8 Notable Lotteries from History

8 Notable Lotteries from History


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1. Athenian Democratic Lotteries

The ancient Greek city-state of Athens is considered the birthplace of democracy, but its method of choosing leaders bore little resemblance to its modern successors. Rather than relying entirely on elections, the Athenians of the 6th century B.C. selected most of their government officials through a system of random allotment, or “sortition.” Eligible candidates—usually free men over the age of 18—would have their names placed in a lottery. The winners would then be drawn and assigned terms as jurors or members of the citizen council. The Athenians considered the lottery more democratic than elections, which they believed could be easily corrupted by money or political influence. They even devised a special device known as “kleroterion” to ensure a random drawing. This consisted of a stone slab covered in small slots, which held identifying tokens for individual citizens. A collection of black and white pebbles would be funneled into a tube on the side of the slab, and depending on where they landed, candidates would either be selected or dismissed.

2. Keno

The game of Keno is a fixture in modern day casinos, but its origins go back more 2,000 years to Han Dynasty-era China. Ancient Keno was known as “baige piao,” or “white pigeon ticket,” and usually took the form of a lottery-style game in which players chose a series of numbers or characters and then received a prize if their picks came up in a random drawing. Baige piao was popular across China, so much so that provincial governments often sanctioned games as a way of raising funds for the military or public works projects. It may have even been used to help finance parts of the Great Wall of China.

3. Roman Decimation

Not every historical lottery was one the participants wanted to win. In ancient Rome, disgraced legionaries and soldiers were sometimes punished with a brutal form of military justice known as “decimation.” If the members of a unit were found guilty of cowardice or disobeying orders, their leaders would hold a lottery and randomly select one man out of every ten. These unlucky few would then be put to death, usually by being bludgeoned by their brothers in arms. According to the ancient chronicler Polybius, the grisly lotteries were intended to set an example for the rest of the troops. “The danger and dread of drawing the fatal lot affects all equally, as it is uncertain on whom it will fall,” he writes in his Histories. “The best possible means are thus taken to inspire fear for the future, and to correct the mischief which has occurred.”

4. 16th Century Italian Lotteries

Many facets of modern lotteries date to Renaissance-era Italy, where lot-based gambling games were used both as private moneymaking schemes and methods of funding public works projects. Beginning in the 1500s, lotteries became sprang up in a number of Italian cities including Florence, Rome and Venice. Prizes were often cash, but they also included gifts such as carpets, jewels, servants, real estate and even government contracts to collect tolls and taxes. In Genoa, meanwhile, the lotto evolved from the city’s system of randomly choosing five public officials from a potential pool of 90 candidates. People began betting on who would be selected, and the game proved so popular that it was eventually taken over by the state. The Italian lotteries were considered a useful method of fundraising—one was used to help build the famous Rialto Bridge in Venice—but they were also a source of controversy. More than one Pope considered the games sinful and threatened participants with excommunication, and the church later made several attempts to ban the lottery in Rome.

5. Queen Elizabeth’s National Lottery

The first state lottery in English history dates to 1567, when Queen Elizabeth I organized a drawing to raise funds for the “reparation of the havens and strength of the Realm, and towards such other public good works.” The Queen’s lottery was somewhat unusual by modern standards. Lots cost 10 shillings a pop—a hefty sum at the time—and prizes were offered for over 10,000 of the participants, including 5,000 pounds sterling in cash, plate, tapestries and linens for the first place winner. Public response to the project was relatively tepid, but it marked the beginning of an English tradition of using lotteries to raise public funds. In the early 1600s, for example, the Virginia Company of London ran a lottery to help finance its Jamestown colony in North America.

6. The French National Lottery

Lotteries first appeared in France in the 16th century, but they didn’t experience a major boom until the mid-1700s. The French monarchy considered the lotto an easy way to raise money without levying new taxes, and the profits were eventually used to finance everything from churches and hospitals to military academies, universities and alms for the poor. To symbolize fairness, drawings were usually conducted by a blindfolded child, who would choose the winning tickets from a hopper attached to a spinning “wheel of fortune.” The games became hugely popular, and by 1776, the profits were so large that King Louis XVI monopolized the industry and founded a new national lottery. Save for a brief period of suppression during the French Revolution, the lotto continued to exist in France until 1836, when it was finally abolished on the grounds that it exploited the poor. A state lottery wouldn’t reappear in the country until the 1930s.

7. The Spanish Christmas Lottery

Also know as “El Gordo,” or the “Fat One,” the Christmas lottery has been a holiday tradition in Spain for over 200 years. The contest originated in 1812, when the cash-strapped Spanish legislature organized a new national lottery to defray the costs of the Peninsular War. Orphan boys were used to draw the first winning tickets from gold pots, and to this day, students from a former boys’ home called the San Ildefonso School still announce the prizewinners each December 22. The lottery’s jackpot is the world’s largest—it totaled nearly $2.5 billion in 2015—but it doesn’t all go to a single winner. Instead, the top prize is limited to a few million dollars, allowing smaller amounts of cash to be dished out to thousands of different participants. Since its inception two centuries ago, El Gordo has been held every Christmas without fail. It even continued during the Spanish Civil War, when the dueling Nationalist and Republican governments both held their own drawings.

8. The Louisiana State Lottery Company

Lotteries were a common in early America—Benjamin Franklin and George Washington both ran games in the 1700s—but by the late 19th century, scandal and moral opposition had seen them banned in many states. One of the few survivors was the Louisiana State Lottery Company, a powerful and privately owned outfit that was chartered shortly after the end of the Civil War. Though based in New Orleans, the company made most of its profits by selling mail-order lotto tickets across the country. Its reach was so vast that it earned the nickname the “Octopus,” but it also became infamous for its crooked business practices, which included greasing the palms of politicians and judges in exchange for preferential treatment. For a time, the company’s bribes ensured that it was the only legal lottery in the United States, but its 25-year reign finally came to an end in the 1890s, when Congress banned the sale of lottery tickets across state lines. After briefly operating offshore in Honduras, the Louisiana Lottery folded for good in the early 20th century. The fallout from its years of corruption was so severe that a new state lottery wasn’t launched in Louisiana until 1991.


Spain's Sorteo Extraordinario de Navidad (Spanish Christmas Lottery) is generally considered to be the world's largest lottery game, with the largest first prize/jackpot. In 2012, the first prize was €720 million (then US$941.8 million $1.058 billion in 2020 dollars). The total prize pool in 2012 was €2.52 billion (US$3.297 billion $3.704 billion in 2020 dollars). The tickets for this drawing have pre-printed five-digit numbers, with each set of numbers sold multiple times in series. For example, a ticket with the number "00001" was printed 180 times under different series numbers. Moreover, each series is divided into 10 décimos (tenths in English), which are the individual tickets available for purchase. This results in the top prize being split by a very big number of winners usually from different regions of Spain. The 2011 top prize of €720 million was paid out as €4 million (US$5.2 million) to each of the 180 tickets (or €400,000 for each décimo) with the number 58268. [1] In 2016, the total prize pool was €2.310 billion ($2.414 billion). [2] [3] In 2020, the total prize was €2.38 billion ($2.897 billion).

All lottery winnings are subject to Federal taxation (automatically reported to the Internal Revenue Service if the win is at least $600) many smaller jurisdictions also levy taxes. The IRS requires a minimum withholding of 25% of the prize (minus the wager) of any gambling win in excess of $5,000. However, the net for a major prize often is misleading winners often owe the IRS upon filing a return because the Federal withholding was below the winner's tax obligations. Nonresident U.S. lottery winners [4] have 30% of winnings of at least $600 withheld.

While the largest lottery prizes in the early history of U.S. state lotteries were "annuity-only", these lotteries gradually introduced a "cash option" for these games.

All prizes listed below are reported as the pre-withholdings amount, as this is taxable income the player must report on their returns to be subject to taxation. Jackpots and jackpot shares listed below are annuity amounts (and the cash value.)

Because of the rate of growth, one annuitized jackpot can have a higher cash value than a larger annuitized jackpot with a lower cash value. For instance: while both the Mega Millions' and the Powerball's annuities are paid out in 30 annual installments, the Mega Millions' annuity payments increase 5 percent yearly, while the Powerball annuity payments increase 4 percent yearly. This makes the Mega Millions' annuity structure somewhat more "inflated".

List of U.S. lottery drawings of $300 million or more (annuity value) with at least one jackpot-winning ticket (dollar amounts in millions): [5] [6]

Rank Jackpot Cash value Tickets Per ticket Game Date Where Notes
1 $1,586.4 $983.5 3 $327.8 Powerball Jan. 13, 2016 CA, FL, TN World's largest jackpot (cash value & annuity)
2 $1,537 $877.8 1 $877.8 Mega Millions Oct. 23, 2018 SC Largest jackpot for a single ticket largest cash value for a single ticket. [7]
3 $1,050 $776.6 1 $776.6 Mega Millions Jan. 22, 2021 MI 2nd largest cash value for a single ticket.
4 $768.4 $477 1 $477 Powerball Mar. 27, 2019 WI Bought in New Berlin, Wisconsin. [8]
5 $758.7 $480.5 1 $480.5 Powerball Aug. 23, 2017 MA [9]
6 $731.1 $546.8 1 $546.8 Powerball Jan. 20, 2021 MD 3rd largest cash value for a single ticket.
7 $687.8 $396.2 2 $198.1 Powerball Oct. 27, 2018 IA, NY [10]
8 $656 $474 3 $158 Mega Millions Mar. 30, 2012 IL, KS, MD
9 $648 $347.6 2 $173.8 Mega Millions Dec. 17, 2013 CA, GA
10 $590.5 $370.9 1 $370.9 Powerball May 18, 2013 FL
11 $587.5 $384.7 2 $192.4 Powerball Nov. 28, 2012 AZ, MO
12 $564.1 $381.1 3 $127.0 Powerball Feb. 11, 2015 NC, PR, TX
13 $559.7 $352 1 $352 Powerball Jan. 6, 2018 NH
14 $543 $320.5 1 $320.5 Mega Millions July 24, 2018 CA [11]
15 $536 $378.3 1 $378.3 Mega Millions July 8, 2016 IN
16 $533 $324.6 1 $324.6 Mega Millions Mar. 30, 2018 NJ [12]
17 $530 $345.2 1 $345.2 Mega Millions June 7, 2019 CA
18 $516 $349.3 1 $349.3 Mega Millions May 21st, 2021 PA
19 $487 $341.7 1 $341.7 Powerball July 30, 2016 NH
20 $456.7 $269.4 1 $269.4 Powerball Mar. 17, 2018 PA [13]
21 $451 $281.9 1 $281.9 Mega Millions Jan. 5, 2018 FL
22 $448.4 $258.2 3 $86.1 Powerball Aug. 7, 2013 MN NJ (2)
23 $447.8 $279.1 1 $279.1 Powerball Jun. 10, 2017 CA
24 $437 $261.8 1 $261.8 Mega Millions Jan. 1, 2019 NY
25 $435.3 $263.4 1 $263.4 Powerball Feb. 22, 2017 IN
26 $429.6 $284.1 1 $284.1 Powerball May 7, 2016 NJ
27 $425.3 $242.2 1 $242.2 Powerball Feb. 19, 2014 CA
28 $420.9 $254.6 1 $254.6 Powerball Nov 26, 2016 TN
29 $414 $230.9 2 $115.4 Mega Millions Mar. 18, 2014 FL, MD
30 $410 $316.8 1 $316.8 Mega Millions June 09, 2020 AZ
31 $399.4 $223.3 1 $223.3 Powerball Sep. 18, 2013 SC
32 $396.9 $274.6 1 $274.6 Powerball Jan. 29, 2020 FL
33 $393 $247 1 $247 Mega Millions Aug. 11, 2017 IL
34 $390 $233.1 2 $116.5 Mega Millions Mar. 6, 2007 GA, NJ
35 $380 $240 2 $120 Mega Millions Jan. 4, 2011 ID, WA
36 $372 $251.6 1 $251.6 Mega Millions Dec. 17, 2019 OH
37 $365 $177.3 1 $177.3 Powerball Feb. 18, 2006 NE
38 $363 $180 2 $90 The Big Game MM May 9, 2000 IL, MI Largest Big Game jackpot before it became Mega Millions
39 $344.6 $223.3 1 $223.3 Powerball June 1, 2019 NC
40 $340 $164.4 1 $164.4 Powerball Oct. 19, 2005 OR
41 $338.3 $211.0 1 $211.0 Powerball Mar. 23, 2013 NJ
42 $337 $224.7 1 $224.7 Powerball Aug. 15, 2012 MI
43 $336.4 $210.0 1 $210.0 Powerball Feb. 11, 2012 RI
44 $333 $214 2 $107 Mega Millions Aug. 28, 2009 CA, NY
45 $331 $174 3 $58 The Big Game MM Apr. 16, 2002 GA, IL, NJ
46 $330 $194.4 4 $48.6 Mega Millions Aug. 31, 2007 MD,NJ,TX,VA
47 $326 $197.5 1 $197.5 Mega Millions Nov. 4, 2014 NY
48 $319 $202.8 1 $202.8 Mega Millions Mar. 25, 2011 NY
49 $315.3 $183 1 $183 Powerball May 19, 2018 NJ
50 $315 $185 [14] 1 $185 Mega Millions Nov. 15, 2005 CA
51 $314.9 $170.5 1 $170.5 Powerball Dec. 25, 2002 WV Won by Jack Whittaker [15]
52 $314.3 $146.0 1 $146.0 Powerball Aug. 25, 2007 IN

  • MM. ^^The Big Game became The Big Game Mega Millions and then Mega Millions in 2002.

Unlike in the United States, where lottery wins are taxed, European jackpots are generally tax-free (the lotteries themselves are taxed in other ways) and jackpots are paid in a lump sum. For example, in the United Kingdom's National Lottery, wagers are split between the game operator Camelot Group and the government, with Camelot distributing its share among prizes, operating costs, profit, [16] Camelot's 'good causes' programme, with the remainder going to the government as value-added tax (VAT) due. [17]


The luckiest lottery numbers in the world have been revealed… plus the ones to avoid if you want to win big

EVERYONE knows the lottery is a game of chance - but it seems there ARE certain numbers that are luckier than others.

A new study in to the winning balls across fifteen international lotteries over the past year have revealed that the number sixteen has rolled out the most.

Boffins from Jackpot.com looked at nearly 1,500 separate lottery draws from 1 July 2016 until 30 June 2017 to come up with their gambling stats.

They discovered that the number 16 has been drawn 191 times, with 22 in second place with 179 draws.

Joint third was 28 and 37, both with 167 draws, 6 in fifth place with 166 draws, and 3 with 164.

The lotteries they studied were EuroMillions, EuroJackpot, UK Lotto, Irish Lotto, French Lotto, SuperEnalotto, German Lotto, OZ Powerball, Australia Lotto, Australian Monday Lotto, Australian Wednesday Lotto, Australian Saturday Lotto, Mega Sena, US MegaMillions and US Powerball.

Thankfully for EuroMillions players, they've also cracked the digits you want to avoid when playing the international super lottery.


Ira Curry of Georgia and Steve Tran of California both won the December 2013 Mega Millions lottery.

Tran called his boss to say "I don't think I'm going to come in today, tomorrow or ever," according to NBC Bay Area. Jennifer's Gift Shop, where Tran bought several tickets, received $1 million for selling the winner — a perk given in several states.

Curry bought her tickets as a last-minute decision and selected a combination of family birthdays and her lucky number seven.

Both went with the lump sum option of $173 million.


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39

Currently, the number that has not been seen for the longest is 39, which was last drawn on 9 July 2014, over 100 days ago. But that does not make it any more likely or unlikely to be come up in the next draw. Despite what several online scams and get-rich books claim, every lottery draw is completely random and independent from all previous results. Expecting certain numbers to be “due” is called the “gambler’s fallacy”. There is no way to increase your odds of winning.

This article was amended on 17 November 2014. In the section headed “55.5p” the figures for Camelot’s ticket sales, prize outlay and charitable donations were all given as 1000 times lower than reality. In addition, the country where the same numbers came up twice was Bulgaria, not Belgium. These errors have now been corrected. The article was further amended on 19 November 2014 to correct the date of the first national lottery draw.


Cecil Rhodes

Some influential men have streets named in their honour, even more influential men have towns or even cities named after them, so how to compare a man after whom they named large swathes of Africa? That man was Cecil Rhodes, who founded the colonies of Southern and Northern Rhodesia, renamed Zambia in 1964 and Zimbabwe in 1980.

Born in 1853 at Bishop’s Stortford in Hertfordshire, Cecil was the sixth child of the Reverend Francis and Louisa Rhodes. A sickly child, Cecil suffered generally from a weak chest and in particular was asthmatic. It was possibly due to this ill health that he was denied the public school education that his three brothers enjoyed at Eton and Winchester, and why he was sent instead to the local grammar school.

When he was only 16, Cecil fell so ill with a suspected case of consumption that he was dispatched to recuperate in the warmer climate of the British South African Cape Colony, there to join his brother Herbert on his cotton farm. An opportune time to arrive in the colony perhaps, with the recent discovery of diamonds there. He set ashore only weeks before his 17th birthday looking every part the typical English schoolboy, in scruffy cricket flannels and an old school blazer.

The warm African sun appears to have had the desired effect on his health, as Cecil started work for the first time. He began by digging the earth, first on his brother’s cotton farm, but then more lucratively he could be found prospecting in the Kimberley diamond fields. Living alongside the native Zulus in their temporary camps, he reinvested any monies earned through his diamond finds in buying more and then still more claims.

Three years after his arrival in the colony Cecil had amassed sufficient funds from his business ventures to buy himself the ‘gentleman’s education’ he had previously been denied. And so in 1873, leaving his business partner C D Rudd to look after things in the colony, Cecil set sail for England and Oriel College, Oxford.

Over the next eight years Cecil bounced back and forth between his Greek and Latin classics studies at Oxford, and his business interests in the dust bowls of the Kimberley mines. During his stints as an undergraduate at Oxford it is said that he paid his way from a box of diamonds he kept in his pocket. By the time Cecil graduated at the age of 28 he was an extremely rich and influential man indeed. He was a member of the Cape Parliament, and through some very astute business dealings and amalgamations he had become Chairman of the De Beers diamond company.

Cecil was a firm believer in the adage that ‘to be born an Englishman was to win first prize in the lottery of life’, and he sought to bring such enlightenment to the many different states in South Africa by uniting the whole continent under British rule. To achieve this aim he realised that he needed funds on an even grander scale to pay for both military muscle and to bribe local tribal chieftains.

Such funds arrived when gold was discovered in the colony in 1886. By the time he was 34, Cecil had monopolised the control of the entire Kimberley diamond fields, with an estimated income of £200,000 from his diamond interests, and a further £300,000 from gold. As one of the richest men on earth, he devoted much of this personal wealth to acquiring territory and mining concessions for the advancement of the British Empire.

In the European ‘scramble for Africa’, Cecil was focussed on rapidly expanding British interests, at times it appeared at almost any cost. At the head of a military expedition Cecil entered Matabeleland, and through bribes and some underhand dealing he eventually founded the colonies of Northern and Southern Rhodesia (more recently renamed Zimbabwe and Zambia). Through his vision and determination he had, almost single handily, expanded the British Empire by some 450,000 square miles.

Cecil Rhodes and Colonel Napier, Matabele/Mashona Rebellion 1896/97

Whilst still only in his mid 30s, Cecil was elected Prime Minister of the Cape in 1890. But temptation was again round the corner, or just over the border to be more precise, in the highly lucrative gold mines of the Dutch Republic of the Transvaal. In 1895, Cecil supported an attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid, organised in support of a rebellion that would deliver control of the regions goldmines to him. The raid was a catastrophic failure and Cecil was forced to resign as Prime Minister, bringing his political career to an abrupt end.

In addition, the Jameson Raid played an influential role in instigating the start of the 1899 Boer War. Cecil would not see its end he died of a heart attack on 26th March 1902, aged just 49. With typical English reserve and understatement, he is said to have signed off with the words: ‘So little done, so much to do.’

Funeral of Cecil Rhodes, Adderley St, Cape Town, 3rd April 1902

In his will Cecil left a fortune in excess of £3 million to fund the famous Rhodes scholarships that enable students, primarily from former British territories, to study at Oxford University. These are awarded on his wishes that “no student shall be qualified or disqualified for election … on account of his race or religious opinions”.


&aposThe Lottery&apos 

Also in 1948, The New Yorker published Jackson&aposs short story, "The Lottery." The tale, which starts as a seemingly benign account of an annual event in smalltown America, takes a dark turn when the event is revealed to be a gruesome sacrifice. "The Lottery" generated the most mail in the history of The New Yorker, with many readers expressing confusion about underlying meanings and anger over its disturbing ending. 

Despite the backlash, "The Lottery" became one of the most significant short stories of its era. It was eventually translated into dozens of languages and adapted for radio, television and the stage.


Timeline: 4.3 million Years Ago to 12,000 BCE

4.3 million YA (Years Ago) In what today is Ethiopia, creatures labeled Ardipithecus ramidus lived, represented today by the nickname created by scientists: "Ardi". Her species was either directly ancestral to humans or closely related to a species ancestral to humans. She was 1.2 meters (4 feet) tall. She walked on two feet &ndash not knuckle-walking as gorillas and chimps do, but did not have arched feet like us, indicating that she could not walk or run for long distances. She had opposable great toes and she had a pelvis that allowed her to negotiate tree branches well.

3.2 million YA In what today is Ethiopia, members of the biological family Hominidae lived, represented today by the nickname "Lucy." The angle of her knee joint indicates that she walked upright. She was 1.1 meters (3 feet 8 inches) tall. Walking upright improves the ability to run after game and to run from danger.

2.5 million YA Rocks are split into flakes and used as tools.

2.5 to 1.6 million YA A species called Homo habilis lives in what today is Tanzania. It is shorter and has disproportionately long arms compared to modern humans and is using stone tools.

1.8 to 1.3 million YA A species called Homo erectus has come into being and spreads as far as India, China and Java. (There are still disagreements about the Homo erectus classification.) Homo Erectus is to be described as the first human species to walk fully upright.

1.77 million YA Hominids (humans) in what today is the Dmanisi Republic of Georgia have a gum disease that scientists will think must have been caused by the use of toothpicks.

1 million YA (or shortly thereafter) Creatures using stone tools exist in Eastern England.

200,000 YA Give or take thousands of years, Homo sapiens have come into being in Africa. They create what will be a fossil record of their species. They are to remain very rare in Africa for much more than 100,000 years. They will be described as having a greater part of their brain devoted to language and speech than Homo erectus.

130,000 YA The Eemian interglacial period begins. Greater warmth in the next 5,000 years will allow forests to reach above the Arctic Circle. By now another creature belonging to the homo genus (biological grouping), Neanderthals, exist in Europe. They are a species apart from Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Throat anatomy suggests to scientists that Neanderthals could speak with complex sounds similar to humans.

130,000 YA The earliest undisputed evidence for an intentional burial appears, to be described in the August 2002 issue of British journal Archaeology. Neanderthals and the Pontnewydd Cave in Wales are mentioned.

110,000 YA Give or take thousands of years, the Eemian interglacial period ends and another ice age begins, but humans and the Neanderthal will endure.

75,000 YA Give or take thousands of years, people in Africa have begun to expand from the east or the south, to the west and to the north. Genetic evidence suggests that they will replace other peoples, except for the Khoisan and pygmy peoples. In density of population they will remain rare.

73,000-68,000 YA The Toba Catastrophe Theory holds that on the island of Sumatra a super-volcanic eruption created a volcanic winter that extended to Africa and reduced the world's human population there to between 1,000 and 10,000 breeding couples. A mini ice age followed, lasting around 1,000 years. Where the eruption occurred a lake developed &ndash Lake Toba.

60,000-55,000 YA The planet warms a bit. Ice retreats a little. Changes in climate will eventually begin to alternate between warmer and colder conditions, often in sudden jumps. Much of what would be Indonesian islands are a part of the Asian mainland. New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania are one continent, known today as Sahul.

50,000 YA Humans running from drought have left Africa, taking a coastal route to India.

50,000 YA Mating between Neanderthals and people called Denisovans introduces genes that will help modern humans cope with viruses. The interbreeding will embody as much as 4 percent of the human genome.

45,000 YA Humans are in Italy, according to some scholars, reported in Scientific American (20 Aug 2014),"overlapping" with Neaderthals "for up to 5,400 years in parts of southern Europe, yet to a much lesser extent or not at all in other parts of the continent."

44,000? YA Neanderthals in Europe on average are about as tall as contemporaneous humans, with around the same size skulls, suggesting similar brain size. Scientists will describe Neanderthals as highly intelligent, that in weapon making they were the first to use "dry distillation." Their bones are a little heavier and they tend to have stronger arms and hands. Like humans they use stone tools. DNA studies will indicate that because Neanderthal and human genes are so nearly identical some interbreeding may have occurred between the two species. Genetic analyses will reveal modern European individuals as 1 to 4 percent Neanderthal genetically. (PBS Nova: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/decoding-neanderthals.htm

43,000 YA Humans are in an area around 500 kilometers south of what is today Moscow, their presence to be surmised in CE 2007 by archaeologists who have uncovered artifacts at what today is called the Kostenki Site.

42,000 YA By now, humans have crossed a body of water from Sunda in Southeast Asia to the continent of Sahul, including what today are called New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania.

40,000 YA Near what today is Beijing, human bones dating to around this year have been found. At least one person to whom these bones belong wore shoes. According to Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in Missouri, evidence also exists of some shoe or sandal wearing among Neanderthals.

40,000 YA Neanderthals "disappear from Europe" around now according to Scientific American, (20 Aug 2014).

40,000 YA Europe is first settled by humans around this time. ("Science & Environment," BBC News, 7 Nov 2014.)

30,000 YA Homo Erectus becomes extinct. This species will be described as having used the same basic hand axe for more than a million years. Homo Sapiens, meanwhile, have been using the spear.

27,000 YA Climate change has produced ice now at a peak in covering something like two-thirds of Europe. Hunter-gatherer societies "ebbed and flowed" according to Mirazón Lahr, from Cambridge's Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies (LCHES). In other words some groups died and some survived. The ice was to start melting 17,000 years later.

25,000 YA The last Ice age is reaching its peak. DNA comparisons will show that "Native Americans" are beginning to diverge genetically from their Asian ancestors. These ancestors are disappearing in Northeastern Siberia while those who will be called Native Americans are surviving between Siberia and Alaska on land that is dry as a result of low sea levels that accompanied the ice age. (See Scientific American, 4 March 2014)

20,000 BCE (Before the Common Era) By now humans are in southern Greece.

18,000 BCE People in what today is Hunan province, in central China near the Yangzi River, are making pottery.

14,500 BCE An ice-free corridor in Canada allows migration from Alaska southward.

14,000 BCE A melting ice sheet begins a rise in sea levels and warming in Europe. Rising waters have separated New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania.

13,000 BCE Rice is being grown in Korea. Father north, the land bridge between between Siberia and the North American continent begins to disappear.

12,000 BCE The epoch described by geologists as the Pleistocene has ended. The epoch spanned nearly 1.8 million years. The last continental glacier is in retreat, and for archaeologists the Paleolithic age &ndash a cultural period &ndash ends.


8 Notable Lotteries from History - HISTORY

For complete results of every NBA Draft beginning in 1947, click the following links:

2020s

2020 | No. 1 pick — Anthony Edwards (Minnesota Timberwolves) | Full Draft

2010s

2019 | No. 1 pick — Zion Williamson (New Orleans Pelicans) | Full Draft

2018 | No. 1 pick — Deandre Ayton (Phoenix Suns) | Full Draft

2017 | No. 1 pick — Markelle Fultz (Philadelphia 76ers) | Full Draft

2016 | No. 1 pick — Ben Simmons (Philadelphia 76ers) | Full Draft

2015 | No. 1 pick — Karl-Anthony Towns (Minnesota Timberwolves) | Full Draft

2014 | No. 1 pick — Andrew Wiggins (Cleveland Cavaliers) | Full Drafts

2013 | No. 1 pick — Anthony Bennett (Cleveland Cavaliers) | Full Draft

2012 | No. 1 pick — Anthony Davis (New Orleans Hornets) | Full Draft

2011 | No. 1 pick — Kyrie Irving (Cleveland Cavaliers) | Full Draft

2010 | No. 1 pick — John Wall (Washington Wizards) | Full Draft

2000s

2009 | No. 1 pick — Blake Griffin (LA Clippers) | Full Draft

2008 | No. 1 pick — Derrick Rose (Chicago Bulls) | Full Draft

2007 | No. 1 pick — Greg Oden (Portland Trail Blazers) | Full Draft

2006 | No. 1 pick — Andrea Bargnani (Toronto Raptors) | Full Draft

2005 | No. 1 pick — Andrew Bogut (Milwaukee Bucks) | Full Draft

2004 | No. 1 pick — Dwight Howard (Orlando Magic) | Full Draft

2003 | No. 1 pick — LeBron James (Cleveland Cavaliers) | Full Draft

2002 | No. 1 pick — Yao Ming (Houston Rockets) | Full Draft

2001 | No. 1 pick — Kwame Brown (Washington Wizards) | Full Draft

2000 | No. 1 pick — Kenyon Martin (New Jersey Nets) | Full Draft

1990s

1999 | No. 1 pick — Elton Brand (Chicago Bulls) | Full Draft

1998 | No. 1 pick — Michael Olowokandi (LA Clippers) | Full Draft

1997 | No. 1 pick — Tim Duncan (San Antonio Spurs) | Full Draft

1996 | No. 1 pick — Allen Iverson (Philadelphia 76ers) | Full Draft

1995 | No. 1 pick — Joe Smith (Golden State Warriors) | Full Draft

1994 | No. 1 pick — Glenn Robinson (Milwaukee Bucks) | Full Draft

1993 | No. 1 pick — Chris Webber (Orlando Magic) | Full Draft

1992 | No. 1 pick — Shaquille O’ Neal (Orlando Magic) | Full Draft

1991 | No. 1 pick — Larry Johnson (Charlotte Hornets) | Full Draft

1990 | No. 1 pick — Derrick Coleman (New Jersey Nets) | Full Draft

1980s

1989 | No. 1 pick — Pervis Ellison (Sacramento Kings) | Full Draft

1988 | No. 1 pick — Danny Manning (LA Clippers) | Full Draft

1987 | No. 1 pick — David Robinson (San Antonio Spurs) | Full Draft

1986 | No. 1 pick — Brad Daugherty (Cleveland Cavaliers) | Full Draft

1985 | No. 1 pick — Patrick Ewing (New York Knicks) | Full Draft

1984 | No. 1 pick — Hakeem Olajuwon (Houston Rockets) | Full Draft

1983 | No. 1 pick — Ralph Sampson (Houston Rockets) | Full Draft

1982 | No. 1 pick — James Worthy (Los Angeles Lakers) | Full Draft

1981 | No. 1 pick — Mark Aguirre (Dallas Mavericks) | Full Draft

1980 | No. 1 pick — Joe Barry Carroll (Golden State Warriors) | Full Draft

1970s

1979 | No. 1 pick — Magic Johnson (Los Angeles Lakers) | Full Draft

1978 | No. 1 pick — Mychal Thompson (Portland Trail Blazers) | Full Draft

1977 | No. 1 pick — Kent Benson (Milwaukee Bucks) | Full Draft

1976 | No. 1 pick — John Lucas (Houston Rockets) | Full Draft

1975 | No. 1 pick — David Thompson (Atlanta Hawks) | Full Draft

1974 | No. 1 pick — Bill Walton (Portland Trail Blazers) | Full Draft

1973 | No. 1 pick — Doug Collins (Philadelphia 76ers) | Full Draft

1972 | No. 1 pick — LaRue Martin (Portland Trail Blazers) | Full Draft

1971 | No. 1 pick — Austin Carr (Cleveland Cavaliers) | Full Draft

1970 | No. 1 pick — Bob Lanier (Detroit Pistons) | Full Draft

1960s

1969 | No. 1 pick — Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (Milwaukee Bucks) | Full Draft

1968 | No. 1 pick — Elvin Hayes (San Diego Rickets) | Full Draft

1967 | No. 1 pick — Jimmy Walker (Detroit Pistons) | Full Draft

1966 | No. 1 pick — Cazzie Russell (New York Knicks) | Full Draft

1965 | No. 1 pick — Fred Hetzel (San Francisco Warriors) | Full Draft

1964 | No. 1 pick — Jim Barnes (New York Knicks) | Full Draft

1963 | No. 1 pick — Art Heyman (New York Knicks) | Full Draft

1962 | No. 1 pick — Bill McGill (Chicago Zephyrs) | Full Draft

1961 | No. 1 pick — Walt Bellamy (Chicago Zephyrs) | Full Draft

1960 | No. 1 pick — Oscar Robertson (Cincinnati Royals) | Full Draft

1950s

1959 | No. 1 pick — Bob Boozer (Cincinnati Royals) | Full Draft

1958 | No. 1 pick — Elgin Baylor (Minneapolis Lakers) | Full Draft

1957 | No. 1 pick — Hot Rod Hundley (Cincinnati Royals) | Full Draft

1956 | No. 1 pick — Si Green (Rochester Royals) | Full Draft

1955 | No. 1 pick — Dick Ricketts (St. Louis Hawks) | Full Draft

1954 | No. 1 pick — Frank Selvy (Baltimore Bullets) | Full Draft

1953 | No. 1 pick — Ray Felix (Baltimore Bullets) | Full Draft

1952 | No. 1 pick — Mark Workman (Milwaukee Hawks) | Full Draft

1951 | No. 1 pick — Gene Melchiorre (Baltimore Hawks) | Full Draft

1950 | No. 1 pick — Chuck Share (Boston Celtics) | Full Draft

1940s

1949 | No. 1 pick — Howie Shannon (Providence Steam Rollers) | Full Draft

1948 | No. 1 pick — Andy Tonkovich (Providence Steam Rollers) | Full Draft

1947 | No. 1 pick — Clifton McNeeley (Pittsburgh Ironmen) | Full Draft