Tringa ASR-16 - History

Tringa ASR-16 - History


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Tringa

(ASR-16: dp. 2,160 (f.); 1. 261'4", b. 42'0", dr. 14'11" (lim.); s. 16.0 k.; cpl. 102; a. 2 3", 2 40mm.; cl. Chanticleer)

Tringa (ASR-16) was laid down on 12 July 1946 at Savannah, Gal, by the Savannah Machine &r Foundry Co.; launched on 26 June 1946; sponsored by Mrs. Nola Dora Vassar, the mother of Curtis L. Vassar, Jr., missing in action and commissioned on 28 January 1947, Lt. Comdr. Paul C. Cottrell in command.

Upon commissioning, Tringa was assigned to Submarine Squadron (SubRon) 8 and operated out of the submarine base at New London, Conn. During her first six years of active service, she remained close to the eastern seaboard. Fortunately, her services as a submarine rescue vessel were not required. On the other hand, Tringa remained busy practicing simulated submarine rescues and serving as target ship and recovery ship for submarines in torpedo-firing drills. In addition she participated in a number of rescue experiments for the Bureau of Ships, testing diving bells, submarine buoys, ground tackle, mooring gear, and related equipment.

Her most significant contribution during those six years came in January 1960 when Missouri (BB-63) ran aground in the vicinity of Thimble Shoals Light and Old Point Comfort, Hampton Roads, Va. Tringa and her sister rescue vessels joined tugs in refloating the battleship on 1 February.

In August of 1963, Tringa was called upon to cross the Atlantic Ocean to aid Harder (SS-668), which had broken down off the coast of Ireland. The ship returned to New London with the submarine and then resumed operations along the east coast of the United States. During the early months of 1966, Tringa escorted Nautilus (SSN-671), the world's first atomic-powered ship, during her sea trials.

That fall, she joined Albacore (AGSS-669) for experiments at Portsmouth, N.H. The submarine rescue vessel conducted deep submergence tests on a new submarine rescue chamber, RC-21. In the midst of that operation, RC-21 parted its tow and sank in 230 feet of water. Tringa spent the next 26 days struggling again's" foul weather, treacherous currents, and fouled wreckage, but successfully salvaged RC-21 in the end. For their part in the operation, three officers and 10 divers assigned to Tringa received commendations.

Early in 1957, she began serving as school ship for the submarine Prospective Commanding Officers' School. That duty took her to the warm waters of the British West Indies in April and again in July. After her return to normal duty at New London, Tringa was called upon to assist the newly-constructed Peruvian submarine Iquiqui, which on 27 August had run aground on Long Sand ShoAI in Long Island Sound. The rescuer arrived on the scene, passed a tow wire to the stranded boat, and pulled her of ~ at the next high-tide.

Late in the summer, a voyage to Europe broke Tringa's routine. On 3 September, she stood out of New London in company with Fulton (AS-11) and a submarine group to participate in A NATO fleet exercise. En route to Scotland, Tringa made a brief side trip to Newfoundland to deliver a critically-ill Fulton crewman to the naval hospital at Argentia. She reached Rothesay on 13 September but soon moved on to Portland, England. During the two-day trip, hurricane "Carrie" struck and enlivened Tringa's passage through the Irish Sea. On 28 September, the ship departed England and headed for France. At Le Havre, she provided tender services for the submarines returning from the exercises until 11 October when she headed home toward the United States.

Tringa reentered Newport on 23 October and, after three weeks of upkeep, sailed for Bermuda and another tour of duty with the submarine Prospective Commanding Officers' School. In January 1968, she served as target ship for the submarine school at New London and recovered practice torpedoes fired at her. She underwent her biennial overhaul at Boston that spring and, after refresher training in June, made a two-week goodwill cruise to Canadian ports in July.

Tringa returned to New London on 22 July and through the first month and one-half of 1969, trainer divers, served as target and torpedo recovery ship for New London based submarines, and conducted drills. On 26 February, she got underway for Norfolk, Va. where she served as Kittiwake's (ASR-13) stand-in during that ship's overhaul. She operated as a temporary unit of SubRon 6 until 1 April at which time she departed Norfolk and moved north. After a brief rendezvous with Torsk (SS-423) during the latter's postoverhaul dives and a three-day stopover at Philadelphia Tringa returned with the submarine to New London on the 9th.

After demonstrating her rescue capabilities during an operational readiness inspection, she resumed training divers, conducting underway training, and providing services to submarines. She also escorted submarines during their post-construction trials. In this regard, Tringa assisted Baroel (SS-580) in May and Seadragon (SSN-584) in October. In December, the ship escorted the fleet ballistic missile (FBM) submarine George Washington (SSBN-598) on her trials. In January 1960, she conducted diving operations in Narragansett Bay with a group of four Norfolk-based minesweepers in a search for debris from an exploded aircraft. Following the annual "Springboard" exercise in mid-February, Tringa visited Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Dominican Republic before resuming duty out of New London late in March. Toward the end of the following month, the ship sailed to Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., where she spent a month as recovery ship for the Naval Ordnance Test Facility's missile program. In May, she returned north and, after a visit to Kingston, N.Y., and a brief rendezvous with Dogfish (SS350) for that submarine's sea trials and deep dives, Tringa returned to New London to prepare for overhaul.

Following post-overhaul refresher training, Tringa resumed her normal duty out of New London. In December, she began assisting in the fleet ballistic missile submarine ordnance evaluation program by recovering test missiles fired in practice. The following spring she returned to Norfolk to serve as "ready duty ASR' for most of the Atlantic coast during a period when the other Atlantic Fleet submarine rescue vessels were either in overhaul or deployed overseas. By July 1961 however, she was able to return to New London and resume her usual routine. In the fall, she steamed south to Florida but remained in southern waters only briefly —assisting the Bureau of Weapons in tests-before the requirements of the FBM program called her back to New London.

Over the next two years, the ship alternated two deployments to the Mediterranean with 2d Fleet operations along the eastern seaboard. After returning from submarine operations near Bermuda, Tringa operated from New London until early in April 1962. At that time, she put to sea for a three-month deployment during which she provided support services to 6th Fleet submarines. After visiting a number of Mediterranean ports, she left the "middle sea" in July 1962 and visited Lisbon, Portugal, and then headed for Scotland. At Holy Loch, she picked up an APL and a YRDM for tandem tow to the United States and departed the British Isles on 12 August. Tringa delivered her charges to Norfolk on 3 September and continued on to New London where she arrived on the 5th. After four weeks of leave and upkeep, she resumed duty escorting and towing targets for units of Submarine Flotilla (SubFlot) 2.

Tringa underwent another overhaul from March to July 1963 and, after refresher training, resumed duty with Atlantic Fleet submarines. In August, she visited the site of Thresher's (SSN-593) sinking to support units operating with the deep submergence vehicle Trieste. In mid-September, she escorted Thomas Jefferson (SSBN-618) during trials. Later that month, she was called upon to assist Grouse (MSCO-16) aground on the Massachusetts coast at Cape Ann. Her divers attached cables to Grouse, but three attempts to pull the stranded ship off the rocks failed. Gronse was destroyed by fire, and Tringa returned to New London on 30 September. Normal operations and escort duty for two newly constructed FBM submarines-Nathan Hale (SSBN-623) and Lafayette (SSBN-616)—occupied the ship for the remainder of the year.

Tringa deployed to the Mediterranean for the second time on 3 April 1964 and returned to the United States on 1 September. After a three-week upkeep period, she resumed local operations by escorting Haddo (SSN-604) and Tecumseh (SSBN-628) during their sea trials. That employment occupied her to the end of 1964 and through 1965.

She cleared New London on 31 January 1966 to participate in Operation "Springboard." Three days out of port, the ship was ordered to the Mediterranean to join in the search for the nuclear weapon missing after the mid-air collision of a B-52 bomber with a C-135 cargo plane. Upon her arrival off Palomares, Spain, Tringa was fitted out with underwater television equipment with which she conducted visual inspections of sonar contsets while her divers assisted in the recovery. The submarine rescue ship completed her part of the operation on 25 March and headed back to New London, where she arrived on 9 April. Local operations out of New London occupied her time until the end of September when she entered the James S. Munro Shipyard at Chelsea, Mass., for overhaul.

Tringa completed overhaul on 10 January 1967 and then returned to New London. She remained there until 30 January when she sailed for the West Indies. During February and the first week in March, the ship underwent inspection and survey at San Juan, conducted refresher training near Guantanamo Bay, and assisted in test-firings of SUBROC missiles at the Grand Turk missile range. On 15 March, Tringa reentered New London and began preparations for a deployment to European waters. The ship cleared New London on 3 April and reported for duty at Rota, Spain, later in the month. She operated along the Spanish and Portuguese coasts for two months, escorting submarines towing targets, and recovering practice torpedoes. On ;4 June, Tringa headed for the submarine base at Holy Loch, Scotland. During the following month, she provided services to the submarines based there and visited Dublin and Londonderry. On 26 July, she returned to New London from her European deployment and took up duties with SubFlot 2 once again.

The submarine rescue vessel served in coastal waters of the United States for the remainder of 1967 and throughout 1968. During that period, she departed northeastern coastal waters only once, in mid-November 1968, when she made a short cruise to Bermuda with units of SubRon 8. On 6 January 1969—in Company with Sea Robin (SS - 07), Becuna (AGSS-319), Halfbeak (SS-362), and Thornback (SS—118)—she departed New London and headed for duty with the 6th Fleet. She reached Rota, Spain, on 20 January and joined United States naval forces assigned to the Mediterranean area. The deployment with the 6th Fleet lasted until 15 April when she left Rota and headed back across the Atlantic. Tringa entered New London on the 25th and began post-deployment leave and upkeep. A little over two months later, the ship resumed operations from New London and remained so occupied until the end of November when she entered the Boston Naval Shipyard.

Tringa completed overhaul early in March 1970. During refresher training, she received orders reassigning her to Submarine Division 121 based at Key West, Fla. She reported to her new home port on 29 April, and, for the rest of the year, she operated in the Gulf of Mexico and along the southeastern coast of the United States. Early in June, the ship accompanied Darter (SS-576) during her sea trials. Later that month, she picked up a Cuban refugee family adrift on the ocean some 35 miles from Key West and brought them into that port. Through the fall of 1970, Tringa continued normal operations from Key West.

Over the next five years, Tringa alternated tours of duty in the Mediterranean with service along the east coast of the United States. Within that time period, she made two deployments with the 6th Fleet: the first during the spring of 1971 and the second in the summer of 1972. Upon her return to the United States on each occasion, she resumed her duties at Key West conducting torpedo exercises with Atlantic Fleet submarines.

In June of 1973, Tringa rushed to the rescue when disaster struck a civilian deep submergence vehicle test project. On the 17th, she received orders to go to the aid of Dr. Edmund Link, whose submersible, the "SeaLink " was reported "in distress, bottomed in approximately 360 feet of water with four men on board." Tringa made a four-point moor above the stricken craft and for two days provided a platform for divers engaged in the rescue operation. Finally, on 18 June, a civilian salvage vessel, A. B. Wood, arrived on the scene and joined in the salvage/rescue operation. Utilizing a television camera and a crane, A. Wood succeeded in hauling "Sea-Link" to the surface that night. Though Tringa divers tried to revive the two men in the after chamber of the submersible by warming it with HeO2: and hot water, the two men were pronounced dead at 0800 on 20 June. The two men in forward chamber survived.

The following month, Tringa was reassigned to New London, Conn., and spent August and September engaged in the familiar role of standby rescue and target recovery ship for New London-based submarines. Following an overhaul which lasted from November 1973 until mid-February 1974, the ship returned to duty at New London. The next three years brought Tringa more routine duty supporting Atlantic Fleet submarines, testing diving equipment, training divers, and escorting newly built submarines on their trial cruises. The ship departed the western Atlantic only once during that period, in July 1976, to participate in a series of oceanographic surveys conducted from the submarine base at Holy Loch, Scotland. She returned to New London early the following November and operated along the eastern seaboard until 30 September 1977 when she was decommissioned at the Submarine Base, New London, Conn. Her name was struck from the Navy list concurrently with decommissioning.

As of the beginning of 1978, she awaited final disposal.


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The table below contains the names of sailors who served aboard the USS Tringa (ASR 16). Please keep in mind that this list does only include records of people who submitted their information for publication on this website. If you also served aboard and you remember one of the people below you can click on the name to send an email to the respective sailor. Would you like to have such a crew list on your website?

Looking for US Navy memorabilia? Try the Ship's Store.

There are 84 crew members registered for the USS Tringa (ASR 16).

Select the period (starting by the reporting year): precomm &ndash 1966 | 1967 &ndash now

NameRank/RatePeriodDivisionRemarks/Photo
Lo Porto, Franksfm2Jan 1967 &ndash Aug 1970enginering
Lo Porto, Frank "Flip"SFP2Jan 12, 1967 &ndash Aug 15, 1970engineering
Elliott, DonaldE5Apr 10, 1967 &ndash Feb 18, 1968operations
Dower, John ( Jack )EM2Nov 1968 &ndash Jan 1972ElectricalGreat crew Old Ship ' Lots of good times. Harjehousen was a character but made the command interesting . Two "MED" trips and one to "Gitmo". Warf Rat, Pat, Andy, Bachelor, Steady Eddie, etc. 3 squares & clean racks
Sylvester, LeroyEnginemam 2Nd1969 &ndash 1971EngineeringGreat Ship and crew
Grundman, GaryEN PO51969 &ndash Dec 3, 1971motor room fuel and water kingI enjoyed my time on the tringa. got to see some of the world and meet some nice people. would do it again. it help me get some good jobs when I got out.
Cato, John. cookieE-3Jan 5, 1969 &ndash Jul 12, 1970seamen Ships cook
Farrar, EdIC2Jul 12, 1969 &ndash Nov 1, 1972 I had a lot of great memories as the lone IC and the ships photographer. I started teaching in 1978 and was awarded the best chemistry teacher in Dallas/Fort Worth in 1996.
Morrow, Fred (Rufus) Oct 1969 &ndash Jun 1970Sonar (OPS)Yards in Boston, then we changed home-port from New London to Key West -- to be transferred to SS(525) if I'd re-enlist -- didn't! Only Sonarman, no radarman, so took those duties, too. Good times with Larry Hawkes
Houston, Walter (Sonny)e-4 radiomanOct 1969 &ndash Oct 1970operationscame on board from the george washington and reenlisted in july 1970 LT Dipapao was the operations officer and Commander Hargehasuen was the ship's captain and EX was LT Roberts RM1 JIM FARR was in charge of radio room
Conahan, FrankWO 11970 &ndash 1971ENGINEERING
Brouthers, ArthurEN-2Jan 2, 1970 &ndash Mar 2, 1973EngineeringI was top watch in the main engineroom. That led me to be a powerplant operator for 40 yrs retiring in 2013
Anderson, Michael (Andy)EM3DV2Jan 8, 1970 &ndash Feb 3, 1973Electrical shop/Diving lockerAndy here, served with Hammond,Perry,Seadog,Stan Hines, Minderman,Cole, Doty,Michelle, Peterson, Letendre,Spence,Adams, Jackson,Seabrooks,Martin, OB, Sandoval,Boswarth,Kressig,Bachelor,Reed,great times on dive stations.
Baumgarden, Roy EN2Feb 15, 1970 &ndash Oct 10, 1973
Chappelle, James (Wharf Rat)EM2Mar 1, 1970 &ndash Mar 2, 1973EngineeringBest 3 years of my life, would not trade for anything.
Forbes, SteveBM3Apr 1970 &ndash Aug 1973
Martin, Derald SRApr 1, 1970 &ndash Oct 18, 1970CRI had thought my time on USS Bostan (CA 69) to be a complete waste but the time spent on USS Tringa proved me wrong. Warf Rat was there.
Bachelor, JayEMCApr 5, 1970 &ndash Jun 2, 1971EngineeringBest job in the Navy! Lots of fun memories.
Summerall, GarlandEN1(DV)Jun 1970 &ndash Feb 1972AThe USS Penguin ASR(12) was decommisioning so walk across the pier aborad the Tringa. Was LPO main engine room.. Master Divers were Josenhans and Bosworth. Would like to locate EN1(DV) Cole
Gnacyk, Donald (Crazy Man)firemanJun 1, 1970 &ndash Feb 1, 1971eng server with a john cato (cook) and a louie laporto. ship left for rota spain and me and cato kinda missed it. engine room was me ..conklin,, bumgarden.. and green..remember hammonds and anderson from the elec.
Gartman, MikeRM 3Nov 1970 &ndash Aug 16, 1972comsubron 12
Richard E. Evans, SeadogPN2Jan 2, 1971 &ndash Jul 1974AdministrationI look back with fond memories of the time I spent in the Navy aboard USS Tringa (ASR-16). Although the ship was decommissioned some time ago, the friends I made on that ship live on in my memory. Thanks to all of you.
Hines, Stan E-3Jan 4, 1971 &ndash 1973boatswain matecame aboard 1/4/71,just made it as she was getting under way.had alot to learn being fresh out of bootcamp,but first had to spend three or four days below deck,took that long before i could eat my first meal.learned alot.made E4, good days
Graham, DougRM2Apr 1, 1971 &ndash Mar 2, 1973operationsEnjoyed time spent on board. Made great friends with Richard Fidler, Duane Grieser, Jim Ruth, Joe Capece and many others Key West was a great place to live and serve..
Ruth, JimQM 4May 1971 &ndash Dec 1974QuartermasterHad some of the best times of my life. I remember we had it made in Key West but we got the rude awakening of our lives when we got transferred to Groten CT and back into the regular Navy. Miss Joe Capece and Seadog.
Salyers, MikeMR2DV2Jun 1971 &ndash Dec 1974A-Gang
Wilson, MichaelHT3Oct 10, 1971 &ndash Aug 23, 1973Shipfitters Shophey to Seadog, Joey Capece, Jim Ruth, Chief Smith M Divel, M Salyers, Wharf Rat, S Hines, M Morrissey, R. Baumgarden, M Anderson, Bob Hartle. ahh the tropical hours, warm gulf waters, Mallory Sq sunsets, fresh seafood.
Windsor, Dirty DaveHTC/Dv1Nov 1971 &ndash Jun 1974ROf my 7 ships this is the best crew ever. Capt Eichman, LT Wolford, Boz, Frenchy, Ducky, Scotty Morrison, Angle Iron Smith, Digger Dutton, Tony Dickson, Cidola, Wally Krouse, Pampell, and the rest of you. Made Chief too!
Michael, DivelHt3 E4Jan 1972 &ndash Apr 7, 1975Engineering
Morrissey, Michael (Snowman)RMSNAug 1972 &ndash May 28, 1974OPSI enjoyed my time on the ship. Although I missed the rescue deployment of the SEALINK. I was on leave and everyone was asking me about operation. I remember Ducky Thomson, Seadog, Steve Benett, Mosey, Mac SM!. I would like to thank them
Jim O'Brien, ObE3Aug 1972 &ndash Jan 1974deck hand but changed to electricians matemissed out on a med cruise but got trnsfr to san diego, did west pac cruise. key west great, sun & fun. tropical hours done @1:00 on our bikes & riding up the keys. stock island party central. great shipmates great fun
Hartle, Robertboatsmans mateAug 1972 &ndash Jan 1974deckhandKey west was great. Rode the keys on a 750 honda I bought in key west. Remember ship wreck lounge, sloppy joes, tequila, the sun sets at mallory square. Great times with shipmates.
Richardson, BenETN-3Apr 1973 &ndash Dec 1974
Rardon, Arthur "Ed" Sep 1, 1973 &ndash Sep 29, 1977deckHi just thought I would log on and say Iam still alive and kicking as of nov.2006
Fisi, JeffET2Sep 30, 1973 &ndash May 26, 1976OPSSuprised when I woke up one morning on the USS Sunbird ASR-15 and rcvd orders to the Tringa on the other side of the pier! Fantastic time spent on radio watches with RM2 Ferguson. Enjoyed Scotland. Settled in CT.
Shank, David YNCNov 1973 &ndash Jun 1975DeckTo this day, I refuse to paint or prep anything.The words haze grey, red lead, and whatever that blue primer was sends me into a rage. Just kidding, No, really rage! Hello shipmates. YNC that's right I stayed for 20.
Kane, D. E. PatHM1(DV)1974 &ndash 1976MedicalGreat memories, but would not like to re-live them. Left for shore duty with an acute allergy for Bosun Warrants and hurricanes at sea. Great crew, great laughs, and an ideal time for any young man to experience.
Ferguson, DarylRM2Mar 5, 1974 &ndash Mar 10, 1976OPSHad a great time with good crew. Good times in New London, trip to Scotland, RM1 Barnes, Fisi, Mckay, great 2 years onboard.
Ferbrache, RayCDRSep 10, 1974 &ndash Sep 10, 1977Commanding OfficerHi All. Retired in San Diego and having a good time. Hello to Doc and Dave the Eng. Keeping up with the Sub Vets in San Diego and we have a great group. Monthly meeting which end up in a Drink Beer and Tell Lies
Campbell, Dave / EngCWO2/LT(JG)Feb 5, 1975 &ndash Sep 30, 1977Chief Engineer & Exec. OfficerSaw the website and thought I would log on and say HI to my shipmates especially "Master" My Eng. Dept Senior Enlisted Man, and my Conning Officer underway, Chief Straining, and "Pop-in-Fresh" PO1 Hemminig our Chief Cook. Many sea
Clark, RobertEMCMMay 15, 1975 &ndash May 16, 1977Engineering
Bartman, PeterE3Dec 1975 &ndash Sep 1976 Short time on Tringa. Enjoyed my fellow shipmates. Liked the New London/Groton area, but cold during those winter months. Saw the Nautilas on her last voyage.
Burgin, BillyFN1976 &ndash 1977Engineering
Newhouse, KennethE3Jul 14, 1976 &ndash Sep 1, 1977 was ships cook had a great time.

Select the period (starting by the reporting year): precomm &ndash 1966 | 1967 &ndash now


Almost two years ago, Chris did this guest post about an experience he had sailing in the Mediterranean in this ride. The vessel below, now threatened, was on the hook off Palma, Mallorca, in one of her last years of service.

On that same deployment, he caught this foto of SS France, speeding past his vessel toward the Straits of Gibraltar.

Here’s another of Chris’ fotos, Sac Badalona (see #113) . . . at that time not long to be afloat and intact.

Here’s Chris’ ride low and dry and cold in Boston Naval Shipyard’s Drydock 4, winter 1969-70. What shrinks ASR-16 Tringa once accommodated Leviathan.

During that drydocking, Chris had a chance to get fotos along the Boston waterfront. You can read the restaurant sign as Anthony’s Pier 4. Can you identify the steamer and the schooner? Answer follows . . .

This foto taken some time between December 1969 and March 1970 shows two tugs afloat and one sunk at the dock near Rowes Wharf in Boston . . . now a very different place. Can anyone identify? Chris has no clues other than the time and places info. I’m grateful to Chris for sending along these scans, although both he and I will rely on some group-sourcing to know more about these vessels. Enjoy.

Disintegrating in Noank in the 69-70 time frame, it’s the remains of once-four-masted schooner Alice L. Pendleton.

Moving south to New London, it’s W. H. Welch.

Also in New London . . does that say Spaigo Carroll?

Also in New London . . . it’s ferry Martha’s Vineyard.

And this is the Thames River boneyard a,

And finally, identification on the vessels at Anthony’s Pier 4 . . . steamer Peter Stuyvesant (victim of the Blizzard of 1978) and –a real coup in terms on an identification by eastriver and his “new englander” shipmate”–it’s 1863 Alice S. Wentworth, who went victim to a storm in 1974.


EPS 16+, Arrested Development, and the Emergence of RZA

Ensoniq's 1988 release of the EPS sampling keyboard proved another important stepping stone for the company and the art of sampling. "The EPS is a quantum improvement in sampling technology for Ensoniq and, in many ways, for sampling in general," Craig Anderton wrote in Sound on Sound in a February 1988 review. "I have a feeling this is the instrument that will break the sampling market wide open."

The EPS' 13-bit sampling rate certainly was an upgrade in quality from what The Bomb Squad employed on their early Public Enemy classic, but Ensoniq samplers truly became a staple in rap records when the company introduced the EPS 16+ and its 16-bit capability in 1990.

With some notable upgrades in sound quality and performance over the original EPS, the 16+ proved the perfect instrument for Arrested Development frontman Speech to create the group's breakthrough single "Tennessee." Created in the aftermath of his grandmother's passing and his brother's unexpected death one week later, Speech likened the song's chorus to "a prayer to God" in a February 2008 Songfacts interview with Carl Wiser.

The experience of creating "Tennessee" was so emotional that Speech needed to construct the beat before he could write a single line. Using an EPS 16+ in tandem with Alesis HR-16 drum machine, he decided to sample Prince saying the word "Tennessee" from his 1988 "Alphabet St." single and make it a central part of the song. After taking the tiny snippet of sound, Speech experimented with replaying it at varying pitches on the EPS 16+ in the song's opening and throughout.

The interesting vocal sample—coupled with a powerful drum track, introspective lyrics from Speech, and some beautiful singing from Dionne Farris—helped "Tennessee" hit the top of the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop chart while Arrested Development's debut, 3 Years, 5 Months and 2 Days In The Life Of…, sold an excess of four million copies in the ensuing years.

Around the same time Speech was piecing together drum hits and pitched-down Prince vocals, another soon-to-be breakthrough artist was familiarizing himself with the EPS—850 miles northeast of Atlanta—in Staten Island.

Despite making some early classics like Method Man's "Bring The Pain" with an E-mu SP-1200, Wu-Tang frontman RZA's life as an artist was forever changed when friend and collaborator RNS traded him the Ensoniq EPS for his 1200 in the early '90s. Never completely satisfied with the 1200 interface, the layout of the EPS allowed RZA to experiment with looping two and four bars in a style that was largely unprecedented at the time. "I fell in love with the EPS. I didn't care about the SP-1200 no more," he told Kotori Magazine in a November 2007 video interview.

With time, RZA graduated to the 16+ model, producing the mayhem-inciting '90s classic "Wu-Tang Clan Ain't Nuthin' ta F' Wit" by using the machine. "All of it was done with stolen electricity, on a little eight track, an Emulator X SP-1200 sampler, and an Ensoniq EPS 16+ sampling keyboard that I got from hustling," he wrote in his book The Tao of Wu. "It was the true hip-hop means of production." [Ed.: The mention of the E-mu Emulator X is likely an error, as it wasn't available until 2004.]

Insepctah Deck will never forgot witnessing the song's inception, though there is a slight discrepancy in memory—he remembered RZA making the beat with the ASR-10, an EPS 16+ upgrade Ensoniq released in 1992. Just as Speech used his Ensoniq sampler to make significant changes in the pitch of his samples, Deck recalled RZA flexing on the keyboard in much the same way—picking apart sounds, adjusting their tempos, and turning them into something completely original.

"There's a moaning noise in there and he slowed it down dramatically, took two pieces, and put them together," Deck told author Brian Coleman in his book Check the Technique: Liner Notes for Hip-Hop Junkies. "To watch him doing that was just incredible."


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Product Description

USS Tringa ASR 16

"Personalized" Canvas Ship Print

(Not just a photo or poster but a work of art!)

Every sailor loved his ship. It was his life. Where he had tremendous responsibility and lived with his closest shipmates. As one gets older his appreciation for the ship and the Navy experience gets stronger. A personalized print shows ownership, accomplishment and an emotion that never goes away. It helps to show your pride even if a loved one is no longer with you. Every time you walk by the print you will feel the person or the Navy experience in your heart (guaranteed).

The image is portrayed on the waters of the ocean or bay with a display of her crest if available. The ships name is printed on the bottom of the print. What a great canvas print to commemorate yourself or someone you know who may have served aboard her.

The printed picture is exactly as you see it. The canvas size is 8"x10" ready for framing as it is or you can add an additional matte of your own choosing. If you would like a larger picture size (11"x 14") on a 13" X 19" canvas simply choose that option. The prints are made to order. They look awesome when matted and framed.

We PERSONALIZE the print with "Name, Rank and/or Years Served" or anything else you would like it to state (NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE). It is placed just above the ships photo. After purchasing the print simply email us or indicate in the notes section of your payment what you would like printed on it. A couple of Suggestions :

United States Navy Sailor
YOUR NAME HERE
Proudly Served Sept 1963 - Sept 1967

My Son or Daughter is presently serving in the United States Navy
Their NAME and RANK

This would make a nice gift and a great addition to any historic military collection. Would be fantastic for decorating the home or office wall.

The watermark "Great Naval Images" will NOT be on your print.

This photo is printed on Archival-Safe Acid-Free canvas using a high resolution printer and should last many years.

Because of its unique natural woven texture canvas offers a special and distinctive look that can only be captured on canvas. The canvas print does not need glass thereby enhancing the appearance of your print, eliminating glare and reducing your overall cost.

We guarantee you will not be disappointed with this item or your money back. In addition, We will replace the canvas print unconditionally for FREE if you damage your print. You would only be charged a nominal fee plus shipping and handling.


Tringa ASR-16 - History


Booting Up with the Operating System (O.S.)
The Ensoniq samplers boot up from a floppy disk containing the Operating System (O.S.) which tells the keyboard how to work. You need to put the O.S. Disk in the drive, and let the keyboard read it every time you turn it on - otherwise it will not operate. Once you have booted up, then you can begin loading sounds or sampling.

It is always best to use the latest O.S. version, as each subsequent release fixes bugs and often adds new features. The latest O.S. versions are:

Model Disk O.S. Firmware (EPROM O.S.)
EPS 2.49 2.40
EPS-M (rack module) 2.49 2.41
EPS-16 Plus (keyboard and rack) 1.30 1.00
ASR-10 3.53 1.50
ASR-88 3.53 3.50

Note that the current O.S. disks may be incompatible with earlier versions of the firmware. In other words, if you purchase an O.S. disk and your sampler has a very early version of the firmware, it may not boot up (you will get an INCOMPATIBLE OS VERSION message). To check your firmware version, press Command then Env 1 the display will read "NO COMMANDS ON PAGE," but that's not really true - it's a "secret" page where the diagnostic software resides. Scroll to the right until you see the SOFTWARE INFORMATION page, and press Enter. The display will show the current RAM VERSION (the disk O.S. version you booted up with). Press Enter again to see the ROM VERSION (the firmware version).

Possible error messages when booting up:
PLEASE INSERT DISK - There is no disk in the drive if there is indeed a disk in the drive, the floppy drive is not recognizing that a disk is present (i.e. the drive is malfunctioning).
O.S. NOT ON DISK - The disk in the drive does not have the operating system on it.
DISK NOT FORMATTED - The disk in the drive is not formatted for use in the sampler.
FILE OPERATION ERROR - Either the O.S. disk you are using is corrupted, or the floppy drive is malfunctioning.
INCOMPATIBLE O.S. VERSION - The firmware in your sampler is outdated, and you are attempting to boot up with a more recent disk Operating System (O.S.). You will need to upgrade the O.S. EPROMs in your sampler.

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The EPS-16 Plus shipped with 1 Meg of sample RAM, and could be expanded to 2 Meg using a 2x memory expander cartridge. The EPS-16 Plus rack module was already expanded to a maximum 2 Meg of memory.

The ASR-10 shipped with 2 Meg of sample RAM, and was the first Ensoniq sampler to use standard computer SIMMs for memory. It could be expanded to a maximum of 16 Meg, using four 4-Meg SIMMs. The ASR-10 Rack and the ASR-88 both shipped with fully expanded 16-Meg memory. The ASR-10, ASR-88, and TS keyboards all use 80 nano-second or faster, 30-pin, 1m x 8 or 4m x 8 non-parity SIMMs (8 chips on each SIMM). Any configuration that does not use two or four SIMMs will not work. Most computer supply houses no longer carry 30-pin SIMMs. Syntaur sells an 8-Meg memory kit, with complete instructions, for $49.95, or a 2-Meg memory kit, for $16.95.

Here are the maximum block sizes that these instruments will hold in memory, along with the capacity of their floppy disks:

Model and configuration Sample memory Floppy disk
EPS, unexpanded (512k) 1020 blocks 1585 blocks
EPS, with 2x expander (1 Meg) 2040 blocks 1585 blocks
EPS, with 4x expander (2 Meg) 4085 blocks 1585 blocks
EPS-16 Plus, unexpanded (1 Meg) 2040 blocks 1585 blocks
EPS-16 Plus, with 2x expander (2 Meg) 4085 blocks 1585 blocks
ASR-10, stock (2 Megs) 4085 blocks 3176 blocks
ASR-10 with 4 Megs 7900 blocks 3176 blocks
ASR-10 with 8 Megs 16,000 blocks 3176 blocks
ASR-10 with 10 Megs 20,000 blocks 3176 blocks
ASR-10 or ASR-88 with 16 Megs 31,000 blocks 3176 blocks

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In order to use a SCSI drive, you must first install a SCSI kit in your sampler. If you are using an EPS or an EPS-16 Plus, you must also have a memory expander cartridge installed, as the SCSI board physically mounts onto the expander.

Not all SCSI drives are compatible with the Ensoniq samplers, and the older samplers work with fewer drives. The EPS, in fact, will not recognize a Zip drive or a CD-ROM drive at all, and even the ASR-10 works with only a few specific CD-ROM drives.

The Iomega Zip 100 drive will work with the ASR-10 and ASR-88 (the drive has to be the SCSI version, of course, and these are unfortunately now out of production), and the Zip Plus drive will work also. But the Zip 250 will not work. The Zip 100 will work on the EPS-16 Plus, but only if you have something else in the SCSI chain to power the SCSI bus - or if you are using a SCSI kit from Syntaur, which provides this power. If you want a removable media drive for the EPS, most of the Syquest drives work fine (though they are out of production).

Like a computer's hard drive, you can organize your SCSI drive into directories and sub-directories. Navigating through these is a bit awkward at first, but you will soon learn the system, and you'll appreciate the ability to have all your sounds organized into groups (all of the bass sounds saved together in a BASSES directory, for instance). To switch to the SCSI drive, press Command then System and scroll to CHANGE STORAGE DEVICE. Press Enter, and then scroll up to select the SCSI ID of your drive (this should be 4 for a CD-ROM drive, and either 5 or 6 for a Zip drive). The sounds on a SCSI drive are organized into directories and subdirectories, so you'll need to navigate through these to get to the sound that you want. Press Load then System to view the directories (you can scroll up or down to view them), and press Enter to go into the selected directory (or to exit the current directory when "EXIT TO. " is selected). We sell an EPS/EPS-16 Plus SCSI Manual and an ASR-10 Musician's Manual Addendum that explains all of this in detail, as well as our Sample Magic book that focuses specifically on the Ensoniq samplers.

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Loading Sounds from Other Samplers
The EPS will load EPS and EPS-16 Plus sounds, and will also import Ensoniq Mirage sounds (via a Command-System prompt, rather than through the normal disk loading procedure). While ASR-10 sample files are in a compatible format, they are typically stored on high-density (HD) disks, which the EPS will not recognize. If you use a double-density disk to save an ASR-10 sound, you can then read it in the EPS.

The EPS-16 Plus will load both EPS and EPS-16 Plus sounds, and works exactly the same as the EPS regarding Mirage and ASR-10 sounds (see above).


Marketing campaign

A successful marketing campaign would be crucial to persuading surgeons to change from the BHR to the ASR resurfacing in Europe. Among its many strategies, DePuy ran simulator tests on its prosthesis and its competitor. The pictures appeared to show that the ASR produced less metal wear debris than the BHR—the ASR fluid was clear whereas the BHR was sitting in a dark metallic stained fluid. An accompanying journal article indicated that the ASR fluid had been changed and the pictures of the two devices had been taken at different time points.21 22 Yet these pictures were used by sales representatives for marketing purposes divorced from the accompanying article and might have been misleading.23 When we put this to DePuy, it said that it would not respond to “speculation.”

But in the absence of publicly available data and no independent assessment of study summaries in Europe, manufacturers are able to interpret and promote their studies as they wish. This is in stark contrast to the US, where devices can only be marketed for a clinical claim that is included in labelling that has been reviewed by the FDA. Even the MHRA does not routinely collect any premarket clinical data. This means that clinical claims are difficult to verify.

Tony Nargol was one of the surgeons who was persuaded to change from the Birmingham hip after being shown the pictures by DePuy in 2004. As internal emails show, the company targeted him because he was known to be a big user of the BHR.

“They said the ASR would last considerably longer than a Birmingham [Hip Resurfacing],” Mr Nargol said. He described the simulator test he was shown. “After a while the BHR went all black. It looked like metal had come off the bearing and it looked abnormal. And there’s a clear difference between the two and it was very persuasive. And I know a lot of surgeons round the world were very persuaded by this.”


Monday, May 25, 2009

Memorial Day 2009

As we gather across the country today for our BBQ's, watch the Nascar race, have a few cold ones that is notthe real reason for this holiday.

Let us not forget the heroes of our past, that who served in the Military those who paid the ultimate sacrifice.We all signed that blank check made out to our country: Payable with our life. Many had their checks cashed in full,others were wounded and maimed, held as Prisoners of War or are Missing In Action.

We as a nation must stop and consider, think of what happened and what might have happened if it were notfor the brave and dedicated men and women who served in the military of the United States.

It matters not if we were volunteer or draftees, we were there around the world. We stood up and were countedamong the best in the world. We were far from our loved ones, in places that were harsh and dangerous. Wedid our job and were proud. We were there becaue of our love of country, our fellow mankind.

Many of us came home to an uncaring and hard, unforgiving public in general. Many were mistreated anddisrespected as veterans. From WW ii to Vietnam and beyond a veterans place in life was not alwaysthe best. Even today these veterans do not get the care they deserve. The care they were promissed.

PTSD is a big issue, Cold War Veterans are for the most part ignored, told they do not qualify for VA care noteligible for the benefits we were told we could receive. Today's veterans may be getting a little morehelp, but it is not enough. Long wait times, having to travel long distances only to be told "come backnext month" is this right? Is this fair? Is this the proper way to show respect to our vetreans? No. No. No.

Yes there are Veteran Service Organizations that do offer some help, but guess what? Not everyone canjoin these vaunted groups. We still find that we are turned away, denied even the fellowship of thesegroups.

It is time for all these VSO to join forces and become as one, fighting for the rights of ALL Veterans It istime for this nation to say "no more", "you earned these rights", "Welcome Home Brave and Vailent Servent".We should never be of the mindset "my war was better than your war". We all fought for freedom, sweated,bled, gave our all and we shoud be joined together as Brothers and Sisters In Arms for all time.

I could use this time to draw attention to the Cold War Veterans around the world, who are truely ignoredand dishonored but I prefer to say that "We must remember and learn the lessons from the past, andnot let them be repeated."

The Byrds had a hit record that I feel we should all take to heart. It was part of the "hippie" "anti-war era"but the meaning is clear even today.

Words-adapted from The Bible, book of EcclesiastesMusic-Pete Seeger
To Everything (Turn, Turn, Turn)
There is a season (Turn, Turn, Turn)
And a time to every purpose, under Heaven

A time to be born, a time to die
A time to plant, a time to reap
A time to kill, a time to heal
A time to laugh, a time to weep

To Everything (Turn, Turn, Turn)
There is a season (Turn, Turn, Turn)
And a time to every purpose, under Heaven

A time to build up,a time to break down
A time to dance, a time to mourn
A time to cast away stones, a time to gather stones together

To Everything (Turn, Turn, Turn)
There is a season (Turn, Turn, Turn)
And a time to every purpose, under Heaven

A time of love, a time of hate
A time of war, a time of peace
A time you may embrace, a time to refrain from embracing

To Everything (Turn, Turn, Turn)
There is a season (Turn, Turn, Turn)
And a time to every purpose, under Heaven

A time to gain, a time to lose
A time to rend, a time to sew
A time for love, a time for hate
A time for peace, I swear it's not too late

So many other songs of that time period spoke the same type of care and loving. Some were a little harshand demanding some even demeaning to our Armed Forces, but they spoke out. It seems today that no onereally wants to speak the truth. War is hell, war sucks, war is crazy. No person should have to go througthis again.

Wear your medals with pride, salute the flag as it passes in the pradade or when the National Antherm isplayed. Be proud, stand tall, smile and say Yes I Am A Vet and proud to be one.

May you all have a safe and happy Memorial day, and pay respects to all. Pray that our troops will somecome home safe and sound, and soon. Pray to what ever God or Supreme Being you believe in for us all,our country and our President.

Jerald Terwilliger
Vice Chairman
American Cold War Veterans, Inc.
"We Remember"


Palomares hydrogen bombs incident


caption = The B28RI nuclear bomb, recovered from 2,850 feet (869 m) of water, on the deck of the USS "Petrel".
date = January 17, 1966
type = Mid-air collision
site = over the Mediterranean Sea
total_fatalities = 7
total_survivors =
plane1_type = B-52G
plane1_operator = United States Air Force
plane1_crew =
plane1_fatalities = 3
plane1_survivors = 4
plane2_type = KC-135 Stratotanker
plane2_operator = United States Air Force
plane2_crew = 4
plane2_survivors = 0

The Palomares hydrogen bombs incident occurred on January 17, 1966 when a B-52G bomber of the USAF Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling at convert|31000|ft|m|-1 over the Mediterranean Sea , off the coast of Spain . The KC-135 was completely destroyed when its fuel load ignited, killing all four crew members. The B-52G broke apart, killing three crew members. cite news |last=Hayes |first=Ron |date=January 17, 2007 |title=H-bomb incident crippled pilot's career |publisher=Palm Beach Post |url=http://www.palmbeachpost.com/localnews/content/local_news/epaper/2007/01/17/m1a_Hbomb_0117.html?cxtype=rss&cxsvc=7&cxcat=17 |accessdate=2006-05-24]

Of the four Mk28 type hydrogen bomb s the B-52G carried, [cite book |first=Randall C. |last=Maydew |title=America's Lost H-Bomb: Palomares, Spain, 1966 |publisher=Sunflower University Press |isbn=978-0897452144] three were found on land near the small fishing village of Palomares in the municipality of Cuevas del Almanzora , Andalucía , Spain. The conventional explosives in two of the weapons were detonated, resulting in the contamination of a convert|2|km2|acre|sp=us|adj=on area by radioactive plutonium . The fourth, which fell into the Mediterranean Sea , was recovered intact after a 2½ month-long search. cite web |last=Long |first=Tony |date=January 17, 2008 |url=http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/01/dayintech_0117 |title=Jan. 17, 1966: H-Bombs Rain Down on a Spanish Fishing Village |publisher=WIRED |accessdate=2008-02-16]

The B-52G began its mission from Seymour Johnson Air Force Base , North Carolina , carrying four Type B28RI hydrogen bombs. It was dispatched on an airborne alert mission named Operation Chrome Dome, with a flight plan that was to take it across the Atlantic Ocean and Europe , where it would follow the borders of the Soviet Union and finally return home. The lengthy flight required two mid-air refuelings over Spain .

At about 10:30 a.m. on January 17, 1966, while flying at convert|31000|ft|m|-1, the bomber commenced its second aerial refueling with a KC-135 out of Morón Air Base in southern Spain . The B-52 pilot, Major Larry G. Messinger, later recalled, cite web
last=Moran | first=Barbara | date=Fall 2004
url=http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/2004/2/2004_2_28.shtml
title=The Day They Lost the H-bomb—and How They Got It Back
publisher=Invention & Technology
accessdate=2008-02-16
]

The planes collided, with the nozzle of the refueling boom striking the top of the B-52 fuselage, creating a force sufficient to break the longeron and snap off the left wing, cite book
last=Lewis | first=Flora | year=1967
title=One of Our H-Bombs is Missing
publisher=McGraw-Hill | oclc=784834
] which resulted in an explosion that was witnessed by a second B-52 about a mile away. All four men on the KC-135 and three men on the bomber were killed.

Those killed in the tanker were boom operator Master Sergeant Lloyd Potolicchio, pilot Major Emil J. Chapla, copilot Captain Paul R. Lane and navigator Captain Leo E. Simmons.

On board the bomber, navigator First Lieutenant Steven G. Montanus, electronic warfare officer First Lieutenant George J. Glessner and gunner Technical Sergeant Ronald P. Snyder were killed. cite web
last=Megara | first=John
url=http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-04102006-115019/unrestricted/jmm_thesis.pdf
format=PDF
title=Dropping Nuclear Bombs on Spain, The Palomares Accident of 1966 and the U.S. Airborne Alert
publisher=Florida State University
accessdate=2008-02-17
] Montanus was seated on the lower deck of the main cockpit and was able to eject from the plane, but his parachute never opened. Glessner and Snyder were on the upper deck, near the point where the refueling boom struck the fuselage, and were not able to eject.

Four of the seven crew members of the bomber managed to parachute to safety: Major Messinger, aircraft commander Captain Charles F. Wendorf, copilot First Lieutenant Michael J. Rooney and radar-navigator Captain Ivens Buchanan. [cite web
author=Staff | year=2003
url=http://www.atomicmuseum.com/Tour/cw4.cfm
title=Broken Arrow | publisher=National Atomic Museum
accessdate=2008-02-14
] Buchanan received burns from the explosion and was unable to separate himself from his ejection seat, but he was nevertheless able to open his parachute, and he survived the impact with the ground. The other three surviving crew members landed safely several miles out to sea.

The Palomares residents carried Buchanan to a local clinic, while Wendorf and Rooney were picked up at sea by the fishing boat "Dorita". The last to be rescued was Messinger, who spent 45 minutes in the water before he was brought aboard the fishing boat "Agustin y Rosa" by Francisco Simó Orts. All three men that landed in the sea were taken to a hospital in Aquilas.

Three of the hydrogen bombs fell to earth near the fishing village of Palomares. This settlement is part of Cuevas del Almanzora municipality, in the Almeria province of Andalucía , Spain . All three weapons were located within 24 hours following the accident. The fourth weapon landed in the Mediterranean sea.

The fourth bomb

The search for the fourth bomb was carried out by means of a novel mathematical method, Bayesian search theory , led by Dr. John Craven. This method assigns probabilities to individual map grid squares, then updates these as the search progresses. Initial probability input is required for the grid squares, and these probabilities made use of the fact that a local fisherman, Francisco Simó Orts, popularly known since then as "Paco el de la bomba" ("Bomb Frankie"), [cite news
author=Staff | date=August 9, 2003
title=Francisco Simó, 'Paco el de la bomba' de Palomares
publisher=El Pa&iacutes | language=Spanish
url=http://www.elpais.com/articulo/agenda/Simo/_Francisco/Francisco/Simo/Paco/bomba/Palomares/elpepigen/20030908elpepiage_10/Tes/
accessdate=2006-05-24
] witnessed the bomb entering the water at a certain location. Orts was contacted by the U.S. Air Force to assist in the search operation.

The United States Navy assembled the following ships in response to Air Force request for assistance: [Melson, June 1967, pp.26-39]
* USS Kiowa (ATF-12) first on-scene
* USS Macdonough (DDG-39) flagship through January
* USS Nimble (MSO-459)
* USS Pinnacle (MSO-462) found UQS-1 SONAR contact where Francisco Simo-Orts saw the bomb fall
* USS Sagacity (MSO-469) confirmed "Pinnacle"s SONAR contact
* USS Skill (MSO-471)
* USS Nespelon (AOG-55)
* USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) served as a support ship for the submersibles
* USS Boston (CAG-1) flagship February through April
* USS Plymouth Rock (LSD-29) transported Aluminaut and Alvin to the search site
* USS Petrel (ASR-14)
* USS Tringa (ASR-16)
* USS Hoist (ARS-40)
* USNS Mizar (AGOR-11)
* USNS Dutton (T-AGS-22)
* DSV Alvin
* Aluminaut
* PC-3B (Ocean Systems, Inc. submersible capable of searching to 600 feet)
* Deep Jeep (a Navy submersible capable of diving to 2000 feet)
* CURV (Cable-Controlled Underwater Recovery Vehicle)
* USS Luiseno (ATF-156) removed aircraft wreck debris from the search site
* USS Everglades (AD-24) removed aircraft wreck debris from the search site
* USNS Lt. George W. G. Boyce removed radioactive contaminated soil from Spain

"Hoist", "Petrel" and "Tringa" brought 150 qualified divers who searched to 120 feet with compressed air, to 210 feet with mixed gas, and to 350 feet with hard-hat rigs [Melson, June 1967, p.37] but the bomb lay in an uncharted area of the Rio Almanazora canyon on a 70-degree slope at a depth of 2550 feet. [Melson, June 1967, p.37] After a search that continued for 80 days following the crash, the bomb was located by the DSV "Alvin" on March 17th. The bomb was lost again on the first attempt to bring it to the surface, and fell to a depth of 2800 feet. [Melson, June 1967, pp.38-39] The bomb was brought to the surface by USS "Petrel" (ASR-14). While serving on the salvage ship USS "Hoist" (ARS-40) during recovery operations, Navy diver Carl Brashear had his leg crushed in a deck accident. His story was the inspiration for the 2000 Cuba Gooding, Jr. film " Men of Honor ". [cite news
last=Dorsey | first=Jack | coauthors=Washington, Jim
date=July 26, 2006
title=Pioneering Navy diver Carl Brashear dies in Portsmouth
publisher=The Virginian-Pilot
url=http://hamptonroads.com/node/130671
accessdate=2008-02-19
]

Once the bomb had been located, Simó Orts appeared at the First District Federal Court building in New York City with his lawyer, Herbert Brownell , formerly Attorney General of the United States under President Dwight D. Eisenhower , claiming salvage rights on the recovered hydrogen bomb. According to Craven: [cite book
last=Craven | first=John Piña | title=The Silent War
publisher=Simon and Schuster | date=2001
pages=pp. 174-175 | isbn=978-0684872131
]

The Air Force settled out of court for an undisclosed sum.

Contamination

At 10:40 a.m. UTC , the accident was reported at the16th Air Force Command Post, and it was confirmed at 11:22.The commander of the U.S. Air Force at Torrejon air base, Spain, Major General Delmar E. Wilson, immediately travelled to the scene of the accident with aDisaster Control Team. Further Air Force personnel were dispatched later the same day, including nuclear experts from U.S. government laboratories. [cite book
first=James C. | last=Oskins | coauthors=Maggelet, Michael H.
title=Broken Arrow - The Declassified History of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Accidents
year=2008 | publisher=Lulu.com | isbn=1435703618
]

The first weapon to be discovered was found nearly intact. However, the conventional explosives from the other two bombs that fell on land detonated (essentially what has come to be referred to as a dirty bomb ), causing contamination with uranium and plutonium of convert|2|km2|sqmi|1 of land. convert|1750|ST|t|lk=on of contaminated material were excavated and sent for disposal at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, USA.

To defuse alarm of contamination, the Spanish minister for information and tourism Manuel Fraga and the US ambassador Angier Biddle Duke swam on nearby beaches in front of press. First the ambassador and some companions swam at Mojácar (a resort convert|15|km|mi|0|abbr=on away) and then Duke and Fraga swam at the Quitapellejos beach in Palomares.

Recent events

In 2004, a study revealed that there was still some significant contamination present in certain areas, and the Spanish government subsequently expropriated some plots of land which would otherwise have been slated for agriculture use or housing construction. [cite news
last=Bejarano | first=José
title=La maldición de Palomares | language=Spanish
publisher=La Vanguardia
date=November 19, 2004
url=http://petra2.ciemat.es/interno/noticias/20041122/00011958.tif
] In early October 2006, the Spanish and United States governments agreed to decontaminate the remaining areas and share the workload and costs, which are hitherto unknown as it first needs to be determined to what extent leaching of the plutonium has occurred in the 40 years since the incident.

On October 11, 2006, Reuters reported that higher than normal levels of radiation were detected in snails and other wildlife in the region, indicating there may still be dangerous amounts of radioactive material underground. The discovery occurred during an investigation being carried out by Spain's energy research agency CIEMAT and the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. and Spain have agreed to share the cost of the initial investigation, set to begin in November, but according to a U.S. embassy spokesman in Spain responsibility for clean up costs is yet to be agreed upon.

In April 2008, CIEMAT announced they had found two trenches, totalling 2,000 cubic meters volume, where the U.S. Army stored contaminated earth during the 1966 operations. The American government agreed in 2004 to pay for the decontamination of the grounds, and the cost of the removal and transportation of the contaminated earth has been estimated at $2 million. The trenches were found near the cemetery, where one of the nuclear devices was retrieved in 1966, and they were probably dug at the last moment by American troops before leaving Palomares. CIEMAT expects to find remains of plutonium and americium once an exhaustive analysis of the earth is carried out. [cite news
last=M&eacutendez |first=Rafael
date=April 10, 2008
title=Espa&ntildea halla las zanjas radiactivas que EE UU ocult&oacute en Palomares
publisher=El Pa&iacutes | language=Spanish
url=http://www.elpais.com/articulo/sociedad/Espana/halla/zanjas/radiactivas/EE/UU/oculto/Palomares/elpepusoc/20080410elpepisoc_2/Tes
accessdate=2008-04-12
] [cite web
author=h.b.
date=April 10, 2008
title=Spain finds trenches of radioactive earth buried at Palomares
publisher=typicallyspanish.com
url=http://www.typicallyspanish.com/news/publish/article_16011.shtml
accessdate=2008-04-12
]

Political consequences

Four days after the accident, the Spanish government stated that "the Palomares incident was evidence of the dangers created by NATO 's use of the Gibraltar airstrip ", announcing that NATO aircraft would no longer be permitted to fly over Spanish territoryeither to or from Gibraltar. [cite news
title=Spain bans overflying by NATO | pages=8a
publisher=The Times | date=January 22, 1966
]

Palomares and another accident involving nuclear bombers two years later near Thule Air Base , in Greenland , led the U.S. Department of Defense to announce that it would be "re-examining the military need" for continuing the so-called "Airborne Alert Indoctrinal Training Program". [cite news
first=John W. | last=Finney | date=February 28, 1968
title=U.S. Reviews Need for H-Bomb Alert | pages=1
publisher= New York Times
]

Disposition of intact bombs

The empty casings of two of the bombs involved in this incident are now on display in the National Atomic Museum in Albuquerque, New Mexico .

* B-52 crash at Thule Air Base
* Broken Arrow
* List of military nuclear accidents
* " Aluminaut "&mdasha Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) which helped search for 4th bomb
* " Alvin (DSV-2) "&mdasha DSV which helped search and located 4th bomb

*cite book
last=Lewis | first=Flora | year=1987
title=One of Our H-Bombs is Missing
publisher=Bantam | isbn=978-0553264838

*cite book
last=Maggelet | first=Michael H. | coauthors=James C. Oskins
title=Broken Arrow- The Declassified History of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Accidents
year=2008 | publisher=Bantam | isbn=978-1-4357-0361-2

*

External links

*de icon [http://www.n-tv.de/719056.html n-tv:] Atomkatastrophe von 1966 - USA und Spanien entseuchen. Web posted and retrieved 2006-OCT-8.

Wikimedia Foundation . 2010 .

Look at other dictionaries:

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National Museum of Nuclear Science & History — Coordinates: 35°03′58″N 106°32′02″W / 35.0660°N 106.5339°W / 35.0660 106.5339 … Wikipedia

B-52 crash at Thule Air Base — Infobox Aircraft crash date = January 21 1968 type = In flight fire site = near Thule Air Force Base, Greenland crew = 7 injuries = fatalities = 1 aircraft type = B 52G Stratofortress operator = United States Air Force tail number = 58 0188On… … Wikipedia

USS Scorpion (SSN-589) — was a Skipjack class nuclear submarine of the United States Navy, and the sixth ship of the U.S. Navy to carry that name. Scorpion was declared lost on June 5, 1968,cite web |date=2007 |url = http://www.submarinehistory.com/Scorpion.html|title =… … Wikipedia

Carl Brashear — Infobox Military Person name= Carl Brashear born= birth date|1931|1|19 died= death date and age|2006|7|25|1931|1|19 placeofbirth= Tonieville, Kentucky placeofdeath= Portsmouth Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, Virginia caption= MCBM Carl Brashear … Wikipedia


Watch the video: Art History Minute: The Third of May by Francisco Goya


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