of bargain and sale, &c., justices, get his wife's, Susannah Brooks', release of dower right, "as she cannot conveniently come to court."

[Source: "A History of Halifax County, Virginia," by Wirt Johnson Carrington Richmond, 1924]

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