Lancaster X FM213 as WL-O

Lancaster X FM213 as WL-O

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Lancaster X FM213 as WL-O

Here we see a side view of a Lancaster Mk.X displaying the code WL-O of 'Lady Orchid', a Lancaster that served with No.434 Squadron, and that actually makes up part of this aircraft.

The aircraft is a Lancaster Mk.X, original Canadian serial number FM213. The aircraft is now at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, and is still flying.

Many thanks to Robert Bourlier for sending us this photograph.

Avro 683 Lancaster B X Aircraft Data

As with the establishment of a Merlin production line with Packard Motors in the USA, the need for boosting Lancaster production resulted in the opening of a production facility in Canada. Victory Aircraft Ltd., of Malton, Ontario eventually produced 430 Lancaster B.IIIs, these aircraft were designated Lancaster B.X. The majority of the Canadian-built machines saw service in Europe, with units of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). After the end of hostilities, most of the surviving aircraft returned to Canada.

From 1946, a number of surviving Lancaster B.Xs were modified for continued service with the post-war Royal Canadian Air Force. These modifications resulted in a number of type/role designations. At around this time the type designations changed from the use of roman to arabic numerals and so the B.X became the B.10.

At least 68 Lancasters (some sources state 70 or even 70+) were modified for maritime patrol and reconnaissance duties as wel as anti-submarine patrols. These Lancasters were designated Lancaster 10MR. Modifications included the installation of radar and sonobuoy operators' positions, removal of the rear and mid-upper gun turrets, installation of a 400-gallon fuel tank in the bomb bay to increase the patrol range, upgraded electronics, radar, and instrumentation, and a cooking stove in the centre section. The Mk.10MR had a crew of 10. At a later stage, around 1956, the designation was changed to 10MP. The remaining aircraft served throughout the 1950s and were eventually replaced by Lockheed Neptunes and Canadair Argus aircraft.
Known conversions to Mk.10MR include: KB919 (Mk.10MR prototype), KB 857, 865, 871, 875, 882 (later converted to Mk.10PR), 927, 929, 934, 945, 948, 955, 956, 961, 964, 966, 967, 972, 974, 977, 992, 995, 997, 999 and the following in the FM-serial range: FM102, 110, 115, 128, 136, 159 (later converted to Mk.10SR), 172, 173, 210, 213, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228 and 229.
In 1956 the type designation changed to Mk.10MP. Known aircraft with the this designation included: KB8680, 883, 890, 892, 893, 894, 901, 903, 904, 917, 920, 925, 937, 943, 946, 949, 950, 957, 958, 959, 960, 965, 973, 996 and the following aircraft in the FM-serial range: FM140, 219 and 220.

Fourteen aircraft were modified to Mk.10PR (PhotoReconnaissance) for aerial survey and photo-reconnaissance missions: FM212, the prototype Mk.10PR, KB882, 884, 889, FM120, 122, 199, 207, 208 (later converted to Mk.10N), 214, 215, 216, 217 and 218. These aircraft were initially in service with No.413 Squadron, but from 1950 this task was taken over by No.408 Squadron at Rockcliffe, Ottawa, Ontario. The squadron's role was later expanded to include area reconnaissance, for which it received three Mk.10AR conversions: KB839, KB954 and KB976.
The unit's survey flights and the mapping of the Arctic of northern Canada continued until as late as 1964.

At least eight Lancasters were modified for search and rescue (Air Sea Rescue) as Lancaster Mk.10SR: KB907, 944, 991, FM104 (converted from a Mk.10MR, later reconverted to Mk.10SR and finally becoming a Mk.10MP), FM148, FM159, 221, 222.
Of these, four were later modified for bomber-reconnaissance work as Mk.10BR: KB991, FM221 (prototype Mk.10BR) and two others.

Two aircraft were modified for carrying and launching of Ryan KDA-4 Firebee drones. These two aircraft, KB848 and KB851 were designated Mk.10DC, although some sources state this version as Mk.10DR.

Five Mk.10s were converted Mk.10N navigation trainers for use with the No.1 Air Navigation School, succeeded by the Central Navigation School at Summerside, Prince Edward Island: KB986 (for use as a spare aircraft), KB826 'Orion', FM206 'Northern Cross', FM208 'Polaris' (converted from Mk.10P) and FM211 'Zenith'.

Lancaster B.X production:
The Lancaster B.X was produced by Victory Aircraft Ltd., Malton, Ontario, Canada. The first production batch consisted of 300 aircraft, with serials from KB700 to KB999. These aircraft were delivered between September 1943 and March 1945. Of the second order for 200 aircraft only 130 were completed. The aircraft with serials from FM100 to FM229 were delivered between April 1945 and August 1946.

Engines for the Lancaster B.X:
The first 75 B.Xs (KB700-774) had four Rolls Royce Merlin 38 two-speed, single stage engines of 1,390 hp (1,036 kW) each. All subsequent aircraft in the KB-serial range were equipped with four Packard Merlin 224 engines (1,640 hp/ 1,223 kW).

Surviving Lancaster B.X
Today only a handful of Lancaster B.Xs survive, with only one airworthy example: FM213 with the Canadian Warplane Heritage at Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The flagship of the CWH is in the colours of Lancaster B.X KB726 'VR-A' of No.419 (Moose) Squadron, RCAF. In the night of 12/13 June 1944, a week after the D-Day landings in Normandy, her crew, on their 13th operation, had reached the target around midnight. There they were engaged by searchlights and flak and a short time later the Lancaster was attacked by a Junkers Ju 88 night fighter over Cambrai. Raked by cannon fire with major strikes on the port engines and centre fuselage, a hydraulic fire engulfed the bomber. Losing both port engines, the captain F/O De Breyne ordered the crew to bail out. As WO2 Andrew Charles Mynarski approached the rear escape door, he saw that tail gunner P/O Pat Brophy was trapped in his jammed turret. Mynarski made his way through the flames to Brophy's turret. All his efforts were in vain. With Mynarski's flight suit and parachute on fire, Brophy eventually waved him away. Mynarski crawled back through the hydraulic fire and jumped through the rear escape hatch out of the doomed Lancaster.
Except for P/O Brophy, all other crew members of the Lancaster managed to escape the burning bomber. Brophy however, miraculously survived when the Lancaster hit the ground and he was thrown clear.

Mynarski landed alive, though severely burned, with his clothes still on fire. French farmers who spotted the flaming bomber found him and took him to a German field hospital but he died shortly afterwards of severe burns.
Andrew Charles Mynarski was buried in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission plot in the Méharicourt Communal Cemetery, near Amiens, France.

On 11 October 1946, a Victoria Cross was posthumously awarded for "valour of the highest order" to Andrew Charles Mynarski, and by then also awarded the rank of Pilot Officer.

For a short period in 2016, the port side of FM213 was repainted in the wartime markings of KB895, 'Lady Orchid' of 434 (Bluenose) Squadron, RCAF, coded 'WL-O'. The centre section of KB895 was used in the restoration of FM213.

Apart from FM213, several other Lancaster B.Xs are preserved in Canada:

FM104 at the British Columbia Aviation Museum at Sydney, Vancouver Island, British Columbia possibly for restoration to airworthy condition. This aircraft had previously been on display in the Canadian National Exhibition Grounds, Toronto, Ontario.

FM212 is under restoration by the Canadian Historical Aircraft Association in the City of Windsor, Ontario.

FM136 in the Calgary Aerospace Museum, Calgary, Alberta. On display in the colours of ‘Lady Orchid’, WL-O', as worn by KB895, 434 Squadron. This aircraft was previously displayed as ‘R5689/VN-N’, 50 Sq.

FM159 by the Nanton Lancaster Society Museum, Nanton, Alberta. On display in 617 Squadron c/s, coded 'AJ-M', as flown by F/L John Hopgood during the famous Dams raid.

KB839 at CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia. The aircraft has been restored to wartime condition and has been repainted in a standard Bomber Command schema, representing Lancaster JB226 of 405 Squadron.

KB882 at the National Air Force Museum of Canada at Trenton, Ontario. This aircraft came on 4 October 2017 from St. Jacques Airport, Edmunston, New Brunswick, were it had been on display.

KB944 at the National Aviation Museum/National Aeronautical Collection, Ottawa, Quebec, in 428 (Ghost) Squadron c/s, as 'Winnie', coded 'NA-P'.

United States of America
In the United States of America, Kermit Weeks has KB976 (ex G-BCOH) in store.

United Kingdom
At the Imperial War Museum at Duxford, Lancaster B.X KB889 is preserved and is on display in "AirSpace" in the colours of 428 (Ghost) Squadron, RCAF, with her wartime code 'NA-I'.


The Avro 683 was developed from the - originally twin-engine - Avro 679 "Manchester" . The Manchester Mk III with the serial number BT 308 , built as a further development of this bomber, had an enlarged wing center section and now four Rolls-Royce Merlin X engines with an output of 1145 hp (854 kW) each. Immediately after its maiden flight on January 9, 1941, it was given the nickname “Lancaster” and was actually the first prototype of the 683 series. Instead of the three-part rudder of the unsuccessful Manchester Mark I, the second prototype, now called the Lancaster DG 595, was modified with the vertical stabilizer with two end plates of the Manchester Mk IA .

In total, Avro manufactured 3425 Lancaster B I, which was a metal construction and could carry a maximum of 6.35 tons of bombs. 33 of the machines were converted to the Lancaster "Special" with an enlarged bomb bay for the heaviest bomb of the war, the 22,000 lb (9,979 kg) " Grand Slam " by the designer Valais . The Lancaster B Mk.III was similar to the B I, but had Packard-Merlin engines built in the USA with a Rolls-Royce license . 3,039 units of the B III were built, 23 machines had suspensions for roll bombs for the " Operation Chastise " (destruction of the Möhne and Edertalsperre ) . 430 similar B Mk.X were made in Canada . There were also 300 units of the B II version with radial engines of the Bristol Hercules VI or XVI type and 180 Lancaster B VII, with a Browning M2 twin MG of caliber .50 BMG (12.7 mm) in a Martin gun stand on the top of the fuselage ) had. In 1942, the Avro York passenger and transport aircraft, developed using the wings and tail unit of the Lancaster bomber, flew for the first time .

The usual defensive armament consisted of eight machine guns of the caliber .303 British (7.7 mm), which were installed in weapon stands with twin machine guns in the bow and on the top of the fuselage and with quadruple machine guns at the stern.

The Avro Lincoln was developed from the Avro Lancaster , the last piston engine-powered type of the RAF Bomber Command.

Lancaster, Mosquito, and Spitfire At Oshkosh Airshow, Wisconsin – Great Footage!

EAA AirVenture Oshkosh is held at Wittman Regional Airport, Wisconsin, United States and is an annual air show held every summer. This is the largest air show of its kind worldwide and is sponsored by the EAA (Experimental Aircraft Association). The airshow runs for an entire week in July. It usually starts on the last Monday of this month. While this show is on, the control tower at this airport is the busiest tower in the world.

The 2015 airshow’s highlight was the visit by the Canadian Warplane Heritage Center’s Lancaster aka ‘Vera.’ This Avro Lancaster is one out of the two Lancaster’s left in the world that is still airworthy. This craft is known as the Mynarski Memorial Lancaster in commemoration of Pilot Officer Andrew Charles Mynarski, and this plane is colored with the same markings as Andrew’s plane. Andrew was awarded the Victoria Cross (posthumously) for his attempt to free the rear gunner who was trapped in his turret that was ablaze.

This Lancaster C-GVRA was one of the planes made out of 422. The Mk X models were produced in Canada by Victory Aircraft from 1943-1945. This plane worked with the No. 107 Rescue Unit in Newfoundland (Torbay) and worked as a maritime aircraft, taking part in search and rescue missions and general patrol duties. It did these duties until retirement in 1964, by the RCAF. Throughout World War 2 there were 7366 Lancaster’s made.

The Canadian Lancaster arrived in the United Kingdom in August 2014 to take part in displays alongside the BBMF Lancaster – which resulted in a memorable moment of the two remaining Lancaster’s flying together.

This video shows the Lancaster take-off from the runway and then makes several low passes it even pretends to drop bombs!

12 November 1944

KMS Tirpitz anchored in Bogen Bay, Ofotfjord, near Narvik, Norway, circa 1943–1944. (U.S. Navy Historical Center)

12 November 1944: No. 9 Squadron and No. 617 Squadron (Dambusters), Royal Air Force, sent a force of 32 Avro Lancaster long range heavy bombers to attack the 49,948 metric-ton-displacement Kriegsmarine battleship KMS Tirpitz at Tromsø Fjord, Norway. The attack was filmed by a photo aircraft of No. 463 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force.

The Lancasters were armed with 12,030 pound (5,457 kilogram) Tallboy bombs. They bombed from altitudes from 12,000 to 16,000 feet (3,658–4,877 meters). Two of the bombs hit the battleship, one was a very near miss and another three also were close enough that they probably contributed to the overall damage. Many other Tallboys landed within the torpedo nets that surrounded the ship and cratered the seabed, removing the sandy bottom which had been built up under Tirpitz‘ hull to prevent her from sinking. Tirpitz immediately began to list and was then rocked by an internal explosion. It capsized and sank to the sea bed. As many as 1,204 sailors were killed.

KMS Tirpitz under attack, 12 November 1944. The battleship is visible to the right of the bomb splashes and is firing its main guns at the bombers. (Unattributed)

Tirpitz was a Bismarck -class battleship armed with a main battery of eight 38-centimeter (15-inch/52-caliber) guns in four turrets. These guns had a maximum range of 22.7 miles (36.5 kilometers) when firing a 1,800 pound (816 kilogram) projectile. The German Navy did not use its heavy warships to directly engage the British fleet, but instead to raid the Atlantic convoys. The merchant ships with their destroyer escorts were defenseless against a battleship or battle cruiser. Allied forces expended tremendous effort and resources to contain or destroy Tirpitz throughout the war.

A Royal Air Force Avro Lancaster being “bombed up” with a 12,030 pound (5,456.7 kilogram) Tallboy earth-penetrating bomb. (Royal Air Force)

The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine long range heavy bomber. It wasn’t as fast as the American B-17 Flying Fortress, but was capable of flying longer distances with a heavier bomb load. It was operated by a crew of seven: Pilot, flight engineer, navigator, radio operator, bomb aimer/nose gunner, top gunner and tail gunner. The “Lanc” was 69 feet, 4 inches (21.133 meters) long, with a wingspan of 102 feet (31.090 meters) and had an overall height of 20 feet, 6 inches (6.248 meters). It had a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 72,000 pounds (32,657 kilograms) when carrying a 22,000 pound (9,979 kilogram) Grand Slam bomb.

The Lancaster was powered by four liquid-cooled, supercharged, 1,648.96-cubic-inch-displacement (27.01 liter), Rolls Royce Merlin XX or Packard V-1650 single overhead camshaft (SOHC) 60° V-12 engines, which were rated at 1,480 horsepower at 3,000 r.p.m. to 6,000 feet (1,829 meters). They turned three-bladed de Havilland Hydromatic constant-speed propellers which had a diameter of 13 feet (3.962 meters) through a 0.420:1 gear reduction.

These Merlin engines, the same as those powering Supermarine Spitfire, Hawker Hurricane and North American P-51 Mustang fighters, gave the Lancaster a maximum speed of 282 miles per hour (456 kilometers per hour) at 13,000 feet (3,962 meters) at a weight of 63,000 pounds (28,576 kilometers per hour). The service ceiling was 21,400 feet (6,523 meters) and maximum range was 2,530 miles (4,073 kilometers).

Defensive armament for a standard Lancaster consisted of eight Browning Mark II .303-caliber machine guns in three power turrets, nose, dorsal and tail. Modified bombers deleted various combinations of guns to reduce weight.

The Tallboy (Bomb, Medium Capacity, 12,000 lb) was a special demolition bomb designed to be dropped from high altitude, reach supersonic speeds, then penetrate as far as 90 feet (27 meters) into the ground before detonating. It was built of a specially hardened steel casing filled with 5,200 pounds (2,358 kilograms) of Torpex explosive. The bomb was designed by Barnes Wallis, who had also designed the special bomb used by the Dambusters in their famous 1943 attack on the Ruhr Valley hydroelectric dams, as well as the Grand Slam, a 22,000-pound (10,000 kilogram) scaled-up version of the Tallboy. The Tallboy and Grand Slam bombs were very successfully used against U-boat pens and heavily fortified underground rocket facilities.

A flight of three Avro Lancaster bombers of No. 617 Squadron, Royal Air Force, photographed 8 May 1945. The airplane closest to the camera, marked KC-B, is a Lancaster B Mk.I. The other two are Lancaster B Mk.I Specials modified to carry the 22,000 pound Grand Slam bomb. They are identified by the “YZ” fuselage codes. Photograph from the collection of Mrs. Cresswell, © IWM MH-30796.

Ron Jenkins, Lady Orchid, and Lancaster FM-213

Canadian Warplane Heritage’s Andrew Mynarski Memorial Lancaster (FM-213) honours the story of Lancaster KB-726 and its crew on the fateful night of 12/13 June 1944. However, few know that FM-213 flies with the centre section from KB-895, Ronnie Jenkin’s Lancaster which was known as “Lady Orchid.”

Henry Marshall Jenkins grew up on a farm in the heart of Prince Edward Island potato country. As a teen he grew bored with the picking and sacking of the endless rows of spuds. For pure adventure Henry came up with an idea of placing a note in each sack of potatoes, asking the recipient to write back to him, telling of the place they lived. When a letter arrived from a western town named Calgary, Henry was hooked and saved his money to purchase a one-way train ticket west. In June 1909, Henry stepped from the train and just two months later formed a partnership with storeowner John Irwin. They opened “Jenkins and Crowfoot Groceries” at the corner of 9th Avenue 12th Street S.E., near the entrance to the Calgary Zoo.

Ron Jenkins October 1943.

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Henry’s only son, Ronald Henry Jenkins, was born on 8 July 1913. He grew up around the grocery store business while attending Earl Grey and Western Canada High School before graduating from Mount Royal College. In 1934, Ronnie joined Jenkins Grocerteria as an inventory clerk and traveller. At that time the business consisted of a network of several stores, a bakery, and a wholesale grocery branch. The responsibility for the country stores fell on Ronnie.

At age 29 Ron left the family business to join the Royal Canadian Air Force, reporting to No. 4 Initial Training School at Edmonton on 18 April 1943. F/O Jenkins graduated as a pilot during October 1943 and was posted overseas. Following further training at an O.T.U., he was posted to No. 434 Squadron on 21 December 1944. His crew was made up of F/O A.W. Savage, navigator F/O R.J. Hines, bomb-aimer F/Sgt N. McLean, wireless operator Sgt. D.C. Foss, flight engineer Sgt. T.B. Baird, rear gunner and F/Sgt K. Moodie, mid-upper gunner.

Ron Jenkins and crew flew Lancaster PA225 (marked WL-O) on 3, 7, 9, 26 and 27 February then again on 2, 7, 8, 10, 14 and 20 March 1945. The aircraft was then transferred to No. 429 Squadron on 28 March 1945.

On 2 April 1945, a new Canadian built Lancaster Mk X, serial KB-895, was air-tested by Ron Jenkins and crew. Upon completion of the testing, Wing Commander J.C. Mulvihill informed Jenkins the new bomber would become his personal aircraft with code WL-O. The crew now decided that “their” bomber needed a name and nose art painting. At first they named her “Wee Lady Orchid” for each of the code letters. Later they dropped the “Wee” and she became “Lady Orchid.” Pilot Jenkins painted the name in large white letters with a larger red capital L and O. The complete crew then shared in the painting of the Lady Godiva pin-up riding a bomb while holding two western style six shooters because of Jenkins’ Calgary connection. She completed her first operation on 8 April 45, attacking the submarine pens at Hamburg, Germany.

F/O Jenkins flew a total of fifteen operations, five in Lady Orchid. Under his pilot position he painted fifteen white bombs and one red bomb for an aborted operation.

On 7 June 45, No. 434 Squadron left Croft, England, for the transatlantic flight home to Canada, and for this return, two red Maple Leafs, were painted on the upper torso of Lady Orchid. On 17 June, Lady Orchid and crew landed at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia.

Ron’s father had passed away a few months prior to the end of the war. When Ron returned to the family grocery business, he became president and general manager and shortly thereafter purchased control of the company. Under Ron’s guidance, the business continued as a family-run entity to become the dominant force in Calgary’s retail food business. In 1959 Ron sold the business to Western Grocers which entered a new stage of expansion under Ron’s direction. Ron Jenkins was involved in a variety of Calgary-based businesses and played a leading role with community service organizations such as the Calgary Stampede, United Fund, Chamber of Commerce, and the Rotary Club until his death in 1976.

Following the end of the war in the Pacific, hundreds of Lancaster bombers were placed into in long-term storage in western Canada and Lady Orchid eventually found herself in Penhold, Alberta where she was turned over to War Assets for disposal. Ron Jenkins had somehow been keeping an eye on his old aircraft and on 12 April 1947, he arranged to purchase KB-895 for $230. Ron then had some of the equipment from each crew station removed and shipped to each of his old crewmembers as souvenirs.

The bomber was then returned to War Assets who re-sold the Lancaster to a local Penhold farmer who had a scheme to turn it into a machine shop and shed. By 1952 the Lancaster had been raised up onto three cement columns, but the farmer had lost interest in his project.

Lady Orchid on the farm – Spring 1952.

During the early 1950’s, Lancaster Mk X’s were being modified for post-war service in the RCAF. Shortly after conversion work was completed on Lancaster FM-213, a crew stalled the aircraft over the runway at Greenwood, Nova Scotia, lost control, ground-looped, and then the starboard undercarriage collapsed. When the inspection team checked the aircraft they reported repairs could be made but a replacement centre-section would have to be found. There were no other centre-sections in Canada according to RCAF records but Bud Found, who had been in the business of locating aircraft parts for the air force, recalled the farmer in Penhold and his plans to build a shed. A phone call was made and the farmer was willing to sell Lady Orchid. The largest railway flat-car in Canada was sent from New Brunswick to Penhold in order to carry the centre-section to Downsview, Ontario where KB-895’s centre section was inserted into FM-213 during July 1953. FM-213 went on to fly ten years with No. 107 Composite Unit at Torbay, Newfoundland, and today flies as KB-726, VR-A, known to all as the Mynarski Lancaster.

Rudy St. Germain of Timmins, Ontario served as an air gunner with the No. 434 Squadron crew piloted by Terry Coghlan of Sudbury, Ontario. Rudy was part of the crew that took “Lady Orchid” across the Atlantic. It appears to have been a perilous trip. Ron Jenkins’ logbook noted the 7 hour and 45 minute leg from St Maugans, Cornwall to Santa Maria in the Azores as a “tough trip” and referred to “broken hydraulics” and “three engines.” They were on three engines again on the 8 hour leg between Lagens and Gander and again on the final leg before landing at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia.

Page from Ron Jenkins’ Logbook

During the flight, Rudy wrote the following words which Ron Jenkins considered a “Good Thought” and subsequently copied into his pilot’s logbook, “Flying the Atlantic alone – because in spite of others – you feel alone, with the sun over you and nothing between you and the sea but this man-made machine, a Lancaster, that once seemed so huge but is now dwarfed by the immensity of space yet is winging its way confidently towards some known place on the other side of the world, the Azores, Newfoundland and finally good old Canada.”

St. Germain crew photo:Back Row (l-r) George Wilson (w/op) Gerry Fullerton (a/g) Terry Coghlan (p) Howard MacAdam (b/a)Front Row (l-r) Jack Robbins RAF (f/e) Peter Rawlyck (nav) Rudy St. Germain (a/g)

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Lancaster X FM213 as WL-O - History

Surviving Lancaster: KB839

Last Updated: July 2008

Serial No: KB839 Mark: X Known Op's: 0

Current Location: Greenwood, Nova Scotia, Canada

Current Status: Static Display - outside

Nickname: Daisy And Her Pup's

Service History:

To UK 1-1-45, 32 MU St.Athan, 431 Sqn, RCAF SE-G, 419 Sqn, RCAF VR-D, Returned CDN 10-6-45, 661 (Heavy Bomber) Wing, Yamouth, Nova Scotia for Tiger Force, No. 2 Air Command del'd 6-45, Stored at Peace, Alberta del'd 8-9-45, Avro Canada, Malton, Onartio for conversion to Mk.10 AR, 450 (MR) Sqn, RCAF, 408 (P) Sqn, RCAF AK-839. Stored at Dunville, Ontario del'd c.1961. Returned to Greenwood, Nova Scotia c.1964

2/9/44: Built with Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 224 engines flight-tested

Unknown date: sent to Avro Canada at Malton one of three converted to Mk10AR including the added equipment such as six camera positions, search/navigational radar, electronic surveillance aerials, and new nose and rear fairing, with the survival equipment in the rear turret.

c.1964: returned to Greenwood as a proposed pedestal mount then repainted in #419 Sqn colours and preserved at RCAF Greenwood now preserved in G.M.A. Museum. Had a new paint scheme, code 'AF-A' applied for the RCAF anniversary in 1999. The Greenwood Museum has restored KB839 to resemble Lancaster’s which flew out or RCAF Station Greenwood from 1949 until they were replaced by the Neptune in 1955.

c.1988: Engines sent to Canadian Warplane Heritage for use on Flying Lancaster FM213

Production Data:

Part of the first production batch of 300 aircraft built by Victory Aircraft Limited, Malton, Ontario, Canada. KB700-KB999 (produced 'before' the FM-Serial batch). Packard built Rolls-Royce Merlin 38 engines in the first 75 aircraft Merlin 224 engines in the subsequent aircraft. Deliveries commenced to Britain 9-43 completed 3-45 (average rate of production, approximately 4 aircraft per week). Victory Aircraft Construction Number 37140

Reconstruction Begins

When President Abraham Lincoln announced the impending passage of the Emancipation Proclamation in early 1863, the stakes of the Civil War shifted dramatically. A Union victory would mean no less than revolution in the South, where the “peculiar institution” of slavery had dominated economic, political and social life in the antebellum years.

In April 1865, as the war drew to a close, Lincoln shocked many by proposing limited suffrage for African Americans in the South. He was assassinated days later, however, and his successor Andrew Johnson would be the one to preside over the beginning of Reconstruction.

Did you know? In the years following Reconstruction, the South reestablished many of the provisions of the black codes in the form of the so-called "Jim Crow laws." These remained firmly in place for almost a century, but were finally abolished with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Johnson, a former senator from Tennessee who had remained loyal to the Union during the war, was a firm supporter of states’ rights and believed the federal government had no say in issues such as voting requirements at the state level.

Under his Reconstruction policies, which began in May 1865, the former Confederate states were required to uphold the abolition of slavery (made official by the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution), swear loyalty to the Union and pay off their war debt. Beyond those limitations, the states and their ruling class—traditionally dominated by white planters—were given a relatively free hand in rebuilding their own governments.

Avro Lancaster B Mk X & North American B-25J-35-NC Mitchell

A pair of airworthy vintage aircraft visible in this brief scene filmed at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum at John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton, Ontario.
The wing closer to the camera belongs to Avro Lancaster X FM213 (civil registration C-GVRA, c/n 3414 built in 1945), one of two airworthy Lancasters in the world.
In the hanger is B-25J Mitchell 45-8883 (civil registration C-GCWM, c/n 108-47734 built in 1945).


W.G.S &Co (W G Sothers & Co [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
W.G.S Ltd (W G Sothers Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WH in script (William Homer [ D ]) 18th c./2nd half
WH (William Holmes [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
WH into a rectangle (William Hall [ L ]) entered 1795
WH (Wang Hing & Company [HONG KONG] ) beginning 19th c.
WH (William Hannay (possibly) [ E ] ) beginning 19th c.
WH (William Hope [ EX ]) 19th c./1st half
WH into a chamfered rectangle (William Hunter [L]) entered 1841
WH into an oval (William Horton [ B ]) mid 19th c.
WH into two conjoined circles (Walter Hands - possibly [ B ][ C ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
WH (William Hornby [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
W.H (William Hannay [ G ]) 19th c./1st half
W.H into an oval (W M Hayes [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
W.H into a half oval (William Harrison [ B ][ C ]) beginning 20th c.
W.H without frame (William Harrison [ C ]) entered 1907
W.H into two conjoined circles (William Harris -possibly-[ B ]) end 19th c.
WHC into an oval (W.H. Carrington & Co [ B ][ C ]) 19th c./2nd half
W.H.C without contour (W H Collins & Co [ B ][ G ]) 20th c./1st half
WHD into a shield (W H Darby & Sons Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./2nd half
W HE O into a rectangle (not identified [ L ]) 1831
WHH (William Hair Haseler [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half - beginning 20th c.
W.H.H (W H Haseler Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WH and JWH (William Henderson and James W. Howden [ E ]) 19th c./1st half
WHL (not identified [ EX ]) 1836
WHL into a chamfered rectangle (W.H. Leather & Son [ B ]) entered 1920
W.H.L (W H Lyde [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
W.H.L into a chamfered rectangle (William Henry Leather [B][C]) 20th c./1st half
W.H.M into an oblong rectangle (W H Manton Ltd [ B ]) entered 1956

WHM into three squares (W H Manton Ltd [ B ]) entered 1930
w over ss H ld over & (William Hutton & Sons Ltd [ B ][ C ][ L ][ S ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
W.H.S into a six sides polygon (William Henry Sparrow- H Williamson Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WHS into a shield (Searle & Co [ L ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
W.H.T into a rectangle (W.H. Twentyman [ INDIA ]) c.1820
W H W in three separate squares (W H Weston -possibly- [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
W.H.W into a rectangle (Walter H Willson Ltd [ L ]) 20th c./2nd half
W.H.W (W H Wakefield [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
WI under two stars over a fleur de lys (David Williaume I [ L ]) entered 1697
WI into a rectangle (William Jury [ L ]) entered 1760
W.I.S into three conjoined circles (William John Salt [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
WJ into a rectangle (William Jamieson [ E ]) 19th c./1st half
WJ (W Jenkins [ G ]) 19th c./2nd half
W.J (W Jennings [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half
W.J (William Johnson [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WJ&S into a chamfered rectangle (W Jackson & Son [ L ]) entered 1905
WJ over B over MS over RD into a shield (Walter, John, Michael, Stanley Barnard & Robert Dubock [ L ]) entered 1896
WJ over B over MS into a shield (Walter, John, Michael, Stanley Barnard [ L ]) entered 1903
W.J.D into an oblong chamfered rectangle (William James Dingley [ B ]) end 19th c./20th c.
W.J.H (William James Holmes [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WJM over &Co into a shield (W J Myatt & Co Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WJMcD (W J McDonald [ E ]) 19th c./2nd half
WJ over PD (Jackson & Deere -William Henry Jackson & Peter Henderson Deere- [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
W.J.R (W J Rodgers [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.

WK (William Key [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
W.K (William Kinman [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
WK (William Knight II or William King [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WK (William Kingford [ L ]) mid 19th c.
W.K & Co into an oval (not identified [ B ]) 1932
W.K.R into two circles (William Ker Reid [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WK over SK (William & Samuel Knight [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WI gothic (William Justus [ L ]) 18th c./1st half
W.I &S (W Inman & Son [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WL (William Law [ D ]) 18th c./2nd half
W.L (William Laver [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
W.L (William Lister [ N ]) 19th c./1st half
W.L into an oval (W Leuchars [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
W.L & Co (William Lock & Co [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
WL over &S into a shield (Walter Latham & Son [ S ]) 20th c./1st half
WL over & over Sns into a lozenge (W Lister & Sons [ S ]) 20th c./1st half
WL over CL over WL (Lister & Sons [ N ]) mid 19th c.

The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty

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Attention of Thunderbolt™ 3 product users: Because Thunderbolt™ 3's product is aimed at different computer model, their drive is different And we cannot know the computer brand you use, so the driver of Thunderbolt™ 3 products need you to go to your computer corresponding brand official website to download the driver of Thunderbolt™ 3. We are deeply sorry for the inconvenience brought to you. Here we have sorted out some of the major computer brands corresponding official website download channels Download, I hope it will be helpful to you. The current lightning drive provided on our WAVLINK official website is only for the lightning port.

Watch the video: Flying in the Avro Lancaster bomber VR-A dedicated to Andrew Mynarski from CWHM - Sound On