Bangor and Aroostook - History

Bangor and Aroostook - History


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Railroads Locomotive > Railroad History>Bangor and Arrostook

Bangor and Aroostook #208


Bangor & Aroostook RR 4-4-0 # 208 H-2 Class Manchester # 1625 Built in Ocotber 1894 69" Drivers 16x24 Cylinders. Photographed in Oakfield Maine September 29, 1921. It was scrapped July 1923


History

 In the late 1990s, both Canadian Pacific and Bangor & Aroostook elected to divest certain rail assets. CP sold from St. Jean, QC all the way to Saint John, NB. In 1995, Iron Roads purchased these CP lines as well as the entire network of the Bangor and Aroostook. Between the late 1990s and 2014, there were several companies that tried unsuccessfully to run these rail lines. Railroad Acquisition Holdings (an affiliate of Fortress Investment Group) bought the assets of the bankrupt Montreal Maine & Atlantic Railway and in May 2014, the Central Maine & Quebec Railway (CMQ) was formed.

Central Maine & Quebec Railway owns and operates the former Bangor and Aroostook line between Millinocket and Searsport, ME, the line once owned by Canadian Pacific between St. Jean, QC, and Brownville Junction, ME, as well as the line from Farnham, QC, and Newport, VT. In January 2016, the CMQ began operating the 55.6-mile line between Rockland and Bath for the State of Maine.

CMQ’s mission is to deliver exceptional freight rail service for our customers while providing the safest transportation of their products, for the customer as well as our teammates, but most importantly for the communities through which we operate.


In the Maine Woods: 1929 Edition

Bangor and Aroostook Railroad

Wherever you go in the Maine woods you are sure to find satisfaction because life at a Maine woods camp is a continuous program of pleasure and contentment with the program of fishing parties, tramping expeditions, canoe picnics and many other forms of entertainment. At all Maine woods camps there are bills-of-fare to meet the appetites that invariably come from the heathful invigorating life in the open. Even the most jaded appetites become keen and the memory of luscious and satisfying offerings of the camp cooks outlasts the recollection of charms of scenery and the bountiful beauties of Nature.


Unearthing the stories of the dead means piecing together origins of people who settled Aroostook

PRESQUE ISLE, Maine — The unearthing begins with GPS mapping with the logging of the latitude and longitude of each tombstone in 50 burial sites found in central Aroostook County. There are Irish cemeteries, Catholic cemeteries, small family plots, some with hard to decipher names and some large with more than 1,000 grave markers.

The tombstone clues — a name, a date, an inscription — serve as waypoints for exhaustive research that begins to breathe life into an untold history of The County. Many of the stories are found through church records, death certificates, ship logs, probate records and census data.

“We call it jumping down rabbit holes because we start with one lead and end up somewhere else,” University of Maine at Presque Isle History Professor Kimberly Sebold said. “Cemeteries can help teach history by focusing on the people in them and explaining how local, state and national events impacted them.”

Sebold’s work shows a layered narrative of community, relationships and the interconnectedness of the people who forged a path through a more rugged Maine. Through her project, History in Stones: Mapping Cemeteries to Teach the History of Central Aroostook County, eighth grade students will eventually learn their local history through interactive maps.

Last summer, Sebold gathered information from about 25 cemeteries and she plans to tackle mapping the larger cemeteries like Parish of the Precious Blood and St. Mary’s in Caribou this summer.

Along with local volunteer Marlene McEachern of Presque Isle and UMPI history students — Angela Wilkinson, Krista Lutrell, Rogue Reeves and work study student Hannah Rachel Brewer — Sebold excavates the tales buried in both large cemeteries and small family plots from Caribou in the north, to Blaine in the south, and from Mapleton in the west to Fort Fairfield in the east.

After the mapping comes the typing in of all the names and uploading photos of each marker before a spreadsheet is generated and then the detailed research begins.

A Zillman Family Professorship supports Sebold’s efforts to map the region’s cemeteries while collecting gravestone information. Additionally, a recently awarded $6,000 Maine Humanities Council Major Grant allows Sebold to hire summer researchers to assist in the data collection.

In the second phase of Sebold’s project, a curriculum will be developed and students will have access to an online interactive map for each cemetery. With a simple click on a grave marker, the story of the person unfolds, taking students deeper into these historical tales.

Sebold talks easily about previous times, about Irish settlers coming across Canada, about migrations from Southern Maine as farmers searched for new farmland, about those who came back to The County after the Aroostook War (1838 to 1839).

Take for example the story of Michael Russell, a native of County Tipperary, Ireland, who is buried in the First Saint Denis Cemetery on Caribou Road in Fort Fairfield.

Former UMPI student Krista Lutrell, who plans to continue her graduate work at University of Maine, Orono, in the Maine Studies program with Sebold, is researching the first Irish settlers of Fort Fairfield buried in what local residents call the Irish cemetery or the Old Saint Denis Cemetery.

Lutrell’s early research indicates that Michael Russell may have been the first Fort Fairfield settler, perhaps with one or two others. And she has placed him in the community somewhere between 1823 and 1827.

“That makes Michael Russell, a man from Tipperary County, the founding settler of Fort Fairfield,” Lutrell said.

Sebold explained that even though Maine became a state in 1820, the boundary between the United States and Canada was not defined until 1842 and the towns we know today were not formed until after the boundary was established.

Russell leaves Ireland and ends up in St. John, New Brunswick. From there, he received a tract of land somewhere between Perth and Great Falls. Russell never became a citizen, but his son did, according to Lutrell.

“When they moved here they really were pioneers, There were deep dense forests and if we think winter is hard here in Maine now, imagine what it was like 200 years ago,” she said, adding that even into the 1840s there were accounts of frost in July. “It really required a group effort to pull together and help each other … it’s not something where a husband and a wife just starting out could do on their own. They would be very reliant on having support of community members to make it happen.”

UMPI student Wilkinson has been piecing together the story of Benny Johnson, an African American landowner who lived in Fort Fairfield for about 37 years. Johnson is buried in Fort Fairfield’s Lovely Cemetery, a small family plot that sits back from Caribou Road on land formerly owned by the Lovely family.

“I think that we have found out quite a bit,” Wilkinson said. “It’s like if someone gives you a puzzle and the box only has 50 pieces and there’s supposed to be 100 pieces in it. We found all kinds of interesting things about him and we’re trying to piece together a timeline of sorts.”

Because of the time period — the mid-1800s — there are so many unknowns.

What they do know is that Johnson was from Alabama, he owned property in Fort Fairfield and lived there for nearly four decades, and he was about 78 when he died in 1921.

Johnson purchased his parcels in 1889 and 1891 from Firena Scott, a widow who was paralyzed and sent to the poorhouse. Scott, who is buried in Riverside Cemetery, and her two sons, lived with Johnson until her death in 1896.

A big mystery for the researchers is that Johnson willed his property to Cordelia Holton. But they have no idea why.

So much of Sebold’s work sparks new questions.

On Johnson’s grave marker it says he was a farm laborer for the Lovelys and the Redekers, but, if he owned property why was he a farm laborer, they ask. And who is Cordelia Holton?

“It’s important we capture the history,” Sebold said. “I like public history it’s history for local people. This is probably my last 10 years of teaching and I wanted to go out with a bang. That’s what prompted me to do this work and do it in a way that the community could enjoy the work as much as those interested in the scholarly work.”


Presque Isle: The Star City

Text by: Kimberly R. Sebold, Ph.D., University of Maine at Presque Isle.
Images: Presque Isle Historical Society, Mark and Emily Turner Memorial Library, Prersque Isle Air Museum, Maine Historical Society, Aroostook County Historical and Art Museum.


Welcome to Presque Isle

Entering Presque Isle’s city limits from south on Route 1, travelers are greeted with a sign that says “Welcome to Presque Isle, the Hub of Aroostook County.” The development of Presque Isle which received its first settlers in 1819 and Aroostook County which was separated from Washington County in 1839 coincides with the expansion of the western United States more so than the development of central and southern Maine. While many young men along the eastern seaboard traveled west to seek their fortunes, some chose to experience the northern frontier of Aroostook County. Harsh climate, boundary disputes, and isolation from markets deepened the frontier experience of settlers in northern Maine . Despite these trials, settlers continued to come to the area so that by 1859, the state legislature agreed to the incorporation of Presque Isle as a town. In 1892, Edward Wiggin, delivered a speech to the Maine Chautauqua Union in Fryeburg, Maine on the resources and future of Aroostook County. The speech, later published in the Board of Agriculture report for the state of Maine, focused on the development of the county. Wiggin stated:

Wiggin marveled at all that the area, including Presque Isle, had achieved in less than one hundred years. In reflecting on the reasons for development, Wiggins identified five specific events that brought success to Aroostook County and Presque Isle: These events are the creation of roads the settlement of the boundary dispute between Britain and the United States the 1838 visit of Ezekiel Holmes, the father of Maine Agriculture the starch industry and the railroad most of these events can be considered as having been driven by the residents of the County themselves. Later in the twentieth century, Presque Isle and the County relied on outside influences such as the military to aid in the continued growth of the region.

Pioneers, such as Peter Bull who arrived in 1819, traveled up the Aroostook River from New Brunswick looking for a place to set up a saw mill and lumbering operation. Unfortunately for Bull, the area was disputed territory between the United States and Britain which made it impossible for him to receive title to his land instead the province of New Brunswick gave him a patent to the land so he could live on it, but he could not sell it or claim ownership. By 1825, surveyors noted that approximately 20 families lived along the Aroostook River and “that they are all somewhat engaged in agriculture, but most of them employ their time principally in lumbering.” They too faced the same dilemma as Bull as the British government withdrew permits given to settle the area until the boundary dispute had been cleared.

While the boundary dispute slowed American settlement of the area, the Massachusetts and Maine governments saw the region as theirs and encouraged settlement by offering land grants and mill privileges. The first American, Dennis Fairbanks, settled in the area in 1828 and gained ownership to his land under the provisions set up by the states of Maine and Massachusetts in 1820. Surveyed under the township and range system in 1825, the land that would become Presque Isle and Maysville were Letter F, Range 2 and Letter G, Range 2, respectively. The state of Maine gave grants of land and mill rights if a settler set up a mill, cleared 15 acres—devoting 10 acres to the production of grass---and built a house within four years of settlement. Fairbanks received 640 acres of land on which he built a grist mill and saw mill, plotted half acre lots and planned streets as the foundation for the settlement of Fairbanks Mills. Despite the fact that Fairbanks tried to maintain control over the settling of land in Letter F, other settlers, who acted independently of Fairbanks, arrived so that by 1830 there were approximately 2,000 people in the County. Better land deals that the state of Maine devised in 1835 attracted more settlers the state sold land at .50 cents an acre and settlers could help build roads for approximately 9 days a year for four years to pay for 100 acres of land through this method, settlers received relatively inexpensive land and helped to eventually break the isolation of the area.

In the pioneer stage which lasted until the 1840s and is characterized by the lack of roads, the economy was based on the lumber industry with the lumber being shipped down the Aroostook River to the St. John River and then back into the United States duty free. The farmers in the area catered to the lumber industry by growing grain, hay and potatoes which were needed for the lumber camps to survive. Many of these farmers also worked as lumbermen during the winter months. By producing goods for the lumber industry, farmers did not have to worry about getting their produce to long-distance markets however, when the road finally connected Presque Isle to other areas of the state in 1839, the economy shifted towards production of farm goods for long-distance markets. The transformation was not immediate and it would take until the 1890s for the economy to be based on one crop: potatoes. In the meantime, farmers raised sheep and cattle which were driven to Massachusetts for sale at the Brighton market, grew clover seed and grass seed to be shipped downstate, and produced dairy products for the residents of the town and surrounding area. Settlers made and sold cedar shingles as well and some towns accepted the shingles as currency.

As early as 1838, authorities were touting the potential of the potato to Aroostook County. In that year, Ezekiel Holmes, editor of the Maine Farmer and later designated father of Maine agriculture, visited Aroostook County and the Presque Isle area and reported back to his readers what he had discovered. His primary concern was the outmigration to the west that was robbing the southern part of the state of its young men he hoped that by espousing the wonders of the County, young Maine men would go to the northern frontier and stay in Maine as opposed to the western frontier closer to the Mississippi. He claimed that potatoes were the future for the County and said that “when planted in season, are equal in quantity and quality to any…The climate and soil both seem[ed] peculiarly congenial to this root.” His major complaint about the area was its isolation and even though the effort to build roads was ongoing, he did not think it was enough and stated “nothing is wanting but greater facilities for getting them [potatoes] to market.” While workers completed the road that linked Presque Isle to Houlton and then to the southern parts of the state in 1839, potatoes as a mono-crop was not possible until the railroad connected the area to the rest of the state. However, the population numbers that could support the development of the railroad would not come until the boundary dispute was settled and the country, as a whole, passed through the trials and tribulations of Civil War.

The boundary dispute between Maine and Great Britain had been an ongoing issue that finally reached its climax with the “bloodless” Aroostook War in 1839. The boundary dispute began with the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution in 1783 the treaty stated that the eastern boundary of the United States was the St. Croix River, but documentation never made clear which river was the St. Croix. The U.S. preferred the easternmost river while the Britain preferred the westernmost one and this left seven thousand square acres of disputed land in Aroostook County. In June 1828, the U.S. government sent peacekeeping troops to Houlton and this initiated the building of the military road between Houlton and Bangor—this same road connected to Presque Isle in 1839. Illegal lumbering and arrests of New Brunswick government officials by the U.S. led to more troops arriving in the area and establishing a blockhouse in Fort Fairfield. In 1842, the dispute ended with the Webster-Ashburton treaty that confirmed the St. John River as the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. The treaty opened northern Maine for settlement without restriction and exposed approximately three thousand soldiers to the potential of the region. Many of these men either stayed or returned to the area after being discharged from the military.

From 1839 to 1859, Presque Isle grew large enough to support a hotel, a school, newspapers, churches, and various stores moreover the extension of the military road to Presque Isle together with a growing population made it possible for mail to be delivered to the area in 1842. This growth also led to the building of the first bridge over the Aroostook River, the lobbying for a railroad to come to Presque Isle and the petitioning of the legislature for the right to incorporate all in 1858 incorporation as a town was granted the following year. In addition, during this twenty-year time period, settlers pushed into neighboring Letter G creating farms and relying on Presque Isle for all of their goods and services. Eventually, Letter G became known as Maysville and governed itself until it became part of Presque Isle in 1883. By 1860, the County boasted of a population of 22,479 with 1388 of these people living in Presque Isle (formerly Letter F) and Maysville (formerly Letter G) and reports from the area stated that twenty new homes had been built with plans for more to come. The settlement of the boundary, coupled with the writings of Ezekiel Holmes, encouraged both the buildings of roads and the arrival of new settlers so that the last half of the nineteenth century became focused on the modernization of specific towns and their communities and economies.


Thomas Phair - Starch King

During the Civil War, immigration to the County almost completely stopped. Two hundred and sixty-one men left Presque Isle and Maysville to fight in the Civil War twenty-nine of these men died during the war. After the Civil War, Aroostook County, in general, and Presque Isle, in particular, found economic prosperity in the starch industry. Because geography and limited access to roads made it difficult for farmers to get potatoes to urban markets, farmers sold their potatoes to starch factories in the area which then processed the potatoes into starch factory owners sold this powdery product to cotton textile mills in southern Maine where it was used for sizing cloth. Aroostook County’s first starch factory opened in Caribou in 1870 and the third in Presque Isle in 1874. By the turn-of-the-century, Aroostook County had sixty-two starch factories of which twenty were owned by Presque Isle resident and Starch King, Thomas Phair. With the development of the starch industry, the County finally found a niche for the one crop—potatoes-- that would make its residents prosperous. Wiggins in his History of Aroostook County stated that the starch industry “gave a new impetus to business and not only largely benefited the farmers, but aided to a great extent in building up the business of this prosperous and growing village.” The starch industry allowed for the integration of Aroostook County agriculture into the larger state economy as farmers produced and sold more potatoes to area starch factories which in turn, shipped their product to fabric mills in central Maine. Aroostook potatoes received a good reputation outside of Aroostook County and this increased their demand. This, in turn, led to County leaders pushing for the extension of railroad lines into the area. In 1881, the New Brunswick Railway System (later known as the Canadian Pacific Railroad) steamed into town allowing for starch to be shipped south via New Brunswick. Wiggin in his essay on the resources and future of Aroostook County described the impact of the railroad:


Governor's Potato Plot

Farmers received cash for their crop, paid off their mortgages, improved their farm buildings and their homes and found themselves with more leisure time. The demand for Aroostook potatoes soon extended beyond the starch factories and out-of-state buyers started purchasing them for human consumption. With this increased demand came more intense pressure for a direct railroad line to Presque Isle which was finally achieved with the opening of the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad line to Houlton in 1891 and to Presque Isle and Fort Fairfield in 1894. Clarence Day, author of Agriculture in Maine, 1860 to 1940, stated that the effect of the railroad on the area was immediate: one thousand new farms sprung up between 1890 and 1900 the value of land and buildings increased from 7.5 million dollars to 11 million dollars and potato acreage jumped from 16,641 acres to 41,953 acres. By 1900, farming in Aroostook County focused on the potato with table stock, seed and starch potatoes as the three most important market outlets. The potato became so important that in 1913 Thomas Phair and other leading Presque Isle businessmen convinced the state legislature to fund the purchase and operation of the Aroostook Farm which was a demonstration farm that experimented in the modern methods of potato production.


Opera House, Presque Isle

Economic development led to the growth of infrastructure in Presque Isle. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Presque Isle Fire Department had been incorporated and Presque Isle had its first water company, the Presque Isle Water Company, which built and operated the reservoir at Mantle Lake to supply the town with water and protect it from fire. As the town modernized, its infrastructure included a sewer system, an electric lighting system powered by a plant with two Edison dynamos, a bank, churches of several denominations, various factories including a furniture factory, livery stables, hardware stores, blacksmith shops, schools, post office, telegraph lines and a telephone service. Residents found they could be entertained at opera houses and could become engaged in community activities through various organizations such as the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Grand Army of the Republic, Aroostook Rebekah and Olive Branch Encampments, Women’s Christian Temperance Union and the Grange. .

Prosperity continued into the first several decades of the twentieth century as the population rose from 3,804 in 1900 to 6,695 in 1930. During this time, the town became home to the Aroostook State Normal School that trained teachers, a public library sponsored by the Andrew Carnegie Foundation, the Aroostook Valley Railroad (an electric railroad that connected residents to nearby towns), the Northern Maine Sanatorium for tuberculosis patients, a public hospital, car dealerships, and the development of Main Street as we know it today. By the end of the 1920s, however, the area residents discovered the problems with a single crop economy. These problems included overproduction, lack of supplemental income in poor years, fluctuations in yields and prices, debt, and foreclosure. Like in other places, the economy went through cycles of boom and bust and the County was not insulated from the effects of the Great Depression.


Presque Isle Army Airfield, ca. 1942

In 1940, some of the prosperity returned to Presque Isle and the County as the U.S. Government chose Presque Isle’s airport as the site for the U.S. Army Air Base the construction of the Presque Isle Air Base in 1941 kicked off a building boom in the city that lasted into the 1950s. In addition, Presque Isle became Aroostook County’s first city in 1940. World War II and the army air base brought many new people into the area including Clark Gable, movie star and member of the Army Air Force, and Bob Hope, movie star and comedian working with the USO. Many of the servicemen stationed at the air base found that Presque Isle and the surrounding area made a good home for their families and stayed after the war population rose from 7,939 in 1940 to 9,954 in 1950. The army’s interest in the air base allowed for the continual rise of population until it peaked in 1960 at 12,886. More servicemen came to the area after the war when the Presque Isle Air Force Base received its first SNARK missile. The twenty-year growing trend ended, however, in 1961 when the government closed the Presque Isle Air Force Base.


Presque Isle - Strategic Missile Wing Presque Isle Air Museum

Since the 1970s, Presque Isle has undergone a decline in population due in part to the closing of the air force base and changes in the region’s economy: the 1970 census recorded a population of 11, 452 the 1980 census recorded a population of 11,172 the 1990 census recorded a population of 10,767 and the 2000 census recorded a population of 9,511. Even with such changes, Presque Isle remains an important cultural and economic center for Aroostook County. The Aroostook State Normal School grew into the University of Maine at Presque Isle attracting students from all over the state, region, country and world movie theaters remain an important part of the entertainment sector congregations support a variety of churches ranging from Catholic to Congregational to Baptist to Methodist to Jehovah’s Witness the Northern Maine Fair is still an important rite of summer, WAGM transformed itself from an AM radio station to a television station, and the Aroostook Centre Mall continues to be a shopping center for County and New Brunswick residents.

During the 1980s and 1990s, the city’s business center relocated from the downtown area of Main Street to the northern end of Presque Isle as new stores and fast-food restaurants clustered around the Aroostook Centre Mall. In the last decade, however, city leaders have encouraged downtown revitalization that has led to the repopulation of stores with specialty shops, lawyer’s offices and banks. Downtown Main Street maintains its importance in the town as every year it hosts Presque Isle’s Pioneer Days and parades attract spectators from all around the area on the Fourth of July and Christmas. As the most populated city in the area, Presque Isle plays a pivotal role in the lives of the region’s residents and continues to be the HUB of Aroostook County.


Maine Railroads In "The Pine Tree State"

Maine for the past 170+ years have been defined by two things, timber products and potatoes. Our most northern state is sometimes forgotten for its railroads.

However, not only are the lines which operated in Maine "classic" fallen flags today but they also played a very important role throughout the years moving the state's biggest sources of traffic, agriculture and timber. 

Table Of Contents

The state was particularly famous for its potatoes, a crop that produced the Bangor & Aroostook (BAR) considerable revenue for decades. 

Alas, the floundering Penn Central lost an entire season's crop in transit heading west, costing the BAR an entire market. 

For years, the Pine Tree State had no Class I railroads operating within its borders.  That changed in 2020 Canadian Pacific formally acquired theꃎntral Maine & Quebec Railway on June 4, 2020 and CSX picked up Pan Am Railways in November, 2020.

Additionally, a few larger Class II, regionals and a handful of short lines also find a home in Maine and remain important transportation arteries for the state (so much so that Maine purchased a large section of former Bangor & Aroostook property in 2010 to save it from abandonment).

Maine Central GP7s #572 and #579 still wear their original gold and maroon liveries from the days of B&M control as the units put together a train in the Brunswick, Maine yard during early August of 1978. Randy Kotuby photo.

A Brief History Of Maine Railroads

Maine railroads date back to 1836 when the Bangor & Piscataquis Canal and Railroad opened between Bangor and Old Town, a distance of about 12 miles.

The railroad was constructed primarily to haul timber products and would go on to be joined with the Bangor and Katahdin Railroad in 1891 to form one of Maine's most remembered railroads, the Bangor & Aroostook Railroad (also referred to by its initials, the BAR).

Abandoned Railroads Of Maine

Lumberman in the region gained an affinity for the two-foot gauge railroad and used it liberally throughout the state.  There were a dozen two-foot, common-carrier railroads in Maine during peak operation, in addition to even more privately-operated systems.

According to George Hilton's book, "American Narrow Gauge Railroads," the state mileage of common-carrier narrow-gauge systems (including two-footers, 3' 6", and 3') was 426 miles of this total, about 206 miles included only 2-foot systems.

In total, Maine's narrow-gauge railroads included the following:

* Futures components of the Sandy River & Rangeley Lakes Railroad.

Today, all of these systems are gone, save for a short section of the Wiscasset, Waterville & Farmington that has been rebuilt by the museum and group dedicated to its preservation.

It is a fascinating operation that is still rebuilding the railroad and worth the visit to see!

Nearly every other abandoned line in the state is former Maine Central or Bangor & Aroostook corridors.  In addition, sections of the Boston & Maine are removed in the state's southern periphery, such as the old Worcester, Nashua & Portland.

The WN&P was created in 1883, linking Worcester, Massachusetts with Portland, Maine.   It provided the B&M with a third main line to Portland and became superfluous, slowly abandoned after 1932.

Two other notables are former MEC lines the Calais Branch, removed from Bangor to the Canadian border at New Brunswick and its former Mountain Division that provided a western outlet at St. Johnsbury, Vermont.

Most of the corridor is still down but has not witnessed a train in nearly 40 years.  One exception is the Conway Scenic Railroad which operates a successful excursion over a section in New Hampshire.

Surrounding State Histories

Aside from these lines Maine also boasted numerous narrow-gauge logging lines, particularly during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

In any event, to learn more about Maine's three most notable railroads please visit the below links covering their history in more detail.

A pair of Maine Central GP38's near the yard at Brunswick, Maine on May 20, 1981. Randy Kotuby photo.

More Reading.

Bangor & Aroostook GP38 #84 leads its freight northbound over the Maine Central main line at Northern Maine Junction, Maine on February 5, 1970. Roger Puta photo.

Today, Maine is the the realm of regional and short line railroads only. For many years the most notable of these included:

  • Pan Am Railways, which took over the operations of Guilford. The Guilford had picked up the B&M, Maine Central, and Delaware & Hudson in 1981.  The Pan Am was acquired by CSX Transportation in 2021.
  • St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad, which operates the former Grand Trunk Western.
  • Central Maine & Quebec Railway (CM&Q), which operated much of the original BAR system (became a division of Canadian Pacific in June, 2020).
Bangor & Aroostook F3A #42 is northbound through the small town of Frankfort, Maine with a Massachusetts Bay Railroad Enthusiasts' sponsored fan trip in July, 1985. Roger Puta photo.

As mentioned previously, CSX picked up Pan Am in November, 2020 and Canadian Pacific acquired CM&Q in June, 2020.  The rest of the state is operated by other short lines including:

  • Maine Eastern Railroad (operated by Morristown & Erie), 
  • Eastern Maine Railroad (yes, the two aforementioned lines are two different owned and operated companies), 
  • New Hampshire Northcoast Corporation
  • Turners Island, LLC

Classic Railroads To Serve Maine

In all this totals over 1,000 miles of active railroad in Maine although at one time the state was home to over 2,000 miles of trackage.

* The first railroad to serve Maine was the Calais Railroad, a local operation intended to move finished lumber from the Saint Croix River (near Milltown, New Brunswick) to Calais, Maine.  It was incorporated in 1832 and, according to "Poor's Manual of Railroads, Volume 12" (1879),  opened about 1.5 miles in 1835 as a horse powered operation.   In 1849 its name was changed as the Calais & Baring after reaching nearby Baring that year.  The first steam locomotive arrived in 1852 and eventually became a part of the Maine Central's network.

Overall, the state has lost about 50% of its total mileage since the peak of rail operations across the country in the 1920s. This decline is about average as many states have witnessed similar losses to their rail infrastructure. 

Today, passenger trains are operated by Amtrak and includes only the Downeaster although this train continues to gain support and ridership and is becoming increasingly popular. Currently the train serves three stops in Maine Portland, Saco, and Wells.

Historically, Maine was never known for famous trains passing through its countryside. However, the Maine Central did have the Flying Yankee and the Boston & Maine's State of Maine, which were more regional in nature.

Maine Central GP38 #255 leads its train past Tower MD near Northern Maine Junction, Maine on February 5, 1970. Roger Puta photo.

Passenger and freight trains aside Maine also offers several railroad museums and excursion trains like the popular Maine Narrow Gauge Railroad Company, which currently operates one live steamer and plans to restore another to operation.

Others include the Boothbay Railway Village, Cole Land Transportation Museum, Oakfield Railroad Museum, Sandy River and Rangeley Lakes Railroad, Seashore Trolley Museum, the Maine Eastern Railroad (which also offers excursion trains), and the Wiscasset, Waterville & Farmington Railway Museum (continues to rebuild a section of the old WW&F, an historic 2-foot narrow-gauge). 

All in all, Maine railroads offer a unique experience with rugged, mountainous operations in interior northern areas of the state and coastal operations to the south. So, if you are planning a visit to the Pine Tree State to see its railroads you certainly shouldn't be disappointed!


Bangor and Aroostook - History

Local History

The Local History Department houses historical sources that provide information on Bangor, the Penobscot Valley, the State of Maine, and New England.

Local history sources include historical accounts of Maine pioneers, who populated this area while Maine was still part of the state of Massachusetts. Our collection includes relevant legislative materials beginning in this period.

Maine citizens’ military involvement can be traced utilizing our local history collection. Sources on the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Civil War, Spanish-American War, World War I, and World War II may be found in the Local History Department. Staff may assist patrons in online searches through the National Archives to find information on the Korean War and Vietnam War.

Our sources portray the world of Bangor, Maine inhabitants of yesterday and today. Historical references about Maine industries, such as logging and paper, provide useful information for a better understanding of this region. Biographies of area authors, artists, military leaders, and others can be found in this department. Local history accounts recreate the world of the people who lived and died in Bangor, Maine.

Bangor History: 1500-1700's By William Cook

The first European believed to have visited the site of Bangor is Esteban Gomez, the Portuguese explorer who sailed to the head of the tide, in the early 1500's. Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), French explorer, and other explorers also visited the area in the early 1600's.

In 1605, five Indians are kidnapped from Pemaquid by an English vessel and kept to serve as guides for English seeking sites for settlement on the American coast. The kidnapping of indigenous peoples for slavery or servitude was a common practice of early European explorers of North America. French establish first European settlement in Maine, St. Sauveur, at Lamoine Point across from Mount Desert Island. They are driven out by the English, who establish permanent settlements on Damariscove and Monhegan Islands in 1614. 1616-1619: More than 75 percent of Maine's Indians die from diseases such as smallpox, cholera, measles and plague brought by Europeans.

Slaves began arriving in Maine with their white owners in the 1600s. Some slaves helped the British in their fight against the Native Americans in Maine, while others joined forces against the British. In 1689 a slave was killed while fighting the Indians.

With the establishment of Fort Pownal in 1759, by Massachusetts Royal Governor Thomas Pownal, people began to explore the upper reaches of the Penobscot River with the intention of settling. The first person to actually settle near the junction of the Kenduskeag and Penobscot Rivers was Jacob Buswell (Bussell). He built a cabin near what are now York and Boyd Streets in 1769 and shortly thereafter his in-laws, the Goodwins, also settled here.

In 1772-73 there was an influx of people that included: Thomas Howard, Jacob Dennet, Simon Crosby, Thomas, John and Hugh Smart, Andrew Webster, Joseph Rose, David Rowell, Solomon and Silas Harthorn, and Joseph Mansel. Joseph Mansel built both the first sawmill on the East side of the Penjejawock stream and the first gristmill.

Also in 1772, occurred the first birth in what is now Bangor, Mary Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard.Thomas Goldthwait built the first trading house in the area in that year. Abigail Ford taught the first school founded in 1773.

The first few years of the American Revolution were quiet in the Penobscot River Valley, as it was so isolated and far from the area of action. However, in 1779, that quiet changed as a British invasion fleet came up the Penobscot River and approached Bangor. There was a brief battle near Hampden where the local militia was no match for the British regulars. The area was then peacefully handed over to the control of the British forces. Later that year, ships from the American “Penobscot Expedition” came up the river to do battle with the British. The American fleet was trapped, and many of the ships were scuttled near the mouth of the Kenduskeag River. The Bangor area remained under British control till 1783. Massachusetts banned slavery in that year as well.

In 1787 the people of Condeskeag, as Bangor was once known, built their first meetinghouse. Shortly afterwards the inhabitants of Condeskeag changed the name of their town’s name to “Sunbury,”. On Sept. 11th, 1787 they petitioned the Massachusetts legislature, but this was rejected by the legislature, before Oct. 6, 1788. The town obviously dismayed by this rejection sent Rev. Seth Noble to Boston with a new Petition of Incorporation, which was left blank until Rev. Noble could choose a name that would be accepted by the legislature in Boston. The Incorporation Petition of 1790 was written by Seth Noble and the name of BANGOR was approved February 25, 1791 by John Hancock, Governor of the Commonwealth of Mass.

The tune Bangor was written by William Tans’ur in 1734 and became very popular during the Revolution. It was so popular that it was reported to have been played at the eulogy for President George Washington.

Bangor History: 1800's BY WILLIAM COOK

The first survey of the Bangor area was done between 1797 and 1801 by Park Holland. He included all of the lots of the first settlers. Each who settled before 1784 was to receive a lot of 100 acres for the price of $8.70 and each who settled after that date could purchase a lot of 100 acres for $100. The population in 1800 was 277 and over the next thirty years it would grow to about 8,000.

As commerce flourished in Bangor access between the two areas on either side of the Kenduskeag became necessary so, in 1807, they built the first bridge. The toll was one cent for strangers and free for residents. Between 1807 and 1812 the Rev. John Seymour, during his stay here, founded the Bangor Theological Seminary.

Once again, during the War of 1812, Bangor was not immune from the warfare. The town was captured and occupied by the British in September of 1814. However, the occupation did not last long and by the middle of 1815 Bangor was once again American. In November of that same year, Peter Edes started the first newspaper titled the “Bangor Weekly Register.”

The year 1820 was a banner one for the new State of Maine, and Bangor, with a population of 1200, was instituted as the shire town of Penobscot River County. This decade ushered in a period of phenomenal growth in both population and prosperity. This was due to the lumber industry coming to the forefront of the Maine economy. Trees were harvested in the winter and skidded down to the Penobscot River and tributaries. In the spring the logs were driven down the rivers to Bangor, where they were sawn and then shipped to various destinations. Bangor became the center of the lumber industry, which included all levels of society: the timberland owners, lumber companies, sawmills, shingle mills, lumbermen and log drivers. The rough characters who worked in the woods and the waterfront lived and sought recreation in the part of town known as the “devil’s half acre” by the more pious residents. Bangor became a very prosperous town and grew incredibly fast.

Anti-slavery groups organize in Maine towns such as Hallowell, and the Maine Antislavery Society is created in 1834. Also in 1834, a series of brawls in the “devil’s half acre” erupted into riots, and the rioters rampaged through the city for a number of days. The town government was completely unable to cope with the riots and suggested some changes. The incorporation of Bangor, now with a population of over 8,000, as a City was the solution. Allen Gilman, the town’s first lawyer was elected the city’s first mayor. Bangor was referred to in the press as being a New York City in miniature.

Over the next three decades, Bangor grew in population and in wealth. In 1833, the Bangor House opened as a first class hotel.

The second “garden cemetery” in the country, Mount Hope Cemetery, was opened in 1834, as an indication of the progressive nature of the new city. 1836 saw the first railroad open: the Bangor and Piscataquis Canal Railway. In 1838, the “Daily Whig and Courier” newspaper began to publish. Also in that year a road was built to Houlton connecting the timberlands of the northeastern part of Maine to the rest of the state. Lumbering, in what is now Aroostook County, led to a border dispute between Maine and New Brunswick. It was a dispute that almost caused a war. By 1839 the dispute, called the Aroostook War, became so heated that militias and forces were called out on both sides of the border. Bangor was involved as the staging area for the Maine Militia. Fortunately, cooler heads prevailed and the dispute was settled through negotiation and the signing of the Webster–Ashburton Treaty.

The year 1846 brought the first disaster to Bangor. In the spring of that year the ice built up above the falls on the Penobscot River and when the water and ice finally broke loose, Bangor was flooded. On the up side this was the first year that Henry David Thoreau came to the area. In1847, Bangor became a “Port of Entry”, and in 1853 built its first customhouse. In the 1850s, the Underground Railroad funneled runaway slaves through Maine.

1855 was a year of culture and chaos. Norumbega Hall was built for cultural events and expositions, and it indicated the prosperity that the city was enjoying. The new wealth in the area, though, attracted immigrants, and the Irish were a large portion of these people who supplied labor. In that year the “Know Nothing” Party was elected to office. They were anti-immigrant and pro-temperance - a combination that is at odds with the labor force. In the late summer of 1855, the enforcement of temperance and the anti-foreign feelings led to violence. The Irish and their taverns were the targets of the “Know Nothings.” The rioting was not quelled until October when the agents of enforcement were disbanded.

The War Between the States began in 1861 and the sons of Bangor did their part. The 2nd Maine Infantry was raised in the Bangor area and was known as the “Bangor Regiment.” Bangor supplied a large number of men to many Maine regiments throughout the war and after the war things returned to normal in Bangor. Civil War President Abraham Lincoln’s first vice-president was Bangor native Hannibal Hamlin.

The lumber and shipping economy reached a high point in the 1870’s. The European and North American Rail Road opened withPresident Ulysses S. Grant in attendance. President Grant stayed at the Bangor House, which still stands at the corner of Maine and Union streets. In the 1890’s both the Bangor and Aroostook and Maine Central Railroads served the Bangor area and made possible the success of Great Northern Paper Company. In 1906-07 the Union Station was completed and helped make Bangor the hub of transportation for northern and eastern Maine.

In 1896 the Bangor Symphony Orchestra was founded, and continues as the oldest community orchestra in the country. A Bangor landmark, the standpipe on Thomas Hill, was built in 1897. At the same time, a dam on the Penobscot River allowed water to be pumped to the standpipe and electricity to be generated for a newly electrified city. This decade saw Bangor’s streets paved, sewers, telephone service, electric utilities, and street railways instituted.

Lumber was not the only industry to support Bangor. The ice industry tapped another abundant commodity of the area and flourished between 1876 and 1906. Every winter the Penobscot River froze and the ice was harvested. Penobscot River ice was considered to be the finest in the world and was shipped as far as India. Many icehouses could be found around the Bangor waterfront.

Bangor History: 1900's BY WILLIAM COOK

April 30, 1911 is a day that forever changed Bangor. That is the day of the great fire. It began in a hay barn and because of high winds spread rapidly across the Kenduskeag and in the nine hours it raged, it destroyed over 100 buildings and 285 residences. Most of the waterfront sawmills, warehouses and icehouses were not rebuilt afterward.

A change had taken place the old economies of lumbering and ice were on the decline and these were being replaced by retail businesses and numerous other small enterprises. Bangor never did cultivate any new industries to replace the resource based ones. The current Bangor Public Library and the Bangor High School were rebuilt next to each other, on Harlow Street in 1912. In 1913, Milton R. Geary graduated from the University of Maine and opened his law practice in Bangor.

During World War I Bangor was represented in the ranks of the 103rd Infantry 26th Division. In 1917 women’s suffrage appeared on the ballot for the first time and it was overwhelmingly defeated. The 1918 influenza hit Bangor and over 1600 people contracted the virus and over 100 died.

The Post-war years saw the influx of new technology in the Bangor landscape and some new issues. Automobiles and the related parking problem was the biggest change. In November of 1924, WABI began broadcasting as the first radio station in the area.

The years of the depression did not hit Bangor as hard as some cities. No banks closed and only a few businesses closed. An airfield opened in the early 1920’s, and was visited by General “Billy” Mitchell with fifteen Martin Bombers and eight fighters. This landing field soon became Godfrey Field and scheduled air service arrived in the 1930’s. Steamship service, however, did cease in 1936 reflecting not only the effect of the depression, but also the effect of the new and emerging modes of transportation supplanting the old.
One day in October of 1937 one could find Central Street littered with bodies. Federal Agents gunned down public enemy number one, Al Brady, and a couple of his associates after patronizing a local gun shop. By 1940, Freeses, the largest department store in town expanded even more.

During World War II the airfield became a large air base known as Dow Field, which became the eastern end of the ferry route to Europe. Again, as in previous national emergencies, Bangor contributed her share of service personnel for the Second World War. One hundred twelve did not return and are memorialized in the Bangor Book of Honor at the Bangor Public Library.

In 1945, the Penobscot Interracial Forum held events celebrating African American History opposing discrimination and insensitivity.
Following World War II, Bangor and Dow Field (later Dow Air Force Base) played an important roll in the defense of North America during the “Cold War,” as part of the “first line” of defense. Dow AFB closed in1969 and the facility became the Bangor International Airport.

During the Korean Conflict, the 132nd Fighter Squadron was activated and a number of Bangor people served once again in a far off land. In December of 1959, Bangor became the first city defended by missiles with the installation of the first BOMARC at what is now Bomarc Industrial Park. Bangor again sent her share of sons to fight in the name of democracy to South East Asia during the 60’s and 70’s.

In 1960, John F. Kennedy visited Bangor on his campaign tour and later was awarded an honorary degree at the University of Maine. In the years following, the changes in Bangor have been gradual. Racial conflict was a part of Bangor citizen's lives in the 60s. March 14, 1965, approximately 500 people marched to protest the denial of civil rights to African Americans in Alabama.

The Interstate arrived in the mid 1950’s and the Bangor Mall opened in 1978 changing the downtown area for good. In 1976 Bangor was once again flooded, this time the area surrounding the Kenduskeag was inundated and over 200 cars were stranded.

In 1991 Bangor was a center of the welcome home for troops returning from the Gulf War. Crowds greeted the returning service persons as they made their first stop on US soil at the Bangor International Airport. In 1992 the first balloon race to Europe started here in Bangor on September 17th, and in 1996, Bangor native and long time congressman and Senator, William Cohen was selected to be Secretary of Defense by President William Clinton. The final big event of the 20th Century happened in January of 1998 when the great ice storm hit. Bangor, and the whole North East, was shut down and power was out for many businesses and residences from three days to weeks.


Bangor and Aroostook - History

NorState presents Music in the Park! Every Thursday 6-8:00 PM in beautiful Madawaska!

Haunted Hearse Tours

Lingering spirits or ghosts in Presque Isle? Join Presque Isle Historical Society to learn more!

Mapleton Daze & Fireworks

Celebrate summer in Mapleton, Maine! Vendors, Artisans, Lawn Games, Parade, Fireworks, and more!

Guided Tour of Presque Isle Air Museum and former Presque Isle Army Air Field aboard Molly the Trolley

Take guided tour of Presque Isle Air Museum and former Army Air Field/Air Force Base aboard trolley.

Presque Isle Farmers Market

The Presque Isle Farmers Market at the Riverside Park in the beautiful Star City takes place rain or.

Learn to Fly Fish in Northern Maine

Fly Fishing with a Registered Maine Guide With the Umcolcus Deadwater but a step from your cabin door, the fishing and canoeing couldn't be better. Whether you're looking for the thrill of bringing in a brook trout or the serenity of an evening canoe.

Father & Young Son 4-Day Canoe Trip

The St. Croix flows along the eastern Maine border with New Brunswick Canada offering great wilderness scenery, moderate whitewater, maintained campsites and fishing for small mouth bass. the St. Croix is well suited for families and groups of all ages.


Bangor & Aroostook equipment still around

The thread about the ex-BAR caboose being rescued by the CT Trolley Museum led me to start this.
I haven't been up Rt. 27 in Wiscasset for awhile, but there was a caboose there that had BAR markings. Minus its trucks, I think it was being used as a fried clam stand near a campground. I don't recall if it had a number on it.
If Riffian or anyone working on a database wants more info, let me know.

Along Rt. 1 in Warren, near the junction of Rt. 90, there's a BAR boxcar or reefer, probably being used for storage. I stopped and looked it over once, but that was a few years ago. Didn't take any pics, and can't recall its number, either.
Again, if anyone wants more info for a modeling project or anything, I'll see what I can find out.

Re: Bangor & Aroostook equipment still around

Re: Bangor & Aroostook equipment still around

Well, I can add to the list for a few items.

Seashore Trolley Museum, Kennebunkport, Maine
C-40, 1915 American Car & Foundry caboose
#6582, 1926 MDT wooden refrigerator car

Route 1, Wells, Maine
C-. caboose

Re: Bangor & Aroostook equipment still around

[quote>Apropos of this thread, and realizing that freight rolling stock seems to last forever, are there still any "STATE OF MAINE" boxcars riding the country's rails?[/quote]

The "State of Maine Products" scheme first appeared on BAR (and NYNH&H too!) 40-foot insulated boxcars in the early 1950s, but these cars are long gone. There was another group of 50-foot boxcars in the early 1960s painted in that scheme as well. I suspect they are all long retired too. Most of them did not keep that paint scheme for their entire operating career anyway. It was cheaper to repaint them into a more simplified and standard scheme when the time came to send them through the paint booth.

To my knowledge there is only one existing in-service car in the classic "State of Maine Products" scheme, and it's not technically a BAR car at all. It is MMA 1, which was painted in the historic scheme to mark its status as being one of the first (if not *the* first) cars refurbished by MMA's Derby Shops shortly after they assumed ownership of the former BAR. A few photos (none mine):


Maine Folklife Center

Number of Accessions: 127
Dates when interviews were conducted: 1971-1972
Time period covered: 19th and 20th centuries
Principal interviewers: Helen K. Atchison
Finding Aides: catalogs
Access Restrictions: none
Description: Aroostook Oral History Project. 1971-1972. Project conducted under the auspices of the Cary Library in Houlton, Maine, which resulted in a collection of 119 cassettes, totaling 73 hours, with interviews of more than 150 people covering a wide range of topics i.e., early county history, early farming and machinery, the Aroostook War, railroading, lumbering, potato farming, maple sugar making, folksongs, folklore, folk medicine, politics, town meetings, cross-border migration, smuggling, Indians, sporting camps, schools and schooling, tall tales, superstitions, and many other aspects of the county’s cultural heritage. Tapes in French (20) and Swedish (2) have not been abstracted and have only brief descriptions of contents a general index for the collection by subject and town is available in house. This collection was put into public domain by the Cary Library (Houlton, Maine).

Related: If you find this collection interesting, you may want to check out another of the Acadian related Maine resources: University of Maine Fort Kent’s Acadian Archives.
NA1654 Charlotte Lenentine Melvin, donated by Helen K. Atchison. One cassette tape recorded by Melvin. Melvin talks about the history of Aroostook County general factors controlling historical development process of settlement international rivalry – U. S. and British Provinces boundary controversy effects of the Webster-Ashburton treaty on Aroostook County. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0038 / CD 0218.

NA2826 Solomon Saucier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972, Fort Kent. Conducted in French. Brief index. Saucier talks about his life as a farmer, lumberman, and railroad worker Ben Marquis&rsquo lumber works information about the Allagash, farming, barn-building, lumbering, the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad, maple sugar making and whiskey making. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0039 / CD 0219 French.

NA2827 Joseph St. Germain, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. St. Germain, of Wallagrass, ME, talks about his life lumbering and road-building Great Northern Paper Co. grindstone roads building the Wallagrass bridge the origin of the name Wallagrass and a discussion of how Patten became known as a lumber capital information regarding pulpwood operations Stacyville a description of living quarters during log drives. Note on cover states that it is a good source on all phases of lumbering in Aroostook and Penobscot counties. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0040 / CD 0220 French.

NA2828 Michel Fournier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972, Edmunston, Maine. Conducted in French. Brief index. Fournier talks about his life farming churning the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad the Canadian Pacific Railroad lumbering, the U. S. post office folk medicine and superstitions. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0041 (Side 1) / CD 0221 French.

NA2829 Orvila Saucier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Saucier, of Eagle Lake, talks about her life farming potato harvesting flour mills lumbering and the origin of new Canada information about sheep herding and railroads. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0042/ CD 0223 French.

NA2830 Charles Cote and Firman Daigle, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Cote and Daigle, of Edmunston, talk about their lives maple syrup making doctors and medicines they employed farming land clearing religion and a song by Mrs. Charles Cote. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0043, CD 0224 French.

NA2831 Onezime Cyr, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Cyr, of Fort Kent, talks about log house construction social life a smoke house salting meat candle making dyeing wool home remedies shoe making schools harvesting crops and early prices on commodities. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0044, CD 0225 French.

NA2832 Eugene Beaulieu and Edgar St. Pierre, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Beaulieu and St. Pierre, of Fort Kent, talk about schools travel lumberman&rsquos wages outdoor ovens blacksmithing farming maple syrup operations schooling women&rsquos activities home brew and New Year&rsquos celebrations. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0045, CD 0226 – CD 0227 French.

NA2833 Theophile Freeman, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Freeman, of Fort Kent, talks about farming cattle and sheep raising the origin of Soldier Pont taking the train there in 1912 the settlement of the area the Irish potato famine the first school at Wallagrass Road the first church at Wallagrass in 1887 Father Demarch amusement home brew & whiskey making maple syrup operation Doctors Sirois and Page the first airplane and life c. 1972. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0046, CD 0228 French.

NA2834 Fedime Morin, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Morin, of Madawaska, talks about being a law enforcement officer early law enforcement history prohibition and early jails anecdotes of his long career and advances in equipment. There is no side 2. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0047, CD 0229 French.

NA2835 Dan Cyr, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Cyr, of Madawaska, talks about life as a housewife birth wedding and funeral customs amusements and making maple syrup. There is no side 2. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0048, CD 0330 French.

NA2836 Mr. Rene Guerette, Mrs. Rene Guerette, Mr. Louis Cyr, and Mrs. Louis Cyr, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Both interviews conducted in French. Brief index. The Guerrettes, of Madawaska, talk about farming butchering soap making French foods education and church life. Text: brief index for the Guerrette interview, no transcript or index for the Cyr interview. Recording: C 0049, S 0001, S 0002, CD 0331 – CD 0332 French.

NA2837 Leonie Albert, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Albert, of Madawaska, talks about St. David&rsquos Parish education amusements religious customs food household arts and crafts. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0050, CD 0333 French.

NA2838 Alice Hebert Daigle and Alma Hebert, interviewed by Helen K. Atchinson, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Daigle and Hebert, of Madawaska, talk about schools in Madawaska by districts teaching experiences and the Acadian Cross at St. David. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0051, CD 0334, CD 0420 French.

NA2839 Alice Hebert Daigle and Alma Hebert, interviewed by Helen K. Atchinson, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Daigle and Hebert, of Madawaska, talk about all aspects of 38 years of teaching in Madawaska schools curriculum wages education requirements, etc. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0051, CD 0420 French.

NA2840 Raymond Daigle, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, October 2, 1972, Madawaska, Maine. Conducted in French. Daigle talks about the St. Basile ferry first auto in Madawaska ferry boats Allagash Fort Kent Frenchville Madawaska St. David Grand Isle Van Buren Flanger and its uses personal narrative. Recording: C 0052, CD 0421 French.

NA2841 Tom Dufour, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, October 2, 1972, Madawaska, Maine. Conducted in French. Brief index. Dufour talks about the history of the Dufour family origin of name Violette Brook Acadian expulsion Indian encounters Story of Fort Kent trust company Madawaska Branch. Text: Brief index. Recording: C 0053, CD 0422 French.

NA2842 Xavier Dufour, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972, Madawaska, Maine. Conducted in French. Brief index. Dufour talks about the tannery in Van Buren for shoe making schools and schooling superstitions childbirth at home and home remedies. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0054, CD 0423 French.

NA2843 Felix Dufour, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, 1972, Madawaska, Maine. Conducted in French. Brief index. Dufour talks about amusements fishing church in St. David a personal narrative schools maple syrup making home remedies lumbering along the Allagash. Text: Brief index. Recording: C 0054, CD 0424 French.

NA2844 Rose Lajoie, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Lajoie, of Van Buren, talks about life on the farm, and a personal narrative. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0055, CD 0425 French.

NA2845 Antoine Lebel, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Lebel, of Van Buren, talks about personal background lumbering log drives planting and harvesting wheat potatoes ferry boats a shingle mill a starch factory and horse racing. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0056 / CD 0426 French.

NA2846 Isadore Dumont and Earnest Soucy, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Dumont and Soucy, of Van Buren, talk about the Cyr plantation settling of Madore Road a personal narrative including information about school life amusements home crafts holiday celebrations a personal narrative information about a raspberry factory stores in the area. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0057, CD 0427 – CD 0428 French.

NA2847 Euphemie Dubay, Margarita Dubay (and her sister), Mr. William Paradis, and Mrs. William Paradis, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. The Dubays and the Paradis, of Van Buren, talk about their lives an Indian story Margarita&rsquos song about potato picking discussion about 69 years of marriage farming automobiles amusements homemade toys and shoemaking. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0058, CD 0429-0430 French.

NA2848 Flora C. S. St. Pierre and Margaret Walsh, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. St. Pierre and Walsh, of Van Buren, talk about their lives early telephone service farm life a lumber camp raising 21 children all aspects of homemaking cooking knitting a personal narrative about being the chief operator of New England Telephone Co. in 1911 World War I the armistice message received and sent to Washington and comments on Van Buren. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0059, CD 0431 – CD 0432 French.

NA2849 Euphemie Daigle Oulette, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French with some English. Oulette, of Van Buren, talks about farming schooling household duties sheep and wool processing spinning and frolics. Recording: C 0060, CD 0433 French with some English.

NA2850 Mrs. Remi Daigle and Isaac Harris, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French. Brief index. Daigle and Harris, of Van Buren, potato planting and harvesting house furnishings amusements Christmas celebrations a blacksmith shop cleaning wool description of Van Buren in 1910 the Hamlin Lumber mills the St. John Lumber Co. the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad the ferry crossing on St. John automobiles and the Keegan house. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0061, CD 0434 – CD 0435 French.

NA2851 Christian Albert, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in French, Brief index. Albert, of Van Buren, talks about being a river pilot on the St. Lawrence education of a doctor the flu epidemic of 1918 information about Mrs. Michaud Albert&rsquos pharmacy doctor&rsquos fees and means of payments and ice house operations. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0062, CD 0436 French.

NA2852 Henry C. Anderson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in Swedish. Brief index. Anderson, of New Sweden, talks about the history of the colonization of New Sweden by 51 Swedes from Gothenburg, Sweden in 1887 names of settlers and activities of the first two years social life and Christmas celebrations. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0063, CD 0437 Swedish.

NA2853 Annie Lindsten, Georgie Lindsten, Elsie Soderberg, and Fritz Anderson, circa 1971-1972. Conducted in Swedish. Brief index. The Lindstens, of Westmanland, Soderberg, of New Sweden, and Anderson, of Stockholm, talk about childhood and youth in Stockholm/New Sweden area Lebanon Days (now New Sweden) farming farm life education social life and customs church history and Christmas tradition. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0064, CD 0438, CD 0439 Swedish.

NA2854 Henry Anderson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Anderson, of New Sweden, talks about history of original settlers recruitment of Swedes into region original crops planted development of town anniversary celebrations discussion town characters fires in the community in the 1880-90s schooling in the same period introduction of different technologies into the area mills the B&A branch in the region social activities reasons for Swedes coming to Maine and his descendants. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0065, CD 0440.

NA2855 Fritz Anderson and Lilly Anderson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Andersons, of Stockholm, talk about history of the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad lumbering activities and mills &ldquoCalifornia Settlement&rdquo history of mills the Great Depression schools and schooling farming and farm machinery social life and ice cutting. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0066, CD 0441 – 0442.

NA2856 Mrs. E. Anderson, Mrs. A. Fogelin, and Mrs. E. Soderberg, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Anderson, Fogelin, and Soderberg, of Stockholm, three daughters of early Swedish settlers, discuss their family origins early life in New Sweden and Stockholm women&rsquos work on farms the Great Depression and its effects bringing up families social life the community welfare organization illnesses and remedies recipes and Christmas cooking. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0067, CD 0443.

NA2857 Mr. George Nelson and Mrs. George Nelson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Nelsons, of Stockholm, talk about stories of family origins the Stockholm Lumber Company the effects of World War I on the region the flu epidemic raising a family in the period Stockholm in 1919 – prosperity fires and firefighting and the first automobiles in the area. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0068, CD 0444.

NA2858 Axel Tall, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Tall, of Stockholm, discusses his family&rsquos background schooling East Jemptland teaching in Stockholm and Caribou changes in the educational system over time his father&rsquos employment mills log hauling farming and a comparison of the welfare state between its inception and the 1970s. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0069, CD 0445.

NA2859 Gussie Beaulier and Lyle Gardner, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Beaulier and Gardner, of Ashland, talk about stories of log cutting and log drives wood operations mechanics of the drive work day on the drive big Sheridan mills towns of Stetson and Blanchard tales from the log drives (extensive lumbering vocabulary used) stories poems and songs from the late 1800s, early 1900s – no original or local material. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0070, CD 0446 – 0447.

NA2860 Katherine Coffin, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Coffin, of Ashland, discusses her early life a Ricker classical instrument musical training lumbering business the first cars in the region dentists drugstores and social life. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0071, CD 0448 – 0449.

NA2861 Climena Sylvester and Benton Craig, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Sylvester and Craig, of Ashland, talk about the history of Ashland and of Grange Number 247 history of the local potato house and potato shipping early memories of hand operations before electricity the first potato and reefer cars gradual technological improvements the process of shipping to Searsport and Boston and recent developments in the town&rsquos history. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0072, CD 0450 – 0451.

NA2862 Lyle Gardner, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Gardner, of Ashland, talks about the history of the local cheese factory circa 1880 the location of Carter Brook a description of the building toting a description of tasks horses tote wagons tote sleds the Ashland lumber company camp life and sings a song. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0073, CD 0452.

NA2863 Joseph Theriault and Mr. Clukey, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Theriault and Clukey, of Ashland, discuss the history of the Sheridan Mills settlement the establishment of the mill community of Sheridan bootlegging wages at the mill shipping lumber the livery stable railroad-tie making building up the Ashland branch of the Bangor and Aroostook railroad Russians and &ldquoPollacks&rdquo (Polish) as laborers Walter Brenan – a woodsman at Oxbow Flats guiding and a blacksmith shop. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0074, CD 0453.

NA2864 Ora Daggett and Georgie Orcutt, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Daggett, of Portage, discusses the Lombard Steam Log hauler including a general description of its use anecdotes, and lumbering. Orcutt, of Ashland, talks about his experiences as a telephone operator working for the Independent Telephone Company in 1906 and the Aroostook Telephone Company.
Recording: C 0075, CD 0454 – 0455.

NA2865 Mac Beaulier, Leo Michaud, and Dana Rafford, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Tape contains a series of barn dance, square dance, and popular music songs from the 1920s onward, performed by Beaulier, guitar Michaud, banjo and Rafford, fiddle. Recording: C 0076, CD 0456.

NA2866 Delta Ellis and Climena Sylvester, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Ellis, of Ashland, Maine, discusses the history of Ashland and the Advent Christian church. Sylvester, of Ashland, Maine, talks about the history of Union and Congregational church. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0077, CD 0457 – 0458.

NA2867 Reverand George Plante, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Plante, of Ashland, Maine, discusses Catholic churches in the Ashland area missions in Ashland, Sheridan, and Portage the first parish attempt in 1889 and second attempt in 1900 the parish founded in Sheridan in 1902 the church at Frenchville difficulties in the 1930s and developments in the community between the 1960s and 1970s. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0078, CD 0459.

NA2868 Elizabeth M. Rafford, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Rafford, of Ashland, Maine, talks about early Ashland school the Wrightville school in Sheridan and its subsequent certification a description of a one room classroom the Doak School on Maridis Road between 1917-1919 social gatherings in Wrightville the Doak school districts and the economic hardships of the region. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0079, CD 0460.

NA2869 George C. Sawyer and Frank W. Howes, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Sawyer, of Ashland, Maine, discusses the Hayden murder and the lynching of Jim Cullin in Mapleton. Howes, a team driver in Oxbow, talks about early farms and farm sites on the road between Oxbow and Knowles Corner the California Road of 1849 and the story of the name and history of the road. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0080, CD 0461.

NA2870 George Young and Fred Coffin, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Young, of Ashland, Maine, discusses recollections of his youth the grist mill early telephone services in Ashland a visit from woodsmen early churches early roads and conditions and early lumbering companies and conditions. Coffin, of Ashland, Maine, talks about the history of the Ashland Library building the railroad lumber and work trains passenger service at Fort Kent and station agents. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0081, CD 0461 – 0462.

NA2871 Ira McNally, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. McNally, of Ashland, Maine, talks about guiding: cooking in wood camps guiding on Machias Lake in 1912 a typical day including license costs and guiding fees cooking in wood camps and on drives the Ashland Mill Company circa 1916 menus animals and cook and cookee chores. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0082, CD 0464.

NA2872 Ira McNally, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. McNally, of Ashland, Maine, discusses the old Ashland Livery stables a general description of stables and activities the Ashland blacksmith shop and blacksmithing the Ashland race track sulkey racing racing on the ice hog butchering and whiskey making. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0083, CD 0465.

NA2873 Mr. Alonzo Keaton and Mrs. Alonzo Keaton, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Keatons, of Caribou, Maine, discuss life in a lumber camp the ferry across the St. John River the establishment of a customs office lumbering Christmas in the woods log drives an alcohol plant in Caribou hunting and the Realty mill. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0084, CD 0466.

NA2874 Donated by Helen K. Atchison and collected by Susan Collins for a school assignment. A tape-recorded collection of French customs and folklore of Caribou Maine: French folksongs frolics seasonal customs superstitions religious observations and legends based on historical fact. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0085, CD 0467.

NA2875 W. F. Howard, Ruth Howard, and Earl Dow, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Howards, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, talk about early railroads the Bangor and Aroostook line the early railroad and telegraph services and duties of the station master. Dow, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, discusses his father&rsquos experiences as a fireman his own experiences as a freight handler, a clerk, and an auditor. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0086, CD 0468 – 0469.

NA2876 Mrs. Olive Stevens Johnston, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Johnston, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, discusses the &ldquoStevensville&rdquo settlement in Fort Fairfield family mills housing electricity and water systems. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0087, CD 0470.

NA2877 Edward Johnston, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Johnston, of Easton and Fort Fairfield, Maine, discusses the history of potato farming and potato handling industry the background and development of the growing and handling of potatoes in potato houses the introduction of farm machinery different varieties of potatoes early potato handling techniques the effects of railroads on farming and modern improvements to the region. Text: 8 pp. transcript. Recording: C 0088, CD 0471 30 minutes.

NA2878 Rommy Haines, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Haines, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, talks about reading from the diary of James Thurlough the early county commissioner the Aroostook Valley Starch company Danes in Fort Fairfield agriculture sawmills the Plymouth grant and early settlers early schools communicable diseases poverty covered bridges and a school fire. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0089, CD 0472.

NA2879 Lewis Ayoob and Lester Parker, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Ayoob, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, discusses Syrians in the Fort Fairfield town band the arrival of Syrians in the region itinerant peddlers foods and funeral customs. Parker, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, talks about his history with the town band a general history of the town band dance playing and locations and different occasions and the location of the old band stand. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0090, CD 0473 – 0474.

NA2880 Rommy L. Haines, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Recording of folklore poems of Fort Fairfield, Maine. Brief index. Tape includes the &ldquoMaiden&rsquos Sacrifice&rdquo by Dr. James Hanay – of Maliseet folklore, and &ldquoRiverside Cemetery&rdquo a poem by Chandler Cushman Harvey, owner and editor of the Fort Fairfield Review (1902-1940), and &ldquoKingdom of Pines&rdquo, a poem by George F. Ashby. Haines, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, discusses the Maple Grove settlement a history of the Haines family the first school and first church Quakers in the region the Bangor-Aroostook Railroad and the potato industry. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0091, CD 0475 – 0476.

NA2881 Rose Trask Johnston and Pearl Trask Robinson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Johnston and Robinson, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, discuss farm life and personal reminiscences. Text: 17 pp. single spaced transcript [page 1 appears to be missing]. Recording: C 0092, CD 0477 1 hour.

NA2882 Hazel H. Cushman and Mary Towle Kimball, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Cushman, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, discusses the history of J. Wingate Haines and the Quaker Maple Grove clay a Civil War letter from Daniel Haines to his brother Fred a story of Fred&rsquos invention of the first horse-drawn cultivator marketing potatoes a letter from the Lewiston Weekly dated Sept. 5, 1906 by the Agricultural editor and a portrait of six prosperous farms. Kimball, of Fort Fairfield, Maine, talks about Mary Estes Towles&rsquo genealogy letters by Mary Estes Towles to her grandmother dated in 1888 and her aunt Mrs. Elmira Tibbetts from 1889 and excerpts from a cookbook compiled in 1888, which included recipes and household hints. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0093, CD 0478 – 0479.

NA2883 Zella Carson Cogswell, Ike Carson, Marion French, and James Bernard, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Cogswell, Carson, and French, of Fort Fairfield, discuss the Carson family background Wellington House – the first frame house shops and buildings in the early 1920s circus days Marion&rsquos story about the Aroostook War with biographical details of Warren Johnson a reading of a draft call of February 28, 1839 and local sketches from Presque Isle – the Loyal Sunrise – June 7, 1865. Bernard, of Fort Fairfield, talks about a history of Aroostook county from Stewart Holbrook on the B & A the forest boundary controversy and the results of the Aroostook war.
Text: 2 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0094, CD 0480 – 0481.

NA2884 Carl Rasmussen, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Rasmussen, of Fort Fairfield, talks about his early life in New Denmark, New Brunswick potato growing in Aroostook circa 1904 wages in the period working at a smokehouse and granary storage pressing the sale of hay barn raising and the potato industry between 1905 and 1910. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0095, CD 0482.

NA2885 Belone Pelletier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Pelletier, of Fort Kent, discusses his childhood experiences working as a cookee in a lumber camp cookee stories the logistics of log transportation how to make coal drives around Fort Kent how goods were transported into the woods the ethnic makeup of crews logging stories stories relating to his marriage, discussion of different lumber companies and the town layout. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0096, CD 0483.

NA2886 Belone Pelletier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Pelletier, of Fort Kent, talks about a grist mill music at lumber camps early stories in the region introduction of cars in Fort Kent the use of animals for lumbering camps experiences on the drive as a cookee and this history of lumbering corporations in relation to St. John. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0097, CD 0484.

NA2887 Tom Pelletier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Pelletier, of Allagash, discusses lumbering and boating on the Allagash the origin of Dickey a description of a steam log hauler the origin of the name Allagash the origin of the Allagash Pelletier family the origin of Knicker brook the ferry on the Allagash in the summers Governer Sewell schools in the area a general narrative on householding a description of a bateaux and J. T. Michaud of the Michaud farm. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0098, CD 0485.

NA2888 Tom Pelletier, Aaron Jackson, and Rosie Jackson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Pelletier, of Allagash, discusses Native Americans and their artifacts the end of lumbering and the Temiscouata railroad Indian burial grounds and the ice dam and a 13 day flood. The Jacksons, of St. Francis, talk about the Allagash cave Grand Falls Horse race rapids. Interview also contains a bear story told by Mrs. Jackson and a song by Mrs. Jackson learned 75 years beforehand. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0099, CD 0486 – 0487.

NA2889 Aaron Jackson and Rosie Jackson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Jacksons, of St. Francis, discuss log drives life in the lumbering camps the &ldquoCorporation&rdquo Ed Pond the inventor of booms and Big Rapids. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0100, CD 0488.

NA2890 Aaron Jackson and Rosie Jackson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Jacksons, of St. Francis, discuss rivermen and guides the flood of 1893 and its effects on the area weather comparisons education and canoe making. Also includes songs by the Jacksons. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0101, CD 0489 – 0490.

NA2891 Jim Connors, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Connors, of St. Francis and Allagash, discusses a guided tour up the Allagash river the St. Francis and St. John Rivers as boundary rivers tales of &ldquoOld Tom Gardner&rdquo a famous guide Connors, New Brunswick the Temiscouata railroad reminiscences of daily life in earlier years food remedies knitting and other daily chores and habits. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0102, CD 0491.

NA2892 Jim Connors, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Connors, of St. Francis and Allagash, talks about hunting and fishing along the St. John River Valley a poetry reading of &ldquoThe Bells of St. Michele&rdquo by Drummond and &ldquoSpring Riches&rdquo by Catherine Shelley growing up in Allagash and St. Francis family background pine lumbering and logging days and present-day logging practices. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0103, CD 0492.

NA2893 John Lewis Page, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Page, of Fort Kent, talks about an old footbridge personal material the first doctor in Fort Kent (Dr. Sirois) the family owned footbridge across the St. John River activities concerned with the bridge smuggling and the custom official and an animal cemetery. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0104, CD 0493.

NA2894 Edith Kelly, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Kelly, of Allagash, discusses well digging in the Allagash the quality of clay produced from drilling for pottery and how the discovery of the clay led to a career in making and selling pottery – Alla Ware Pottery. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0105, CD 0494.

NA2895 Sophie Pinette Brown, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, of Fort Kent, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Brown talks about teaching at age 13 in 1886 in the back settlements of Fort Kent and Eagle Lake the difficulties of teaching French-Canadian children with English textbooks and her brother-in-law John&rsquos career as an early surveyor of Fort Kent. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0106, CD 0495.

NA2896 Eva McBriety, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. McBriety, a daughter of the first white child born in Allagash, talks about her life women&rsquos work housewifery social events and winters cooking at lumber camps. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0107, CD 0496.

NA2897 Patricia Desjardin, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Desjardin, of Fort Kent, discusses the Fort Kent Mill Company – its organization and purposes Niles and Tom S. Pinkham owners circa 1919 logging and log drives flour mills river rights and the Pinkham businesses. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0108, CD 0497.

NA2898 Fred Putnam, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Putnam, of Houlton, talks about farm equipment from 1897 the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad the Birdseye-Snyder Pea operation of the 1950s lumber mills transportation in the early 1900s more information about the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad transporting potatoes to Houlton agricultural fairs winter recreation farm life in 1900 barn raising and Sockalexis (Cleveland Indians). Text: brief index. Recording: C 0109, CD 0498.

NA2899 Fred Putnam, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Putnam, of Houlton, talks about farm equipment the Houlton race tracks fair associations the Houlton Agriculture Society (circa 1898) the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad the Houlton Foundry horse dealers horse trading the first car in the region and reaction from the horses to it medical service electricity Albert A. Burleigh and the B&A the Unitarian church history the Ricker Classical institute and town meetings. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0110, CD 0499.

NA2900 Mrs. Stella Oliver, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Oliver, of Houlton, discusses her family background living and cooking in a lumber camp personal experiences with horses a comparison of life in earlier years versus the 1970s horse contests state children and senior citizens. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0111, CD 0500.

NA2901 Asael Logan, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Logan, of Houlton, talks about his family background river drives along the East Branch and the Penobscot woods equipment lumbering procedures log riding an Indian story about Johnny Daylight Martin Emerson of Island Falls a &ldquoHulling Machine&rdquo along the East Branch wages step dancing a poem by Fred Logan titled &ldquoThe Penobcot Lumber woods&rdquo and George Knox stories. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0112, CD 0501.

NA2902 Asael Logan, Don McAtee, and Eric Richards, circa 1971-1972. Logan, on fiddle, McAtee, on guitar, and Richards, of Houlton, play typical square and country music with comments on well known fiddlers in the area: Claire Lake and Clifford Lockhart callers Ambrose O&rsquoDonnell and Lawrence Carmichael of Monticello – a fiddle maker the songs: &ldquoWreck at Altoona&rdquo and &ldquoHaste to the Wedding&rdquo and a comparison with southern style fiddling. Recording: C 0113, CD 0502.

NA2903 William Cumming, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Cumming, of Houlton, discusses his work as a weather observer since 1915 official observer for the area since 1935 weather records peculiarities in the Houlton area related to the weather and the use of charts in lawsuits, road building, and such. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0114, CD 0503.

NA2904 William Cumming, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Cumming, of Houlton, talks about his career as a druggist starting as an apprentice in 1910 – his duties & wages the standardization of drugs the &ldquotough end&rdquo between 1910-1920 patent medicines home medicines doctors&rsquo attitudes store prescriptions narcotics, aspirin the quack &ldquoMontana Harry&rdquo horse medicines the names of doctors and dentists between 1910-1940 &ldquoPut&rdquo Bennett & Linneus and rat control. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0115, CD 0504.

NA2905 William Cumming, George Cumming, and William Jordan, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Cummings and Jordan, of Houlton, discuss a trip to Mount Katahdin – reasons for the trip the Togue pond camps the Depot camp along Sandy Stream the Basin Pond Camp Chimney Pond Governor Brewster&rsquos registration book meeting an Appalachian mountain club member from Boston, the South Peak the Knife Edge Ponoma Peak the Dudley Trail other climbs black flies and fly dope. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0116, CD 0505.

NA2906 Bruce Campbell, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Cambell, of Houlton, traces the route of the Great Houlton fire of 1902 identifies residences and businesses lost. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0117, CD 0506.

NA2907 Lydia Trask Putnam Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972, in Houlton, Maine. Brief index. They talk about the genealogical backgrounds of the members of a DAR chapter in a small New England town. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0118, CD 0507.

NA2908 Albin V. Larson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Larson, of Houlton, discusses his Swedish family background industries in Stockholm mill work hours and responsibilities Atlas Plywood in Stockholm Greenville, and Houlton Atlas and Huber of Patten and Larson&rsquos Plywood Barrels. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0119, CD 0508.

NA2909 Dr. Lore A. Rogers, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Rogers, of Patten, Maine, discusses his early recollections from childhood to college medical facilities women&rsquos work recreation early lumbering and lumbering procedures the beginnings of lumberman&rsquos museum and a description of area characters and tales. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0120, CD 0509.

NA2910 Mrs. Louise McLeod, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. McLeod, of Limestone, Maine, includes readings from an autograph book that came from Sibley, Iowa, to Limestone between 1880 and 1883. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0121, CD 0510.

NA2911 Elden Tapley, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Tapley, of Madawaska, Maine, discusses the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad the international bridge a story of Robert Connors railroads the first automobile and World War I. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0122, CD 0511.

NA2912 Alvey Dubois and Geraldine Chasse, recorded by Helen K. Atchison. Recording of Madawaska Centennial of 1969 Pageant with lyrics and music. Narrated by Dubois and Chasse and contains information about the Maliseets (Malecites) Acadians The Aroostook War Mt. Carmel Chapel the first town meeting the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad education the finale and credits. RESTRICTED. Text: 1 pp. index. Recording: C 0123, CD 0512.

NA2913 Bernadette Mayhew, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Mayhew, of Madawaska, Maine, discusses transportation, specifically crossing the river in a basket social customs the convent in St. Agatha smuggling the daughters of Isabella a church history automobiles and hotels in the area. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0124, CD 0513.

NA2914 Ernest Chasse, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Chasse, of Madawaska, Maine, discusses the background of the Chasse family (Acadian) farming equipment and methods both old and new roads St. David&rsquos Parish the Madawaska Historical Society and loading and inspecting potatoes. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0125, CD 0514.

NA2915 Mrs. Geraldine Chasse, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Chasse, of Madawaska, Maine, reads of articles of the Madawaska Historical Society and discusses the events leading to the Aroostook War Donald Fraser of the Fraser Paper Company Peter Keegan Patrick Theriault French missionaries and the Mt. Carmel church. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0126, CD 0515.

NA2916 Mrs. Geraldine Chasse, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, of Madawaska, Maine, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Chasse reads articles from the Madawaska Historical Society and discusses the USS Madawaska fiddleheads holiday customs carding wool Albert Bakery recreation the St. Agatha Parish the First Church bell the International Bridge and the Maliseet Legend of Melobiannah. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0127, CD 0516.

NA2917 Mrs. Frances Levasseur, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Levasseur, of Madawaska, talks about the founders of Madawaska the First Acadian convention in 1910 the wooden cross in St. David&rsquos Native Americans and bark canoes household arts customs and religion the great famine of 1797 and household affairs. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0128, CD 0517.

NA2918 Franklin S. Cunningham, interviewed by A. Stimpson, circa 1971-1972, donated by Helen K. Atchison. Brief index. Cunningham, of Presque Isle, talks about his lifetime in education his personal background early teaching in Mapleton teaching and being principal of high school in Presque Isle normal schools country schools the development of Presque Isle into a city the town band and concerts traveling shows and the rewards of a long career. Text: 1 pp. brief index, 10 pp. transcript. Recording: C 0129, CD 0518 30 minutes.

NA2919 Murray Murphy, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Murphy, of Presque Isle, talks about work as a woodsman his life activities early contact with the woods arrowheads and pottery building of railroads recreational camps Native American remains the &ldquoTragedy of the St. John River&rdquo a poem on a Mohawk attack forestry service great fires early firefighting equipment and his father&rsquos farm in Ashland. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0130, CD 0519.

NA2920 Augusta Christie, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Christie, of Presque Isle, a Maine State Legislator, talks about her experiences as a teacher, a farmer&rsquos wife, and a legislator her family background in Ashland school days in a one-room schoolhouse her business career early political activities Depression years World War II years and comments on her legislative career. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0131, CD 0520.

NA2921 Dorothy Dingwall, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Dingwall, of Presque Isle, talks about the Army Base in Presque Isle during WWII – the reasons for the base kinds of planes the role of the base on the Atlantic run to Europe the Arctic Rescue team hospitals for the wounded prisoners of war visiting V.I.P.s a comparison with Vietnam antiwar attitudes and the building of the Limestone base. Text: brief index, 2 pp. single spaced transcript. Recording: C 0132, CD 0521 20 minutes.

NA2922 Avis Dudley, interviewed by A. Stimpson, circa 1971-1972, donated by Helen K. Atchison. Brief index. Dudley, of Mapleton, talks about life in Castle Hill and Mapleton early school days the David Dudley store the Cullin Murder and lynching early Mapleton memories horses a visit to a lumber camp life as a farmer between 1918 to the 1960s Depression years the Dudley Homestead restaurant and the Northern Maine fair in the 1920s. Text: 1 pp. brief index, 10 pp. transcript. Recording: C 0133, CD 0522 20 minutes.

NA2923 Harold Glidden, interviewed by A. Stimpson, circa 1971-1972, donated by Helen K. Atchison. Brief index. Glidden, of Presque Isle, discusses the story of WABM (radio) and WAGM (television) from the beginning in 1931 in Mars Hill up through 1972 includes radio stations in Mars Hill, Houlton, and Presque Isle. Text: brief index, 4 pp. single spaced transcript. Recording: C 0134, CD 0523 30 minutes.

NA2924 Charles Watson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Watson, of Van Buren, tells a story about the Civil War in Calais discusses bottling works his brother&rsquos grocery store stores on Main Street and an earthquake in October 1924. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0135, CD 0524.

NA2925 Ernest Soucy, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Soucy, of Van Buren, talks about his life as a storekeeper the establishment of a department store in 1941 general description of all areas of storekeeping La Croix mill chapel eddy siding modernization in storekeeping sports in Van Buren ice racing the tannery farming and a raspberry factory. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0136, CD 0525.

NA2926 Everett Dionne, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Dionne, of Van Buren, discusses shingle making Cutler&rsquos mills ferries and crossings the Violettes&rsquo camps the Van Buren circuit and French &ldquoSpite Songs&rdquo by Michael Thibodeau. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0137, CD 0526.

NA2927 Mathilda Derosier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Derosier, of Van Buren, talks about life on the farm a walking trip to Old Town and information about a black plaque or the black plague. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0137, CD 0527.

NA2928 Farrells and Michauds, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Farrells and Michauds of Van Buren talk about Acadian and Irish families living along the St. John River a genealogy of the Farrell and Michaud families. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0138 (side 1), CD 0528.

NA2929 Elmer Violette, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Violette, of Van Buren, discusses the history of the Violette family from the Acadian settlement in 1785 to present the sawmill on Violette brook. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0138 (side 2), CD 0529.

NA2930 Mr. Leo Poirier, Sr. and Mrs. Leo Poirier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. The Poiriers, of Van Buren, discuss a Van Buren town meeting from 1916 or 1917 Joe B. Herron the Price brothers mill the ferry slip locations on the St. John river the international bridge at Fort Kent and French songs sung by Mrs. Poirier. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0139, CD 0530.

NA2931 Marcella Belanger Violette, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Violette, of Van Buren, discusses the history of the St. John River valley and Acadians from approximately 1787 to 1911 the northeastern boundary controversy the role of the church education and different types of French spoken in the area. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0140, CD 0531.

NA2932 Mrs. James Franck, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Mrs. Franck, of Van Buren, talks about life as a game warden&rsquos wife winter amusements and traveling by the Bangor and Aroostook railroad. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0141 (side 1), CD 0532.

NA2933 Mary Jane Michaud, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Michaud, of Van Buren, discusses schools and school teaching. Text: 1 pp. brief index. Recording: C 0141 (side 2), CD 0533.

NA2934 Mildred Smith Gagnon, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Gagnon, of Van Buren, discusses biographical data on Peter Charles Keegan from the early 1900s St. Mary&rsquos College Thomas Smith the superintendent of schools lumber mills army service for 17.5 years and her two terms in the state legislature. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0142, CD 0534.

NA2935 Gerald Gagnon, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Gagnon, of Van Buren, talks about the legend about Robert E. Lee Powers Creek the Gagnon genealogy and tales told to him by his grandfather. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0143 (side 1), CD 0535.

NA2936 Henrietta Dionne, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-1972. Brief index. Dionne, of Van Buren, discusses a housewife&rsquos activities Christmas bridal shower and wedding traditions gardening soap and lard making and schooling. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0143 (side 2), CD 0536.

NA2937 Mrs. Frances Levasseur, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Levasseur, of Van Buren, talks about the Honorable John Rice Frank the Van Buren school choir French songs common to the valley and a Madawaska territory song. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0144, CD 0537.

NA2938 Justina P. Marquis, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Marquis, of Van Buren, discusses the genealogies of the Marquis and Michaud families the history of Van Buren town officials church affairs and the Violette homestead. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0145, CD 0538.

NA2939 Sister Bertha Duperry, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Duperry, of Van Buren, a history of the Keegan post office between 1907-1971 and Charles Keegan a history of the Duperry family the railroad from Bangor to St. John River Europeans and North American Company controversy Van Buren history quiz a short report on potato houses by a sixth grader an article from the Portland Sunday Telegram from November 6, 1955 a centenary of the Diocese of Portland and St. Daigle&rsquos parish. Text: brief index. Recordings: C 0146, CD 0539.

NA2940 Martha Cyr, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Cyr, of Van Buren, discusses the Cyr genealogy schooling at the Good Shepherd Convent in 1900 open air studies – astronomy violinmaking maple sugar making and &ldquospring tonic.&rdquo Text: brief index. Recording: C 0147, CD 0540.

NA2941 Everett Cary, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Cary, of Washburn, discusses his memories of Washburn education fires ferries a bridge farming the Aroostook Valley Railroad the Ku Klux Klan and recreation. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0148, CD 0541.

NA2942 Blanche Price, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Price, of Washburn, talks about the Aroostook Valley Railroad World War I World War II and mills in the area. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0149, CD 0547.

NA2943 Helen Haines and Arthur Plissey, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Haines and Plissey, of Washburn, ME, discuss schooling in Washburn and in general in 1921 school transportation and early roads school curriculum sports planting the Veneer mill and fires in Washburn in 1924-25. Text: 10 pp. single spaced transcript, page 1 appears to be missing. Recording: C 0150, CD 0548 45 minutes.

NA2944 Alta Munson and Earl Munson, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. The Munsons, of Washburn, talk about Tommy Patterson silent movies fires the ferry from Aroostook Valley Park to Washburn and Crouseville. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0151, CD 0549.

NA2945 Myrtle Smith, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Smith, of Washburn, discusses the history of Washburn (highlights) the Washburn Library newspapers education the Aroostook Valley Railroad craftsmen blacksmiths dressmakers itinerant peddlers religious services socials and recreation. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0152, CD 0550.

NA2946 Autice Jardine, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Jardine, of Washburn, talks about the Canadian Pacific Railroad which was built to compete with Bangor and Aroostook Railroad an excursion to Boston on Washington&rsquos birthday on the B&A. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0153, CD 0551.

NA2947 Myrtle Jardine and Larry Wilcox, recorded by Helen K. Atchison. Jardine reads a term paper by Wilcox on the history of Washburn. Text: 1 pp. index. Recording: C 0154, CD 0552.

NA2948 Axie Fox, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Fox, of Washburn, discusses the history of Wade schools and a Stanley Steamer. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0155, CD 0553.

NA2949 Evelyn Flewelling, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Flewelling, of Crouseville, discusses the history of Crouseville a log drive the advent Christian church and education. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0156 (side 1), CD 0554.

NA2950 Carol Blackstone, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, circa 1971-72. Brief index. Blackstone, of Perham, discusses the history of Perham the Baptist church schools railroads mills the maple sugar industry and professional men, including politicians, doctors, and ministers. Text: brief index. Recording: C 0156 (side 2), CD 0555.

NA3270 Mr. Dennis Cyr, Mrs. Dennis Cyr, and Mrs. Michel Fournier, interviewed by Helen K. Atchison, Edmunston. The Cyrs and Fournier talk about education farming social life homemaking superstition and Indians. Conducted in French. Recording: C 0041 (Side 2), CD 0222 French.


Watch the video: Maine, 1951