Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (UNESCO/NHK)

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (UNESCO/NHK)


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Pattadakal, in Karnataka, represents the high point of an eclectic art which, in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India. An impressive series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary, can be seen there. One masterpiece from the group stands out -- the Temple of Virupaksha, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her ...

Source: UNESCO TV / © NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai
URL: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/239/


Pattadakal Group Of Temples – A World Heritage Site

Pattadakal – Situated on the banks of the Malaprabha River, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is a testament to the richness of Chalukya architecture during the 8th and 8th centuries and is famous for its intricately carved temples. The temples at Pattadakal bear testimony to the richness and timeless splendor of Chalukya architecture. It consists of a group of 10 major temples, which display some striking architectural features. The world famous geographer Ptolemy (150 AD) has documented the city as “Parthi Gall”.

It was even used as a ceremonial center where kings were crowned and remembered. The architecture of the temple from Dravidian, Aryan at Pattadakal and its temple complex is a mixture of both styles Probably making it the only one of its kind in India. Within the Pattadakal temple complex is a sculpture gallery maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.

Cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site
Built In : 8th Century
Year of Inscription : 1987

Reasons for Inscription: According to Criteria Nos. (Iii) and (iv) the monuments at Pattadakal were declared as World Heritage Sites. Despite being a specimen of the great Chalukya architectural style, the monuments here display a unique blend of Dravidian as well as Indo-Aryan style of architecture. The temples found at Pattadakal are designed with a mixture of architectural designs starting from the Nagara, Rekha, Prasad and Dravidian aircraft styles of temple construction.

Category : Archaeological site, South (East) Asian Religious structure, Hindu.

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal

Pattadakal represents a high point of liberal arts, which under the Chalukya dynasty received a harmonious mix of architectural forms from northern and southern India in the 7th and 8th centuries. An impressive range of nine Hindu temples as well as a Jain sanctuary can be seen there.

Three very closely located sites in the state of Karnataka provide a remarkable concentration of religious monuments from the Great Dynasty of Chalukya (c. 543–757). There are two consecutive capital cities – Aihole (ancient Aryapura), Badami, and Pattadakal, the ‘City of Crown Rubies’ (Pattada Kisuvolal). Furthermore, the latter was, for a short time, the third capital of the Chalukya kingdom At that time the Pallavas captured Badami (642–55).

While Aihole is traditionally considered a ‘laboratory’ of Chalukya architecture, with monuments such as the temple of Ladakh (c. 450) that foreshadow the political successes of the dynasty during the reign of King Pulakeshin I, the city of Pattadakal was a liberal one. K denotes apogee. Art, which acquired a harmonious mix of architectural forms from the north and south of India, in the 8th and 8th centuries.

Temples in Pattadakal

Virupaksha Temple

The temple was built by Rani Lok Mahadevi, wife of King Vikramaditya II, after successful military operations at Kanchipuram. The temple has a huge quadrilateral surrounded by small cells or temples. It has a huge entrance and a small gate behind it. There is a Nandimantapa at the entrance which is supported by large pillars. The great hall of the temple has a roof which rests on 16 huge square pillars arranged in 4 rows. These pillars have exquisitely crafted the epics of the Puranas. It is believed that the Kailasa temple at Ellora was built on the model of Virupaksha temple.

Mallikarjuna Temple

It was originally called Trilokeshwar Maha Saila Prasad and was built by Rani Trilokya Mahadevi in ​​about 740 AD. Architecturally, almost like the twin of Virupaksha Temple, Mallikarjuna Temple was built for the same purpose, at the same time Virupaksha Temple which stands next to it. Ramayana and Mahabharata episodes are engraved on the inner walls.

Sangameswara Temple

Sangameshwar Temple, built during the reign of King Vijayaditya, is the oldest temple. It has a sanctum sanctorum with Dravidian aircraft. The outer walls of the sanctum house have statues of fiery Narasimha and Nataraja.

Galaganatha Temple

The Galaganatha Temple is a dilapidated temple dating back to the 8th century AD and has a northern-style curved spire. The peak has all the Amalaka motifs with one final vertex. It is a Shiva temple with a Shivling in black basalt.

Kashi Visweshwara Temple

This is another temple with a curved spire. The inner roof of the Kashi Vishweshwara Temple has figures of Bal Skanda surrounded by Shiva, Parvati and Dikpalas.

Papanatha Temple

The Papanatha temple is mentioned as ‘Mukteshwar’, which seems to have been completed around 740 AD. It has a frontal pavilion, shabhamantapa, ante chamber and a square sanctum sanctorum. The architecture of this temple is a mixture of Dravidian and Nagara styles.

Jambulinga Temple

It is a small temple with a curved shikara behind the Galganath temple. It has figures of Vishnu, Ardhanarishwara and Lakulisha on its outer walls.

Kadasiddheshwara Temple

It is similar in design to the Jambulinga temple. There are beautiful images of Shiva and Parvati at the entrance, seated on a Nandi, which is between Brahma and Vishnu.

Jain Temple

Outside the city there is a huge Jain Basadi built in the 9th century AD. This temple has been constructed in the Rashtrakuta style with huge elephants welcoming visitors at the entrance.

How to Get There

BY AIR
Nearest domestic airport to Pattadakal is Belgaum whereas, Bengaluru is the n

BY RAIL
Badami is the nearest rail head to Pattadakal. Private cabs are available on hire.

BY ROAD
Buses to Pattadakal are available from all major cities like Bengaluru, Belgaum, Bijapur, and Hubli.

Read about more heritage site

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Frequently Asked Questions About Pattadakal

Q. What is Pattadakal famous for?

A – Group of Monuments at Pattadakal. Located in the southern state of Karnataka, the Pattadakal Group of Monuments is famous for its harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India. Pattadakal, the capital of the Chalukya dynasty of medieval India, is 22 km from Badami and 514 km from Bangalore.

Q. Which god is Pattadakal?

A – The Papnath temple at Pattadakal is dedicated to Lord Mukteshwar. It is situated to the south of the Virupaksha temple area. It was built in 740 AD.

Q. Who ruled Pattadakal?

A – After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, Pattadakal was annexed by the Sultanate of Bijapur, which was ruled by the Adil Shahi dynasty. At the end of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb gained control of Pattadakal from the Sultanate.

Q. Pattadakal is in Hampi?

A – Pattadakal Hampi Karnataka. The integration between the well planned city of Hampi with its natural setting and architectural grandeur speaks of the artistic skills of the then architects.

Q. What is the old name of Pattadakal?

A – Pattadakal, formerly known as Raktapura, is a small town in Bagalkot district in north Karnataka, India. It is famous for UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Pattadakal region was inhabited in prehistoric times, as evidenced by the megalithic dolmens.

Q. Who built the Papnath temple at Pattadakal?

A – The temples of Pattadakal are grouped together and oriented towards the east. The Papanatha temple was built during the 8th century in the early Chalukya period.

Q. Who destroyed the Pattadakal temples?

A – After the fall of the Chalukya Empire, the city was under the rule of several other states. In the 13th century, during the reign of the Delhi Sultans, the city was raided and looted, and many temples were destroyed and looted.

Q. Who built the Sangameshwar temple?

A – Sangameshwar Temple, formerly called Vijayeshwar Temple, is a religious site in Pattadakal. It was built by the Chalukya king, Vijayaditya Satyashraya in about 733 AD.

Q. Who built Pattadakal and Aihole?

A – The temples of Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal were built by the Chalukya dynasty. The Aihole temple was built between the 7th and 8th centuries by the Chalukya dynasty.

Q. How many temples are there in Pattadakal?

A – Pattadakal, the capital of the Chalukya dynasty of medieval India, is 22 km from Badami and 514 km from Bangalore. This famous World Heritage Site has a group of ten major temples, each exhibiting interesting architectural features.


Pattadakal: Cradle of Architecture

The Malaprabha river valley in Northern Karnataka is known as a ‘cradle of Indian architecture’, and nestled around it were the ancient, flourishing cities of Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, all of them a legacy of the Early Chalukyas (543-753 CE).

Today, the rock-cut and sandstone temples here attract tourists from far and wide. But did you know that the monuments at all three sites are the same, yet different? Within them, you can clearly see an evolution phase.

Aihole was a breeding ground of architectural concepts and styles, and thus the temples here are in the initial stage. These ideas were developed and refined in the monuments at Badami, and the result of their culmination can be seen at Pattadakal. In fact, Pattadakal, due to its location, also served as a meeting ground for North Indian and South Indian architectural styles, and the monuments here represent the high point of eclectic art.

Pattadakal, 165 km south-east of Belgaum, was an important commercial centre in the early centuries of the Common Era. It is referred to by Greek Geographer Ptolemy as ‘Petirgal’ in his Geographia (150 CE), which says it had trade relations with the Roman world. The region, then, was under the Satavahana Dynasty (1st century BCE – 3rd century CE).

The Satavahanas were followed by the Kadamba Dynasty (345-525 CE). When Kadamba rule began to decline, their feudatories, the Early Chalukyas, asserted their independence in the 6th century CE. However, not much is known about the Early Chalukyas but we do know that it was Pulakeshin I (540-566 CE), the third king in the genealogical line, who made Badami the capital in 543 CE, and his grandson Pulakeshin II (609-642 CE) extended the political boundaries of the kingdom far and wide, from the Narmada to the Kaveri.

It was during the successive reigns of the next Chalukyan rulers – Vikramaditya I (655-680), Vinayaditya (680-696), Vijayaditya (696-733), Vikramaditya II (733-746) and Kirtivarman II (746-753) – that the kingdom, while at peace, grew prosperous. They were the patrons of the many monuments at Pattadakal.

‘Pattadakal’ literally means ‘coronation stone’ as it was here that many Chalukyan kings were anointed. Another name for Pattadakal is ‘Kisuvolal’, meaning ‘valley of red soil’. It was this soil, or sandstone from the hills that surround the region, that was used to build the many temples here.

Spread across 5.56 hectares, there are ten major temples at Pattadakal – nine Hindu and one Jain. The Hindu temples are all dedicated to Lord Shiva and face east.

Pattadakal’s monuments reflect a fusion of two major Indian architectural styles – one from North India (Rekha-Nagara-Prasada) and the other from South India (Dravida-Vimana). Most of the temples house a garbha griha (sanctum sanctorum) that leads to an antarala (vestibule), which is joined by a pillared mandapam (hall). The image of the deity is kept on a peetha (pedestal). On top of the sanctum rises a shikhara (spire) that has a kalash (pitcher) with a coconut and mango leaves at its finial.

Virupaksha Temple

The most magnificent of the temples at Pattadakal is the Virupaksha Temple built around 740 CE. In inscriptions, it is referred to as ‘Shri Lokeshvara Mahasila Prasada’, after its sponsor Queen Lokamahadevi. She got the temple built to commemorate the victory of her husband, King Vikramaditya II, over Kanchi, the capital of the Pallava Dynasty (3rd to 9th century CE).

The temple is noted for its range and quality of construction, as well as the inscribed names of the artists beneath the panels they worked on. Virupaksha, like the others in the complex, was built by placing one dressed-up stone upon another without any cementing agent. Within the compound are smaller shrines, of which there were once 32, based on the foundation footprint layout, but most have been lost.

The temple also contains 16 inscriptions that offer a glimpse into the society and culture of 8th-century India. For example, one inscription mentions a grant to the ‘musicians of the temple’ by the queen. Another one discloses the identity of the temple’s architect. His name was Gunda Anivaritacharya. He was felicitated by giving him the honour of perjjerepu patta by King Vikramaditya II.

Interestingly, it is believed that the famous 8th-century Kailasa Temple at the Ellora Caves was modeled on this temple. However, the Virupaksha temple itself was modeled on the Kailasanatha Temple at Kanchipuram, which was built in 700 CE.

Mallikarjuna Temple

This temple stands right next to Virupaksha Temple and the two of them are considered twins. Mallikarjuna Temple was built for the same purpose – to celebrate the king’s victory but was commissioned by another queen, Trailokeshwara, the sister of Queen Lokamahadevi.

The use of stone carvings for storytelling is prevalent throughout the temple. The friezes here show amorous couples, labourers and women indulging in different activities. In front of the sanctum is an antechamber with small shrines for Durga as Mahishasuramardini killing the buffalo demon, and another for Ganesha, both currently empty.

In front of the Mallikarjuna Temple is an 8th-century monolithic stone pillar that bears an inscription. Historically, this is very significant as it is inscribed in two Sanskrit scripts – the Northern Indian Siddhamatrika script and the Southern Indian proto-Kannada-Telugu script. It starts with invocations of Shiva and Hara Gauri, and refers to the reigns of Kings Vijayaditya and Vikramaditya II.

Sangameshwara Temple

This temple was started in 720 CE by Vijayaditya and was originally named ‘Vijayeswara Temple’. However, his death resulted in the temple being left unfinished, although work continued intermittently in later centuries. Themes of Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism are presented in the carvings.

This temple is an example of experimentation with window styles and wall carvings by the Chalukyan sculptors. The shikhara is in two tiers and is topped by a four-sided amalaka (vertically grooved stone disc). There are exquisitely sculpted dwarfs below the caves of the outer walls. They appear to be carrying the superstructure of the temple.

Kadasiddeshwar Temple

A relatively modest temple, it is dated to the mid-7th century CE and appears to have derived its name from an ascetic who might have occupied the temple. Finely cut designs decorate the door of the shrine. The outer walls of the sanctum feature images of Ardhanarishvara (half-Shiva, half-Parvati) on the north face, Harihara (half-Shiva, half-Vishnu) on the west face and Lakulisha (28th incarnation of Shiva) on the south face.

Jambulingeshwara Temple

Completed between the 7th and 8th centuries, this temple is known for its experimentation with the idea of a projecting sukanasa (extended ornamented feature) from the shikhara in front. Swans are executed below the caves over the door, and they appear to be moving in the air, carrying the superstructure on their backs. Five miniature temples, each containing a Shiva Linga, can be seen over the shrine door.

Kashi Vishwanath Temple

Dated between the 7th and 8th centuries, this temple sits on a raised platform with five layers of mouldings, decorated with carvings of horses, elephants, lions, peacocks and flowery vine designs. Inside the temple are pillars and pilasters intricately carved with friezes depicting the Bhagavata Purana, Shiva Purana and Ramayana. One frieze shows the demon Ravana lifting Mount Kailash, others show the playful pranks of Krishna such as him stealing butter, while another narrates the Kalyansundarmurti (marriage of Shiva and Parvati) attended by Brahma and Vishnu.

Galanganatha Temple

The Archaeological Survey of India estimates this temple to date to the mid-8th century. Outside the temple is a seated Nandi that faces the sanctum. Various mandapas exist in this temple, such as a community hall (sabha mandapa) used for ceremonial functions, and a mukha mandapa, of which only the foundation remains. A sculpture of Nataraja is depicted on the door lintel and drummers are playing by the deity’s side. The entrance to the mandapa is flanked by river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna. The southern wall contains a carved slab showing an eight-armed Shiva killing the demon Andhaka, while wearing a garland of skulls as a yajnopavita (sacred thread across the chest).

Papanatha Temple

The Papanatha Temple is situated apart from the main cluster of eight Hindu monuments. It is about half a kilometre to the south of Virupaksha and has been dated to the end of the Early Chalukya period, the mid-8th century. Just a stone’s throw from it flows the Malaprabha River. The temple is noted for its novel mixture of Dravida and Nagara Hindu temple styles. The temple is longer, incorporating two interconnected mandapas, one with 16 pillars and another with 4 pillars. The decorations, parapets and some parts of the layout are Dravida in style, while the tower and pilastered niches are of the Nagara style.

Chandrashekhara Temple

In 753 CE, the Badami Chalukyan Empire succumbed to the onslaught of Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta chief who ruled the Ellora region in modern-day Aurangabad in Maharashtra. The rulers of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (8th to 10th century CE) also built some monuments at Pattadakal, like the Chandrashekhara Temple. This shrine, unlike the others, is devoid of a tower. It is laid out within a space 33.33 feet in length and 17.33 feet in breadth, on an adhishthana (platform based on certain design rules in Hindu texts). There are dvarapalas (guardians) on each side of the entrance and the door frames are carved with shakhas (translate).

Jain Narayana Temple

The only Jain temple among the temples at Pattadakal was likely built in the 9th century CE during the reign of Krishna II of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty. The entrance features carvings of a life-size elephant torso with riders. The temple has a secondary shrine on top of the main shrine. The presence of two Jain sculptures on the north and west outer walls of the temple indicate that this is a Jain temple. A makaratorana (ornamental arch) has been carved over the door.

Pattadakal remained an active site until the 13th century, when much of the Deccan region was subject to raids by the Delhi Sultanate. Pattadakal was a part of the border region that witnessed wars between the Vijayanagara Empire (14th to 17th century CE) and the Sultanates to its north. After that, the monuments were also subject to the vagaries of nature.

It was only in the 1960s that the Archaeological Survey of India undertook large-scale conservation of these monuments. The excavations here found early historical remains of rectangular houses, copper coins with or without legends, belonging to the Maharathis, the feudatories of the Satavahana Dynasty, semi-precious stone beads, shell bangles, burnt-clay figurines, iron tools and silver punch-marked coins, among other things. The Group of Monuments at Pattadakal was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.

The temples of Pattadakal hold a mirror to the contemporary life of that period. The many sculptures in the temples here throw light on the attire and ornaments, and the social and religious life of the period to which they belong. The site is one of the treasure houses of Early Chalukyan art and architecture and occupies a prominent place on the heritage map of India.


Pattadakal – the unesco heritage site

Situated in Bijapur district of Karnataka, Pattadakal earns fame for its ancient Indian group of buildings which was a holy place for royal coronation. Location and natural backdrop of this temple complex is praiseworthy and changes the overall set up of the temples. Malaprabha River is located to the north of this complex, whereas a small village is situated to the south what transform Pattadakal to a sort of holy city.

The city houses a series of eight Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Siva which were built for the royal worshipping purpose of Chalukya Dynasty. All of these temples are in architectural splendor.

The Sangamesvara temple is known to be the oldest temple in Pattadakal. Inspired by the style of Rekha Nagara Prasada, Galaganatha temple was built between 8th and 9th century.

Following the architectural magnificence of the buildings set in early Chalukyan style, the Kasivisvesvara temple was built. The Mallikarjuna temple was built to celebrate the victory of Vikramaditya II over the Pallavas. It was commissioned by Rani Trilokyamahadevi who also constructed the Virupaksha temple inspired by the style of Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram.

Located on the banks of the Malaprabha River, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is a testament to the richness of Chalukyan architecture during the 7th and 8th centuries and is renowned for its intricately chiselled temples. The temples in Pattadakal bear testimony to the richness and timeless splendour of the Chalukyan architecture. It has a cluster of 10 major temples, which showcase some striking architectural features. The world-famous geographer Ptolemy (150 AD) has documented the town as “Perti gal”. It was even used as the ceremonial centre where kings were crowned and commemorated. Pattadakal has temple architecture from Dravidian, Aryan and a mixture of both styles in its temple complex probably making it the only one of its kind in India. There is a sculpture gallery maintained by Archeological Survey of India within the Pattadakal temple complex.

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal

Situated in the southern State of Karnataka, Pattadakal group of monuments are famous for their harmonious blend of architectural forms of northern and southern India. Pattadakal, the capital of the Chalukya dynasty of medieval India, is 22 km away from Badami and 514 km from Bangalore. This famous world heritage site consists of a group of ten major temples, each displaying interesting architectural features.

Built in the 7 th and 8 th centuries, the Pattadakal monument was famous for royal coronation called ‘Pattadakisuvolal’. Temples constructed here mark the blending of the Rekha Nagara Prasada and the Dravida Vimana styles of temple building. The oldest temple at Pattadakal is the simple but massive Sangamesvara built by Vijayaditya Satyasraya (A.D. 697-733).

The Mallikarjuna and the Virupaksha temples at Pattadakal, were built by two queens of Vikaramaditya II, to commemorate the victory of the Chalukyas over the Pallavas. Virupaksha temple, built by Queen Lokamahadevi, was originally called Lokeshwara. This temple is built in the southern Dravida style and is the largest in the enclosure. It has a massive gateway and several inscriptions.

Virupaksha temple also served as a model for the Rashtrakuta ruler to carve out the great Kailasa at Ellora. The sculptural art of the early Chalukyas is characterized by grace and delicate details. The ceiling panels of the navagrahas, dikpalas, the dancing Nataraja, the wall niches containing Lingodbhava, Ardhanarisvara, Tripurari, Varahavishnu, Trivikrama bear ample testimony to the sculptor’s skill as well as the cult worship that was in vogue. The narrative relief’s illustrating certain episodes from the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata and Panchatantra fitted well with these grand religious edifices.

The Jambulinga Temple at Pattadakal has a fine figure of the Dancing Shiva with Nandi (bull) & Parvathi by his side. Built with a northern style tower, there is a horse-shoe arched projection on its facade.

The Chandrashekhara and Kadasideeshwara are the other major temples here, and Pattadakal also has a Jaina basadi of Rashtrakuta times with two beautiful elephants in front.

How to Get There

Bengaluru is the gateway to Pattadakal. It is well connected with all major cities of the country.

BY AIR

Nearest domestic airport to Pattadakal is Belgaum whereas, Bengaluru is the nearest international airport.

BY RAIL

Badami is the nearest rail head to Pattadakal. Private cabs are available on hire.

BY ROAD

Buses to Pattadakal are available from all major cities like Bengaluru, Belgaum, Bijapur, and Hubli.


Pattadakal Temples

Pattadakal Temples KarnatakaIn Karnataka, Pattadakal is a small town that is renowned for its ancient temples. Located near Badami and Aihole, Pattadakal Temple can be easily reached by regular buses or private taxis from the major towns and cities of Karnataka. The Temples of Pattadakal, exhibhit the zenith of 'Vesara' style of Hindu temple architecture. Owing to its incredible temples, Pattadakal was titled a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987.

Pattadakal had once been the rich capital of the Chalukyas. During 7th - 8th century, Pattadakal Temples were got constructed by the Chalukya rulers. Portraying the rare specimen, the temples depict a wonderful blend of Dravidian (South-Indian) and Nagara (North-Indian) architectural styles. The phrase 'beauty in ruins' goes exactly with the town of Pattadakal. The beautiful settlement appears majestic with its series of nine temples.

The sculptural art of these temples is marked by classiness of the Chalukya dynasty. Pattadakal emerges as a heavenly site with its superb architectural marvels in a picture-perfect lane. The distinct styles and patterns of various temples reveal the designers' intelligence at a stretch. The temples of Pattadakal receive myriad number of tourists, who come from the distant lands, round the year.

Out of all, four temples are built in Dravidian style, four in Nagara style and Papanatha Temple illustrates a perfect blend of both styles of architecture. In the 8th century, Kashivisvanatha Temple was constructed by the Rashtrakutas. Built in north Indian style, Galganatha Temple encompasses a sculpture of Lord Shiva killing the demon Andhakasura. Kasi Visweswara is another temple that boasts of the nagara style of architecture. The important ones are discussed below in detail.

Virupaksha Temple

In 745, Virupaksha Temple was built by Queen Lokamahadevi to celebrate her husband's victory (Vikramaditya II) over the Pallavas of Kanchi. The temple was erected on the structural lines of Kailashnath Temple (Kanchi) however Virupaksha became the brainwave for Kailashnath Temple at Ellora. The temple is renowned for its affluent structures like Lingodbhava, Nataraja, Ravananugraha and Ugranarasimha.

Mallikarjuna Temple

In 745, Mallikarjuna Temple was built by Trilokya Mahadevi, who was the second queen of Vikramaditya II. The purpose behind the erection of a temple was to commemorate the victory of the Chalukyas over the Pallavas. Mallikaarjuna Temple was modeled on the lines of Virupaksha Temple. The temple is celebrated for its artistic sculptures.

Papanatha Temple

Papanatha Temple is the only temple that has been designed on both north and south Indian styles of architecture. Containing a Nagara styled Vimanam, the temple dates back to 680 AD. Initially, the construction was started with Nagara style, but later it was switched to Dravidian style. The temple is famous for its sculptures that are imbibed from the scenes of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Jain Temple

Sited on Pattadakal-Badami Road, Jain Temple was constructed by the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Built in the Dravidian style, the temple comprises really beautiful sculptures. Perhaps, it was erected either by King Amoghavarsha I or his son Krishna II in the 9th century.

Jambulinga Temple

Built in Nagara style, Jambulinga Temple is built on the lines of Hucchimalli' Guddi at Aihole. The temple houses the image of Lord Shiva, Goddess Parvati along with Nandi. Jambulinga Temple has a horseshoe-shaped projection in its exteriors.

Sangamesvara Temple

Perhaps the oldest temple in the group, Sangameshvara Temple was built by King Vijayaditya Satyashraya during 697 -733 AD. This incomplete temple appeals with its colossal structure.


ปัฏฏทกัลลุ

ปัฏทกัล หรือ ปัฏฏทกัลลุ หรือ รักตปุระ เป็นหมู่เทวสถานในศาสนาฮินดูและไชนะสร้างขึ้นในศตวรรษที่ 7 และ 8 ในตอนเหนือของรัฐกรณาฏกะ บนฝั่งตะวันตกของแม่น้ำมาลประภา ในอำเภอพคลโกฏ หมู่เทวสถานนี้ได้รับสถานะแหล่งมรดกโลกโดยยูเนสโก Ώ] ΐ] ตั้งอยู่ราว 14 ไมล์ (23 กิโลเมตร) จากพทามี และราว 6 ไมล์ (9.7 กิโลเมตร) จากไอโหเล ซึ่งล้วนเป็นศูนย์กลางสำคัญของจลุกยะ Α] Β] ปัจจุบันอยู่ภายใต้การดูแลของกรมสำรวจโบราณคดีอินเดีย (ASI) Γ]

ยูเนสกูระบุว่าหมู่โบราณสถานนี้เป็น "การผสมผสานอย่างลงตัวของรูปแบบสถาปัตยกรรมอินเดียเหนือและใต้" และเป็นผลงานชิ้นเอกของ "ศิลปะสรรหา" (eclectic art) ที่จุดสูงสุด ΐ] หมู่มนเทียรฮินดูที่นี่สร้างขึ้นเพื่อบูชาพระศิวะ รวมถึงปรากฏลักษณะเทววิทยาและตำนานแบบลัทธิไวษณพ และ ลัทธิศักติ เช่นเดียวกัน งานแกะสลักปรากฏเรื่องราวจากพระเวทและปุราณะ รวมถึง รามายณะ, มหาภารตะ, ภควตาปุราณะ, ปัญจตันตระ และ กิราตารชุนียะ ΐ] Δ] เทวสถานที่ประณีตที่สุดในบรรดาทั้งหมดปรากฏงานแกะสลักที่ผสมผสานแบบอินเดียเหนือและอินเดียใต้อย่างลงตัว เช่นในปาปนาถมนเทียร (Papanatha) และวิรูปักษมนเทียร (Virupaksha) Ε] Ζ] วิรูปักษมนเทียรในปัจจุบันยังคงเป็นเทวสถานที่มีการบูชาและประกอบพิธีเป็นปกติอยู่ Η]


Ancient Palace Sites & Remains: Historical Monuments in Karnataka

15. Srirangapatna

Srirangapatna is one of the top ancient sites in Karnataka. UNESCO even nominated the town as a world heritage site. It is an island town located by the river Kaveri giving it scenic beauty. The town of Srirangapatna boasts the architectural style of the Vijayanagar and Hoysala dynasties. Srirangapatna receives its name from the famous Ranganathaswamy Temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

The Ranganathaswamy Temple is a magnificent temple that beholds the gaze of the tourists. Kunti Betta hill, Balmuri, and Edmuri waterfalls are must-see spots. The town is host to numerous historical monuments and sites like Daria Daulat Bagh, Srirangapatna Fort, Gumbaz of Tipu Sultan, Jama Masjid, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, and much more

How to Reach

  • Nearest Airport: Mysore Airport and Bengaluru International Airport
  • Nearest Train Station: Mysore Train Station
  • Nearest Bus Station: Central Bus Stand in Mysore, and Kempegowda Bus Stand in Bengaluru
  • Summers: Max Temperature- 37° C
  • Winters: Min Temperature- 15° C
  • Best Season to visit: October to March

Entry Fee: Varies from monument to monument

15. Bahamani Tombs

Bahamani tombs is a group of 12 tombs located at Ashtur, Bidar. The tombs belong to the twelve Bahamani Sultans. All the mausoleums are beautifully carved and engraved. The tomb of Ahmad Shah Wali, the 9th Bahaman ruler, even has inscriptions of the Quran. One of the striking features of the tomb is that it has a Swastika symbol on the wall. It is one of the most famous tombs among the Bahamani tombs.

How to Reach

  • Nearest Airport: Bidar Airport
  • Nearest Railway Station: Bidar Railway Station
  • Nearest Bus Station: Bidar Bus Stand
  • Summers: Max Temperature – 43° C
  • Winters: Min Temperature – 16° C
  • Monsoon: Average Rainfall – 842 mm

Best Season to visit: September to December

Entry Fee: Varies

17. Halebidu

Halebidu is an ancient site in the district of Hassan in Karnataka. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Halebidu was the capital of the Hoysala Empire. It is a city full of historic buildings. Most of the monuments are ruins in the present day.

Halebidu is famous for the temples built in the Hoysala architecture. The temples and the shrines are carved and engraved with precision. There are intricate details in every sculpture that attracts the attention of the tourists. Hoysaleswara temple, Shantaleswara temple, and Kedareshwara temple are top on the list. Visit Basadi Halli for the Jain temples, Belur, Yagachi Dam, and the Archaeological Museum to complete the trip.

How to Reach

  • Nearest Airport: Mangalore Airport
  • Nearest Railway Station: Hassan Railway Station
  • Nearest Bus Station: Halebid Bus Station
  • Summers: Max Temperature- 39° C
  • Winters: Min Temperature- 10°C
  • Monsoon: Average Rainfall- 806 mm

Best Season to visit: October to February

Entry Fee: Varies from monument to monument

18. Hassan

Hassan is another site for historical monuments in Karnataka. Like Halebidu, Hassan is home to many Hoysala temples. Hassan received its name from the Goddess Hasanamba. The temple of the goddess is a major attraction in Hassan. There are some Jain temples and a church for touring. The Shettihalli Rosary Church, Bhagawan Bahubali Statue, Sri Lakshmi Venkataramana Swamy Temple, Ishvara Temple, Amaragiri Malekal Tirupati Temple, and Gorur Dam are a few more places to visit in Hassan. Hassan is close to Halebidu and Belur, two other sites one must visit.

How to Reach

  • Nearest Airport: Bangalore International Airport
  • Nearest Railway Station: Hassan Railway Station
  • Nearest Bus Station: Hasson Bus Station
  • Summers: Max Temperature- 39° C
  • Winters: Minimum Temperature- 10° C
  • Monsoon: Average Rainfall- 806 mm

Best Season to visit: October to March

Entry Fee: Varies from monument to monument

19. Hospet

Hospet, officially known as Hosapete, is a city in the Bellary district of central Karnataka. It is close to Hampi. The word ‘Hospete’ means a new city. It has historical significance because it was built by Krishna Deva Raya, the king of the Vijayanagara dynasty. Hospet was a dedication by the king to his mother. It was earlier called Nagalapura. The river Tungabhadra flows by the city.

Hospet is known as the Fort Town of Karnataka. It is famous for the Chitradurga Fort, also known as the Palace of Stone or “Kallina Kote”. The fort alone contains 19 temples. The city of Hospet is even more popularly known for the Tungabhadra Dam. Other famous attractions in Hospet are Lotus Mahal, Virupaksha Temple, King’s Balance, and Vittala Temple.

How to Reach

  • Nearest Airport: Bellary Airport
  • Nearest Railway Station: Hospet Railway Station
  • Nearest Bus Station: Hospet Bus Stand
  • Summers: Max Temperature- 43° C
  • Winters: Min Temperature- 15° C
  • Monsoon: Average Rainfall- 654 mm

Ticket Price: Varies from monument to monument

20. Bijapur Citadel

The rule of Adil Shah Dynasty is one of the important chapters of history of Karnataka, which takes us to our next historical monuments in Karnataka that you visit, Bijapur Citadel. Mostly in ruins, the citadel is still inspiring. The fortified walls, the crumbling moat and the sprawling gardens take you back to the days where the fort was bustling with life.

Pay a visit to the 15th century’s magnificent structure. Furthermore check out the remains of the Gagan Mahal, 7 –storeyed Sat Manzil, Jala Manzil famous as the Water Pavilion and the 12-arched Bara Kaman, which is the Twelve Arches. The other amazing sights, equally lost to the passage of time is add to the delight of exploring Bijapur.


Pattadakal - A UNESCO World Heritage Site

Pattadakal - Virupaksha Temple

Some of the best trips are those which you go with no expectation. Pattadakal was one such place where I had not done any research and did it as a one day trip from Hampi. Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal is a well known travel circuit done together as they are pretty close by. Pattadakal is a small village in Bhagalkot district and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which also I came to know only after going there. Pattadakal is a group of temples or monuments clustered in one site. Being a Heritage site, the whole place is maintained very well and there are authorized guides to hire. Today being World Heritage Day let's walk through Pattadakal..

A group of ten temples together form the Pattadakal temples which were all built by the Chalukya kings. Apparently the coronation of the kings used to take place here. In fact one of the temples is built by a Queen to celebrate the victory of king Vikramaditya 11’s victory over the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. Most of the smaller temples in the circuit are not functional and one can just see the Shiva idol present in the sanctum sanctorum. The main temple is the Virupaksha temple

The Virupaksha temple is the biggest and most intricately done. This was the temple built by the queen. It is pretty easy to identify as it faces the original gate of the temple. The gate leads to the banks of Malaprabha river and a Nandi in dilapidated state was standing under the tree. Another majestic Nandi which did look like a real one sitting by greets you in front of the temple and we proceeded in. Every pillar of the temple has some epic etched in. If one side of the pillar has depiction from Ramayana, another side has the story from Mahabharatha bits and pieces from mythology can be seen everywhere. This was also the temple which was used as prototype to construct the Kailasanatha temple of Ellora.

The Sangameshwara temple is said to be the oldest of all the temple. Though it is the oldest it is an incomplete one. The beauty of the whole place including Badami and Aihole is the red sand or rather red stone. The monuments constructed out of this red stone brings a whole lot beauty to this place. Most of the temples are built in the Rekhanagara style and look at the symmetry with which it has been constructed! It is an absolute beauty to just stand there and watch each and every sculpture and the style in which the temples are made.

Pattadakal easily needs half a day to explore. Though it looks like one simple complex and all the temples can be covered quickly if at all you hire a guide and interested in history and stuff, it will easily take half a day. It’s poetry carved in every pillar and rock of the temple. From Pattadakal, Badami is around 25km or so, hence both can be done in a day. Avoid public holidays to have the place all to yourself. I was more content with this UNESCO heritage site than the ones I saw at Hampi.


Ancient sites similar to or like Pattadakal

The Badami cave temples are a complex of Hindu and Jain cave temples located in Badami, a town in the Bagalkot district in northern part of Karnataka, India. The caves are important examples of Indian rock-cut architecture, especially Badami Chalukya architecture, and the earliest date from the 6th century. Wikipedia

Historic site of ancient and medieval era Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments in Karnataka, India that dates from the sixth century through the twelfth century CE. Most of the surviving monuments at the site date from the 7th to 10th centuries. Wikipedia

Collection of 7th- and 8th-century CE religious monuments in the coastal resort town of Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. On the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, about 60 km south of Chennai. Wikipedia

The antiquity of architecture of Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ) can be traced to its southern Neolithic and early Iron Age, Having witnessed the architectural ideological and utilitarian transformation from shelter- ritual- religion. As old as c.2000 B.C.E. The upper or late Neolithic people in order to make their shelters, they constructed huts made of wattle and doab, that were buttressed by stone boulders, presumably having conical roof resting on the bamboo or wooden posts into red murram or paved granite chips as revealed in archaeological excavations in sites like Brhamagiri , Sanganakallu, Tekkalakota (Bellary district), Piklihal (Raichur district). Wikipedia

Alampur Navabrahma Temples are a group of nine early Chalukyan Hindu temples dated between 7th-century and 9th-century that are located at Alampur in Telangana, near the meeting point of Tungabhadra River and Krishna River at the border of Andhra Pradesh. They are called Nava-Brahma temples though they are dedicated to Shiva. Wikipedia

UNESCO World Heritage Site located in east-central Karnataka, India. Pilgrimage centre of the Hindu religion. Wikipedia


History and Architecture - Pattadkal, Karnataka

Published: February 17, 2012
Length: 24:09 min
Rating: 0 of 5
Author: ijauntcom

http://www.ijaunt.com/karnataka/pattadkal Pattadkal, Karnataka The history of the site dates back to paleolithic and .

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Bigger and popular cities in the wider vicinity are these:

  • Aurangabad
  • Beed
  • Bengaluru
  • Chittoor
  • Dasarahalli
  • Hyderabad
  • Kagaznagar
  • Latur
  • Mumbai
  • Nashik
  • Osmanabad
  • Panjim
  • Puducherry
  • Ratnagiri

These are some smaller cities that might be interesting. They are all rather close.

  • Bachingud
  • Balekal
  • Basapur
  • Benkanwari
  • Bhadranaikan Jalihal
  • Bhimangad
  • Bommanhal
  • Chiknal
  • Chimalgi
  • Gidnaikanhal
  • Gonal
  • Hosur
  • Hulikeri
  • Katapur
  • Lamana Tanda
  • Mangalgud
  • Manglur
  • Mitlakod
  • Nagarhal
  • Nandikeshwar
  • Nilogal
  • Niralgi
  • Pattadakal
  • Ramapur
  • Shirbadgi
  • Shivayogmandir
  • Siddankal
  • Sidlageri
  • Upnal
  • Wankandrug

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Watch the video: Pattadakal ಪಟಟದಕಲಲ UNESCO World Heritage site Pattadakallu Raktapura Malaprabha River Bagalakote